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LIBRARY NEW YO^ at ^ 



I-IBRARY NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN 



TRANSACTIONS 

OF THE 

ROYAL 
SCOTTISH ARBOMCULTURAL SOCIETY. 



SECRETARY AND TREASURER, 

WILLIAM J. MOFFAT, 

FELLOW OV THE BOTANICAL SOCIETY, BDINBUROII. 



VOL. XII. 




EDINBUEGH: 

FEINTED FOE THE SOCIETY. 

kSOLD by DOUGLAS & FOULIS, CASTLE STKEET. 

1890. 

toRARY NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN 



CONTENTS OF VOL. XI I. 



The Society, as a body, is not to he considered responsible for any statements or 
opinions advanced in the several papers, which must rest entirely on the authority 
of the 7'espectivc authors. 



PAOK 

I. Forestry in Hungary (mi7A J/rt2^). By Colonel F. Bailey, R.E., 1 

II. The Proposed School of Forestry. By Sir Dietrich Biiandis, 

K.C.S.I., Bonn, Germany, . . . . .65 

III. Forest Administration in the Canton Vaud, Switzerland. By 

George Cadkll, Lausanne, . . . . .78 

IV. Dr Cleghorn's Services to Indian Forestr}'. By Sir D. Brandis, 

late Inspector-General of Forests to the Government of India, 87 

V. Deciduous Trees, with Ornamental and Coloured Foliage, useful 

in Landscape Forestry. By John Methven, Leith W^alk 
Nurseries, Edinburgh, ...... 94 

Report of the Select Committee of the House of Commons, 

1887, ON Forestry, ...... 104 

VI. The Plantations ©n the Estate of Wentworth, Yorkshire. By 

George Dodds, Forester, Wentworth, Rotherhain, Yorkshire, 



VII. The Plantations on the Penrhyn Estate, North Wales. By Angus 
D. Webster, Forester, Penrhyn Castle, North AVales, 



156 
165 
181 

188 



Report of Exhibits at the International Exhibition, Edin 
BUPvGH, 1886, ...... 

Abstract of the Accounts of the Royal Scottish Arboricul 
TURAL Society for Year 1886-87, 

VIII. Address delivered at the Thirty-fifth Annual Meeting, 7th August 

1888. By Malcolm Dunn, Dalkeith, . . . .189 

Presentation to Hugh Cleghorn of Stravithie, M.D., 

LL.D., F.R.S.E., 198 

IX. On the Comparative Value of Exotic Conifeixe as Ornamental or 
Timber Trees in Britain. With Table of Measurements. By 
Thomas Wilkie, Forester, Tyninghame, East Lothian, . 206 



IV CONTENTS. 

I'AQE 

X. The Douglas Fir {Jbics DoK/jlasii) in Scotland. By Dr W. 
ScHLicH, Professor of Forestry, Cooiier's Hill Engineering 
College, Staines, Snrrey, ..... 226 

XI. OKI and Hemarkalde Trees on the Rolle Estate, Stevcn.stone, Tor- 
rington, Devon. By .Jamks Baukik, Forester, Stcvenstone. 
[Plates II. to V.J 242 

XII. The Comparative Value of Exotic Conifene as Ornamtntiil or 
Timber Trees in Britain. By A. D. Webster, Holwood Estate, 
Kent, 246 

XIII. Plan and Specification for the Erection of a Forester's Cottage. 

By R. B. Ke.\y, Forester, Redc.istle, Ross-shire. [Plate VI.], 288 

XIV. OM and Remarkable Trees on Holwood Estate, Kent. By A. D. 

"Weiisteu, Holwood, Kent, ..... 301 

XV. Landscape and Economic Planting. By Charlks S. France, 

Bridge of Dee, Aberdeen, ..... 322 

XVI. On the Advantages of forming Belts of Plantations on Hill Pasture 
Land. By Thomas Wilkie, Forester, Tyninghame, East 
Lothian, ........ 337 

XVII. The Giant Arbor-Vit;e [Thuja fjvjanlca). By A. D. Webster, 

Holwood, Kent, . . . . . . .341 

XVIII. Tables for the Conversion of Measurements from one Denomination 

to another. By Colonel F. Bailey, R.E., . . .351 

XIX. The Ligneous Plants of Hampshire. By John Smith, Romsey, 

Hants, ........ 356 

XX. Report upon the rearing of Underwood for Game Coverts in High 
Forest. By Thomas Wilkie, Forester, Tyninghame, East 
Lothian,. ....... 371 

Abstract of the Accounts of the Royal Scottish Arbori- 

cultural Society for Year 1888, .... 374 

XXI. Address delivered at the Thirty-sixth Annual Meeting, 6th 
August 1889. By William M'Corquodale, Scone, Vice- 
President, ....... 375 

XXII. On the Old and Remarkable Yew Trees in Scotland [Taxus 

baccala, L.). By Robert Hutchison of Carlowrie, F.R.8.E., 379 

XXIII. Influences affecting British Forestry. Inaugural Lecture in the 

Course of Forestry, Edinburgh University, 23d October 1889. 

By William SoMERV I LLE, D.(Ec., B.Sc, F.R.S.E., . . 403 

XXIV. On the Creation of LeasehoM Timber Farms. 15y A. T. 

WiLLiAM.soN'; Corstoiphine, . . . . .418 

XXV. The Larch Bug, "Aphi.s," or "Blight" {Chcrmcs laricis). By 
Dr W. Sculich, Professor of Forestry, Cooper's Hill Engineer- 
ing College, Staines, Surrey, ..... 423 



CONTENTS. V 

PAGE 

XXVI. The Effect of the Railway and Canal Traffic Act, 1888, in 

relation to Foi'estry. By A. T. Williamson, Corstorphine, 425 

XXVII. On the Comparative Value of the different Timber Trees grown 
for profit in Britain ; with Hate of Growth of each Species in 
a given time. By David Tait, Overseer, Owston Park, 
Doncaster, Yorkshire, ..... 431 

XXVIII. The Commercial Aspect of Bark- Peeling. By A. T. William- 
son, Corstorphine, ...... 443 

ABsTRACTof Accounts of the Royal Scottish Arboricultuhal 

Society for Year ending 31st December 1889, . . 448 



APPENDIX. 



1. Former Presidents, ....... 1 

2. List of Members, corrected to December 1889, .... 2 




TRANSACTIONS 

OF THE 

EOTAL 
SCOTTISH ARBORICULTUML SOCIETY 




VOL. XII.— PART I. 



SECRETARY AND TREASURER. 

WILLIAM J. MOFFAT. 





EDINBURGH: 

PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY. 

SOLD BY DOUGLAS & FOULIS, CASTLE STREET. 

MDCCCLXXXVIII. 




TURARY 



ESTABLISHED 1809. 



NORTH BRITISH AND MERCANTILE 
INSURANCE COMPANY. 

Incorporated by Royal Charter a/nd Special Acts of Parliament. 

President.— HIS GRACE THE DUKE OF ROXBURGHE. 
Vice-President.— HIS GRACE THE DUKE OF SUTHERLAND, K.G. 

EXTRAORDINARY DIRECTORS. 
Right Hos. LORD N0RTHF50URXK. i Right Hon. Tiir EARL OF ABERDEEN. 

RifliiT Hon. Tub. earl OF STRATHMORE. | Sir MATTHEW WHITE RIDLEY, Bart., M.P. 

General court of Directors. 

DAVID DAVIDSON, ^n<i.— Chairman. 



EDINBURGH BOARD OF DIRECTORS 
F. WALKER PRCMMOND, Esq. 



DAVID B. WAniKU'i:, Es((. 

Sir JAMES (;.\IU>1XI;r BAIRD, Bart. 

GEORGE AULD.JO .JAMIESON, Escj. 

FREDEIiK'K I'lTMAN, Esq. 

EVAN ALLAN HLNTER, Esq. 

CHARLES GAIRDNER, Esq. 



RALPH DUNDAS, Esq. 
JOHN WHARTON TOD, Esq. 
Hon. henry J. MONCREIFF. 
Sir JAMES H. GIBSON-CRAKi, Bart. 
Rkjiit Hon. The EARL OF EL(!IN. 
RiuiiT Hon. Sir THOMAS CLARK, Bart. 
Lord Provost of Edinburgh. 



CHARLES B. LOGAN, Esq. 
Manager, A. GILLIES-SMITH, F.R.S.E. | Secretary, PHILIP R. D. MACLAGAN. 

Actuary, THOMAS WALLACE. 
Medical Officer, JOHN MOIR, M.D., F.R.C.P. 
Solicltorg, J. & F. ANDERSON, W.S. | Auditor, JAMES HALDANE, C.A. 



RESOURCES OF THE COMPANY 

As at :!lxt December ISSG. 
I. CAPITAL— 

Authorised Capital, . £3,000,000 

Subscribed Capital, . 2,500,000 

Paid-up Capital, . 625,000 

II. FIRE FUND- 

Reserve, . . £1,250,000 

Premium Reserve, . . 380,910 

Balance carried forward, . 107,997 

£1,738,9 07 

III. LIFE FUND— 

Accumulated Fund 

(Life Branch), 
Accumulated Fund 
(Annuity Branch), 



£3,645,719 

607,636 
£4,253,355 



REVENUE FOR THE YEAR 1886. 



From the Life Department- 
Net Life Preniium.s, In- 
terest, etc., 
Annuity Premiums (in- 
cluding £86,165, 9s. 
by single payment) 
and Interest, . 

From the Fire Department- 
Net Fire Premiums, In- 
terest, etc.. 



£488,932 



112,604 
£601,436 



£1,231,960 
£1,833,396 



The Accumulated Fmuls af the Life Department 
are free from lUilillitji in rexpect of the Fire 
Department, and in like manner the Accumu- 
lated Funds of the Fire Dejxirtment arc free 
from liability in respect of the Life Department. 



LIFE DEPABTMENT. 

Large and Accumulating Bonuses. Moderate Premiums. Perfect Security. 
Nine-Tenths of the whole Profits of the Life Assurance Branch are allocated to 

Participating Policies. 

The Bonus at last Division ranged, according to the age of the Policy, from £1, 9s. to 

£2, 17s. lOd. per Cent, per Annum, on the Original Sum Assured. 

SPECIAL FEATURES^ 

Claims paid on proof of death and title. 

Premiums adjusted to each half year of age. 

Minimum Surrender Values fixed and held at credit of Insured for five years. 

Paid up Policy of Liberal Amount granted in place of Lapsed Policy if desired within 

Six Months. 
Inaccurate Statements in Proposal Papers do not involve Forfeiture of Policy unless 

accompanied by Fraud. 
Policies in most cases free of all Restrictions as to Occupation, Residence, and Travel. 

ANNUITY BRANCH. 
Annuities, Immediate, Coutiiif^ent, or Deferred, are granted on favourable term.s. 

FIKE DEPABTMENT. 

Property of nearly every description Insured at Home or Abroad at the Lowest Rate of Premium. 

Net Fire Premiums for 188G, £1,142,730. Lo.sses promptly and liberally settled. 

ProKjjfctwiea and every information -may be had at the Chief Offices, Branches, or Agencies, 

riii3.'P rtL^prrrv (EDINBURGH, . f.4 PRINCES STREET. 
C////--/ ^'^^^^*~ (LONDON, . . . 01 THREADNEEDLE ST., E.C. 



CONTENTS. 



The Society, as a body, is not to be considered responsible for any statements or 
O2)inions advanced in tlie, several papers, which must rest entirely on the authority 
of the resi)ective ajithors. 



I. Fovestry in Kanga.vj {loith Map). By Colonel F. Bailey, R.E., . 1 

II. The Proposed School of Forestry. By Sir Dietrich Brandis, 

K.C.S.I., Bonn, Germany,. ..... 65 

III. Forest Administration in the Canton Vaud, Switzerland. Bj' 

George Cadell, Lausanne, . . . , .78 

IV. Dr Cleghorn's Services to Indian Forestry. By Sir D. Brandis, 

late Inspector- General of Forests to the Government of India, . 87 

V. Deciduous Trees, with Ornamental and Coloured Foliage, useful 
in Landscape Forestry. By John Methven, Leith Walk 
Nurseries, Edinburgh, ...... 94 

Report of the Select Committee of the House of Commons, 
1887, ON Forestry, . . . . . .104 

VI. The Plantations on the Estate of Wentworth, Yorkshire. By 

George Dodds, Forester, Wentworth, Rotherham, Yorkshire, . 156 

VII. The Plantations on the Penrhyn Estate, North Wales. By Angu.s 

D. Webster, Forester, Penrhyn Castle, North Wales, , .165 

Report of Exhibits at the International Exhibition, Edin- 
burgh, 1886, ....... 181 

Abstract of the Accounts of the Royal Scottish Arboricultural 
Society for year 1886-87, . . . . . .188 



TEANSACTIONS 



The Council would earnestly draw the attention of the 
Members to the Abstract of the Society's Accounts for 1886- 
1887 on page 188, in which is shown an extra large amount 
of Subscriptions due and unpaid at the close of the financial 
year. Members will greatly facilitate the work of the 
Society, and save a considerable expenditure, by promptly 
remitting their Subscriptions as they become due. 

The Council also respectfully request that those Members 
whose Subscriptions are in arrear, will make payment of 
them at their very earliest convenience. 

By order of the Council, 



|l0iiHl <^r0ttish l^rkricultiinil ^0cictiT. 



SPECIAL NOTICE. 

The Council direct the attention of Members to an arrange- 
ment made with the Proprietor of the Farming World, pub- 
lished at 63 Princes Street, Edinburgh, by which a Forestry 
Department has been added to that paper. The Council 
express the hope that Members, and all interested, will heartily 
support this effort to provide a laseful weekly medium of 
Forestry intelligence, both by reading the Farming World, and 
by contributing Forestry notes to its pages. 



TRANSACTIONS 



EOYAL SCOTTISH AEBOEICULTURAL SOCIETY 



FORESTRY IN HUNGARY. 

(TFith Ma.}}.) 
By Colonel F. Bailey, KE. 

CHAPTER I. 
THE HUNGARIAN FORESTS. 
Area, Elevation, Climate, Species, and Distribution of Trees. 
The total area of the kingdom of Hungary, including Croatia and 
Slavonia, is 125,370 square miles, of which 35,459 square miles, 
or over 28 per cent., are forests, owned by the following proprietors : 



Vor 16 per cent. 



Square Miles. 
The State, ..... .^oSS 

Do., studs, railways, War Department, 
Departments and Communes, . . 8,200 or 23 

Corporations and Ecclesiastical endowments, 2,071 or 6 
Public foundations, 
Private do.. 



Trustees, 

Joint proprietors, 

Joint Stock Companies, 



319 



1,999 or 6 

5,101 or 14 

654 or 2 



(A.) 24,075 or 68 
Private persons (B. ) 11,384 or 32 



Total, . . 35,459 or 100 

This gives nearly li acres of forest per head of the population. 

Forests in Class (A.) must, under section 17 of the Forest Law, 
be managed in accordance with the provisions of a working plan, 

VOL. XII., PART I. A 



2 TRANSACTIONS OF KOYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

approved by the Minister of Agriculture, and framed on the prin- 
ciple that they are required to give a constant annual yield for 
ever. Consequently no portion of them can be disforested. But 
the private forests, about one-half of which are owned by a small 
number of proprietors, some of whose immense domains cover 
many square miles, are, unless they have been declared " Forests of 
Protection " under the law, worked according to the wish of the 
owner, who, however, may not disforest any portion of them which 
grows on a purely forest soil — that is to say, a soil which is in- 
capable of being profitably cultivated, either as fields, gardens, or 
vineyards, or of being used as meadow land. 

Section 2 of the law includes, under the head of Forests of Pro- 
tection, all forests which are situated in high mountain regions, on 
loose stony soil, alpine plateaux, peaks, ridges, or steep slopes ; 
also those which serve as a protection against landslips, inundations, 
and avalanches, and the removal of which would involve injury 
either to land or to lines of communication situated below them, 
as well as those which serve as a shelter against dangerous storms. 
The law provides that, within five years of its promulgation, a list 
of all such forests must be prepared; that they must all be demar- 
cated ; and that, no matter to whom they belong, they must be 
worked in accordance with the provisions either of a working plan, 
or of rules ajjproved by the Minister of Agriculture. 

The area of the State forests was much larger in former years 
than it is now — a loss of 20 per cent, having been experienced 
since 1878. This is mainly due to the commutation of rights, 
many of which have been got rid of by the surrender of land given 
ill exchange for them ; but there is still a good deal to do in this 
direction, though not nearly so much as has already been accom- 
plished. The diminution from this cause of the area of the State 
forests between 1880 and 1884 amounted to 1427 square miles. 
The following areas are administered by the Forest Department, in 
addition to the State forests (5553 square miles) shown above, viz. : 









Square Miles 


In towns, 


, 




4 


Unavoidably retained 


as being 


Arable fields, 


48 


enclosed within forest boun- 


Meadows, . 


63 


daries, 




. Pastures, . 


. 120 


Alpine pastures, 






. 325 


Uuproductive land, . 


• 




. ir.3 






Total, . 


. 713 



FORESTRY IN HUNGARY. 



So that the total area in charge of the Department amounts to 
6266 square miles. 

The forests of Hungary are situated in the following zones of 
altitude : 



Square Miles. 

5,206, or 15 per cent, below 200 metres (656 ft.). 
9,935, or 28 ,, between 200 and 600 metres (656 and 1968 ft.). 
20,318, or 57 „ above 600 metres (1968 ft.). 



35,459 



Forty-two meteorological stations have recently been established 
in or near the forests, for the purpose of observing the temperature 
and degree of moisture of the air, the direction and force of the 
wind, and the amount of rainfall. The data furnished by these 
stations are collected and tabulated in the central office at Buda- 
Pesth. Observations recorded at altitudes varying from 16 feet 
(Flume) to 2526 feet (Fajna in Marmaros) show that, in 1884, the 
maximum rainfall amounted to 63 inches (Fiume and Goszpics, 
both in the south) ; while the minimum, 4 inches, occurred at 
Petrozseny in the east. The maximum temperature rose to 100° 
Fahr. at Szolnok in Lower Hungary ; and the minimum, 23° below 
zero Fahr., was registered at Szepes-Jglo in the north, at an alti- 
tude of 1525 feet. The highest mean temperature, 59° Fahr., was 
at Zeng, and the lowest, 40° Fahr., at Fajna in Mrirmaros. 

The forests are thus classed, according to the quality of the soil 
on which they grow : 



Purely forest soil, as above defined, 
Soil adapted for otber uses, 
Plantations on moving sands, 
Forests of Protection, 

Total, 



Square Miles. 

28,505 

4,785 

420 

1,749 



35,459 



It is said that the various species of trees are found in the fol- 
lowing proportion, viz. : 



Oak {Querciis 2)edunculata and Q. scssiliflora), 
Oak (Q. cerris), .... 

Beech {Facjus sylvatica). 

Hornbeam {Carjnnus hdiilus and C. orientalis), 
Birch {Betula alba), .... 

Carry forward, 



22-28 per cent. 

5-72 
36-54 

9-13 

2-39 

76-06 



4 TRVNSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTIT^AL SOCIETV. 



Bronglit forwanl, 
Poplar {ropnlns alba, P. canadensis, P. nUjra, P. pyramid 

alls, P. tremula), .... 
Willow {Salix alba, S. caprea, S. frag His, S. purpiirea 

S. triandra, S. viminalis), ... 
Asli {Fra-xi7uis excelsior and F. ornus). 
Elm [I'limis cximpcstrifi, V. montana, U. suberosa), . 
Maple {Acer campcstris, A. platanoidcs, A. 2^seudo lAatanus) 
Alder {Alniis alpina, A. gliitinosa, A. incana). 
Acacia (Robinia pseiulo-acacia). 

Lime {Tilia an/en/ea, T. grandifolin, T. parrifoUa), 
Spruce {Abies excelsa), .... 

Silver Hr (Picea pectinafa), .... 
Scots pine {Pinus sylvcs(ris), .... 
Larch {Larix Europoe), .... 



76 "06 per cent. 
■ 2-38 

i-.';2 



0-47 
0-39 
0-09 
13-81 
3-31 
1-91 
006 

100 



The following trees and shrubs also occur in the forests, but not 
in sufficiently large numbers to be mentioned separately in the above 
list : — Quercus ^;?t6esce?is, Q. Huncjarica v. conferta, Castanea 
vesca, Corylus cohirna, C. avellana, Sorhus Aria, Prunus spinosa, 
Juglans nigra, Platanus orientalis, Morus nigra, Rhus cotinus, 
Cornus sangidnea, Pinus austriaca, P. Mughus, P. Cemhra, 
Juniperus communis, Taxus haccata. Experiments with a view 
to the introduction of certain foreign species have been made in 
the State foi-ests. 

The areas actually covered by the principal groups of species are 

as follows, viz. ; 

Sfniarc Miles. 
9,930 



Oak 

Beech and other broad-leaved specie."?, 
Conifers, .... 



18,761 
6,768 



Total, . . 3.^,459 

The following table shows the area occupied by each of the 
principal groups of species in the State forests, and their distribu- 
tion throughout the three zones of altitude : 





Oak. 


Beech 
and other 
Broad- 
leaved 
Species. 


Conifers. 


Total. 


No. of 
permanent 

Sprin^fs. 


Metres. Feet. 
Plain.s, to 200= to 656, 
Low hills, 200 to 600 = 6.')6 to 1968, 
Mountains above 600 =above 1968, 


515 

380 

51 


310 

906 

1734 


1 

92 

1564 


826 
1378 
3349 


100 

1,002 

11,861 


Total square miles, 


946 


2950 


1657 5553 


12,963 



FORESTKY IN HUNGARY. 



Management and Working. 



Previously to 1848, when the feudal system still prevailed in the 
country, the Hungarian forests were, generally speaking, valued 
almost solely on account of the game which they harboured. They 
were very little worked, and their revenue was merely that obtained 
from grazing, from the collection of acorns, and from the sale of 
firewood : timber was used exclusively for local purposes. A few 
forests only, situated either near rivers, such as the Danube, Tisza, 
Garane, Vag, and Arva, or around mines and smelting furnaces, or 
in the neighbourhood of large towns, produced any considerable 
income to their owners. After the year 1850, when the feudal 
system had ceased to exist, the situation was extremely unfavour- 
able to proprietors of land, who, a few years later, when, in conse- 
quence of the extension of railways, new markets were opened, 
tried, without thought of the future, to realise as much as they 
could from their forests, the importance of maintaining which they 
failed to understand. They did not, in most cases, possess the 
capital required to work them on their own account, and they 
therefore farmed them out, on from five to ten years' leases, to 
merchants and contractors, whose sole aim was to get the timber 
out at a cheap rate. The proprietors were unacquainted with the 
prices paid for wood in the market ; they would not incur the ex- 
pense of having their forests properly valued ; and were ignorantly 
satisfied if they received considerable sums for forests of large 
extent, even though the rates paid to them were ruinously low. 
The first merchant who came carried off the finest timber, those 
who followed him taking, each in succession, his choice among the 
best of the trees which remained, and offering still smaller prices. 

In this manner the wood was cleared out of the more accessible 
forests by slides, canals, and streams, and they rapidly became 
denuded ; while the large quantity of waste-wood, resulting from a 
too prodigal felling for large timber, brought about a depreciation 
in the price obtainable for firewood in other forests. In consequence 
of this, and of the general absence of communications in the country, 
which caused the timber over the greater part of it to have little or 
no value, a large proportion of the best oak forests were ruined by 
continued grazing, and were reduced to the condition of forest 
pastures and acorn grounds ; indeed, in many instances there was 
little left in them but old stumps ; and where the cattle permitted 



G TRANSACTIONS OF KOYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

tlie growth of young trees, the ground was taken possession of by 
beech and hornbeam. The oak forests will now gradually be re- 
stored ; but very few of them, except in Slavonia, can be worked 
for a long series of years. It was formerly the practice to permit 
grazing during the fellings and the years immediately succeeding 
them, and numbers of cattle were bred who passed their whole lives 
in the forests ; it must therefore be considered a fortunate circum- 
stance, that, after the valuable trees were felled, a crop of shrubs 
was able to spring up here and there and afford some shelter to the 
ground. At the same time, valuable beech and pine forests, ex- 
tending over thousands of acres, were cut or burnt down, with the 
deliberate object of turning them into pastures, which were then 
considered to have more value than forests yielding no revenue. 

Subsequently to the year 1850, an inconceivable amount of harm 
was done, the forests near the principal lines of export, or situated 
in the vicinity of towns and manufactories, having been worked far 
too heavily. At this time also forests of large extent were con- 
ceded to communes, who, not sufficiently understanding their value, 
destroyed them ; and the timber and even the soil of many forests, 
the property of joint owners, was sold by the co-proprietors, who 
ignorantly preferred the small sum of money they could then realise 
on them to the permanent revenue they might ultimately have 
yielded under the more favourable conditions of the future. Con- 
siderable areas also were cleared for cultivation, but the result was 
in many cases disastrous ; as, for instance, along the banks of the 
Danube, the Tisza, and the Temes, where formerly fine oak forests 
grew, but the ground is now occupied by marshes. A recent case 
of this kind occurred near Arad, on the Maros, where, the forest 
growth having been cleared away, the soil rapidly deteriorated, and 
is now fitted neither for agriculture nor for forest. 

Owing to the above causes, the condition of the forests, especially 
those which belong to communes and private proprietors, is at the 
present time very poor — excessive felling, imperfect regeneration, 
and uncontrolled pasturing having led in many localities to the 
most melancholy results ; as witness the shrub forests on the higher 
mountains, the moving sands of the Alfold or great plain lying 
between the Danube and the Tisza, and the stony avalanches of 
the Karst between Trieste and Fiume, where the soil, when pro- 
tected by forests, was extraordinarily fertile, but now the limestone 
rocks have been completely denuded ; and if the country is to 
be allowed, even gradually, to recover itself, the exclusion of cattle, 



FORESTRY IN HUNGARY. 7 

sheep, and goats from the whole area, by successive blocks, has 
become an absolute necessity. 

But although, on the re-establishment of a constitutional Govern- 
ment in 1867, matters began to mend, little real i^rogress was made 
until 1879, when the present Forest Law was passed, which not 
only ensures the proper management of the forests, but regulates 
the floating of loose logs and timber rafts, as well as the transport 
of forest produce by land, thus protecting both the owners of 
forests and the timber merchants, as well as the persons through or 
over whose property the produce passes ; and the forests are now 
under proper control throughout the entire country. 

The old way of working was not one calculated to develop a good 
system of sylviculture ; but now, as the forests become thinner and 
wood dearer, while mountain sides are denuded and river banks 
undermined, the necessity for the early introduction of a better 
system is realised, and people begin to appreciate the new law, 
which, if it came at the last moment, did not come quite too late ; 
and under it a good and certain forest revenue may still be looked 
for. 

The excessive fellings practised between 1850 and 1880 so re- 
duced the stock of timber in the forests, that they have not now, 
with comparatively few exceptions, sufficient to enable their rational 
management to be at once undertaken. It has been calculated that 
the stock remaining is not more than two-thirds of what it ought 
to be, and a due proportion of age-classes is rarely found. On the 
other hand, however, in about one-fifth part of the entire area, the 
forests, which here consist principally of beech, but partly also of 
conifers, cannot yet be worked on account of the absence of export 
roads, which, in many cases, it will not at present pay to make; 
and these will, as they are gradually opened out, supply the home 
and foreign markets for some years to come. The statement, then, 
which is often heard, that there is still a great stock of wood in the 
forests, is only true for parts of them. It is said that in the State 
oak and fir forests, the stock of timber falls short of what it should 
be by 575 and 649 millions of cubic feet respectively, while in the 
beech forests the stock is in excess by 1013 millions of cubic feet ; 
and the condition of the forests owned by other proprietors is cer- 
tainly not more favourable than this. The all-round density of the 
forests is probably not more than from 6 to 7, and the younger 
age-classes, where they exist, are, generally speaking, in an unsatis- 
factory condition. It used to be the custom to sell, in addition to 



8 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBOEICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



the ordinary fellings, the ash, elm, maple, and other species found 
scattered here and there throughout the forests, and on this account 
it is now very difficult to obtain wood of these kinds at reasonable 
prices. 

Until recently, then, rational treatment was, especially in the 
communal and private forests, almost completely neglected. Now 
the forests are managed as high forest, coppice, or coppice with 
standards, in the following proportion, viz. : 



High forest, with a revolution of 80 to 120 years, extending, 
in rare cases, to 160 years in the oak forests, 

Simple coppice, 10 to 60 years, .... 

Coppice with standards — standards 80 to 120 years, coppice, 
20 years, ....... 

Total, 
In the State forests the proportion is as follows, viz. : 



Square Miles. 

25,367 
10,028 

64 



35,459 





Oak. 


Beech 
and other 
Broad- 
leaved 
Species. 


Conifers. 


Total. 

1 


High forest, ..... 
Simple coppice, .... 
Coppice with standards, 
Forests of Protection (selection method), 


924 

18 

2 

2 


2795 

70 

1 

84 


1493 
164 


5212 

88 

3 

250 


Total square miles, . . 946 


2950 1657 


5553 



Regeneration by natural means is resorted to as far as possible ; 
but both early and late frosts are very frequent, so that a croj) of 
seed cannot be looked for oftener than once in five years, and since 
the year 1880 regeneration by planting or sowing has been largely 
practised. During 1884 the following areas in the State forests 
were regenerated by natural and by artificial means respectively, 
viz. : 

Square Miles. 
Natural, ...... 26 

Artificial, /S°«"'f?. ... 8 

I Planting, . . . 11 

— 19 



Total, 



45 



The total cost of the sowing and planting work Avas £4183, or 
68. lOd. per acre for sowing and 7s. for planting. 



FORESTRY IN HUNGARY. 9 

The spruce, Abies excelsa, is the most important of the conifers 
found in Hungary. It is, generally speaking, grown unmixed with 
other species, and the forest is clean-felled, the ground being 
restocked artificially two years afterwards. The advantages of 
growing forests composed of a mixture of species has not yet 
been fully recognised except in the State forests, where in suitable 
regions, when the production of large timber is aimed at, it is now 
the rule to mix spruce, silver fir, and beech in the following 
proportions, viz. : 

50 to 60 per cent, of spruce. 
20 to 30 ,, of silver tir. 
10 to 20 ,, of beech. 

There is a great deal to be done in the way of restocking bare 
ground ; the funds hitherto granted for this purpose being insufficient 
to admit of satisfactory progress being made. But the State gives 
out plants gratis to proprietors of all classes, and nearly eleven 
millions of them have been distributed during the years 1883, 
1884, and 1885, The species principally employed are as follows, 
viz. : The Rohinia pseudo-acacia, which grows very rapidly, yields 
excellent firewood, vine props, and timber of small size ; the Scots 
pine, which is planted out at a year old, but in some districts is 
without needles for a part of the year, and in the northern pro- 
vinces suffers much from snow ; and the black Austrian pine. The 
larch does very well in some districts, and considerable attention 
has recently been paid to it. 

In former days forest management was directed principally to 
the production of firewood, and this is the case still on many 
properties. But as soon as the improvement of communications 
enabled timber to be carried to distant markets, even beyond the 
national frontiers, and the diminution of stock caused a rise in 
prices, attention began to be directed to the production of large 
timber of good quality. During the last ten or fifteen years, how- 
ever, many young oak and spruce forests have been cut for tanning 
bark, and a good deal of harm has been done by over-cutting for 
this purpose. 

The minor products are at present confined almost exclusively to 
grass, acorns, and nut galls ; the various industries which usually 
flourish in the neighbourhood of extensive forests not having yet 
been developed to any considerable extent. 

Grazing, is, however, an important question, both on account of 



10 TRANSACTIONS OF liOYAL SCOTTISH ARBOrvlCULTUEAL SOCIETY. 

the large number of cattle and other animals which have to be 
kept alive, and also on account of the revenue realised from it. 
The forest pastures are very extensive, and their existence is, as 
has previously been explained, one of the principal causes to which 
the present bad condition of the forests is attributable. It has 
been assumed that 1 buffalo, 1 horse, 3 donkeys, 3 pigs, 10 sheep, 
and 1 goat, each of them require as large a provision in grazing as 
1 ox or cow — 

3 oxen under 3 years of age Vieing equal to 2 full-grown animals. 
2 horses ,, 3 ,, ,,1 ,, animal. 

2 donkeys ,, 2 ,, ,,1 ,, ,, 

4 j'oung pigs ,, 1 ,, ,, 

3 lambs or kids ,, 1 ,, ,, 

And on this assumption, the equivalent of 8,300,000 oxen has to 
be provided for. But it has been calculated that the non-forest 
grazing grounds do not, at the most liberal rate of production, 
yield enough grass for more than 5,300,000 oxen ; and as stall 
feeding is very rarely practised, three millions of cattle have to be 
provided for in the forests. But if every acre were made available 
which could, without risk to the crop of trees, be opened for grazing, 
not more than one-fourth of the three millions of oxen could be 
properly fed ; and this fully explains why the forest pastures are 
now being ruined by over-grazing, while the cattle are, generally 
speaking, in very poor condition. Legislation on the subject is 
urgently needed. People in Hungary, as well as in other countries, 
sometimes assert that the forests do not suffer from grazing ; and 
they cite examples to prove that they have known very well, and 
carefully watched for the last twenty, thirty, forty, or fifty years, 
such and such forests, which have always been full of cattle, and 
still continue to exist. But, notwithstanding this evidence, it is 
certain that, even where forests too heavily grazed over have not 
disappeared entirely, they have suffered severely in their rate of 
growth and in the quality of the wood they produce, while their 
complete disappearance is only a matter of time. 

The damage done by fires is not so serious in the north as it is 
in the south and east, where shepherds frequently devastate large 
areas by burning them over, in order to obtain fresh pasture for 
their flocks. Attacks by insects, principally Bostrichus typograplius, 
are frequent, especially in the eastern provinces ; here also dangerous 
storms very often occur. It is said that in 1884 the damage done 



FORESTRY IX HUNGARY. 



11 



in the State forests alone, by fires, wind, insects, and the like causes, 
was as follows : 



No. of 
instances. 



Fires, 



76 



Broad-leaved forest, 
Coniferous forest, . 



Inundations, .19 ..... 

Wind, . . 51 (800,000 cubic feet of wood). 

Frost and snow, 7 (88,000 „ ), 

Rats, . . 12 

Insects, . .17 



Areas affected, 
Acres. 

1693 

34 

1727 

99 

396 

956 

405 

3415 

6998 



In 1867 there were only 1390 miles of railway in the kingdom, 
now there is a network aggregating 5530 miles all over the country ; 
and no less than 18 per cent, of the merchandise carried by goods 
train, and by the Danube Steam Navigation Company, consists of 
forest produce. Twenty miles of narrow-gauge railway have been 
constructed for forest purposes. There are also 

4,460 miles of State roads. 
23,005 ,, Departmental roads. 
35,983 ,, Communal roads. 

1,799 ,, rivers and canals which can be used for floating wood. 

The State roads are kept in good order, but those belonging to 
communes are not so. In addition to the above, the State has 148 
miles of dry slides, and 65 miles of wet slides, with 93 reservoirs, 
constructed for floating purposes, holding 175,000,000 cubic feet 
of water. There are also 62 booms, aggregating 8040 yards in 
length. 

The floating of timber from the mountain forests to the plains, 
and thence to the markets, is still largely practised, especially in 
the Carpathians, where, notwithstanding the huge quantity of 
timber, principally beech, consumed annually in the maintenance 
of river banks, the erection of weirs, and other works, it is con- 
sidered cheaper than the construction and repair of cart-roads, 
which, as they are not required for other purposes, would have to 
be paid for entirely from the forest budget. The rates for transport 
by water are also, beyond comparison, lower than those for transport 
by road ; and the latter would be enhanced if the large amount of 
wood now water borne were to be thrown on to the roads. 

These considerations appear to justify the existing arrangements, 



1:2 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

in spite of the lavif?h expenditure of wood on works connected 
with the floating of timber, which must strike with astonishment 
every visitor to these regions. 

When the quantity of snow on the ground does not render this 
impossible, the fellings are usually made in the winter ; but 
otherwise they are cfiected after the snow has melted, say atbout 
the month of May, when the sap is beginning to rise. The trees 
are immediately barked, the top branches being left uncut, so as 
to draw up the sap from the lower part of the trunk, and thus 
facilitate its drying. In autumn, the timber is cut up and con- 
veyed outside the limits of the block in which it was felled ; and 
in the succeeding winter, it is moved down to the river side, so 
that it may, in the spring and summer, be floated down to the 
markets. As the works of various kinds which have to be con- 
structed in connection with the floating arrangements are on a 
large scale, and involve a very heavy outlay, the forest oflScers are 
required to possess a complete knowledge of this branch of 
engineering. 

Sufficient labour is, generally speaking, obtainable among the 
agricultural population for all ordinary work, such as sowing and 
planting, sliding, drawing, floating and sawing of timber, making 
of charcoal, and the like ; but should large orders be received for 
cask staves, or railway sleepers, contractors bring additional work- 
men from the Austrian province of Carniola. It is customary to 
farm a portion of the forest produce to the commune, in return for 
the transport of a certain quantity of wood. The timber floaters are 
a strong hardy race, whom long practice has taught to work with 
safety upon the most difficult and dangerous rivers. The original 
workmen were Germans from the Black Forest ; but there are now 
many " Szekelyek " from Transylvania, and Wallachians, who have 
learnt the business from the Germans. 

A bad feature in the present system is that, partly from long 
custom, and partly from the prevalence of a false idea that the stock 
is very abundant, the cutting up and working out of the produce is 
wastefully conducted, thus causing a loss of from 30 to 40 per cent. 
of the wood. As the stock of timber decreases, and prices rise, an 
improvement in this respect will doubtless be effected ; and, when 
the workmen are better trained, much of the present waste will 
be avoided. The State employs 2933 permanent, and 19,840 
temporary, hands. The former, who act as instructors to the latter, 
are a most useful class ; and some colonies of them, founded during 



FORESTRY IX HUNGARY. 13 

the last century, now form prosperous communes on the borders 
of the State forests, • 

The rates paid for daily labour are usually from Is. to 2s. 6d. 
for a man, and from 3s. to 8s. for a cart and two horses. But 
most kinds of work is, as a rule, executed by contract, or by piece- 
work, at fixed rates. 

Administrative Organisation. 

Before 1881, the direction of all forest aflfairs was vested in the 
Minister of Commerce ; but in that year it was transferred to the 
Minister of Agriculture ; and at the same time the administration 
of the forests was confided to a special branch, which was relieved 
of the management of the State agricultural property, and rendered 
completely independent of all other work. Within the oftice of 
the Minister, forest business is dealt with by the Director General 
of Forests, who, acting as his delegate, decides, with certain 
exceptions, all questions that are submitted to him. His oftice is 
divided into three sections, which take up matters referring to the 
State forests, working plans, and inspections respectively. Each 
section is under a forest councillor. Section 17 of the law pre- 
scribes that the proprietors whose forests come under its provisions, 
must employ the number of managers and guards fixed by the 
working plan, and this forms the basis of the organisation of the 
Hungarian Forest Service. 

Tlie State forests are now divided into 18 Conservatorships with 
an average area of 310 square miles, each of which is controlled by 
a superior administrative officer, corresponding to a Conservator, 
who is in direct communication with the Director General. The 
Conservator directs, inspects, and controls. His circle is formed by 
the aggregation of a number of divisions, the officers in charge of 
which are under his orders. Among his various prerogatives may 
be mentioned the following, viz. : — He can engage subordinates and 
fix their rate of pay; grant leave within certain limits to persons 
of all grades employed within his circle ; approve of contracts for 
one year relating to the conversion or carriage of forest produce ; 
and order experiments or purchases of plant or stock to the value 
of £80. He can also sanction the annual sales of forest produce, in 
accordance with the tariff" approved by the Minister, and order the 
erection and repair of buildings to the value of £160, 

The officers in charge of divisions, of which there are 167, with 
an average area of 33 square miles, act under the instructions of 



14 TRANSACTIONS OF EOVAL SCOTTISH AKBOKICULTUEAL SOCIETY. 

the Conservator, to whom it is their duty to submit proposals on 
all subjects relative to the management and working of their forests. 
Authority in certain matters is delegated to them, but they are not 
permitted to exceed their ordinary powers, except in cases of emer- 
gency. The division is subdivided into beats, each in charge of a 
forest guard. There are 1272 of such beats, their average size 
being 4^ square miles. 

Forests which come under the provisions of section 17 of the 
law, but are not the property of the State, are managed under the 
authority of the administrative committees of the sixty-four depai-t- 
ments and fourteen free towns into which Hungary is divided ; 
and each of these acts through a sub-committee of three members, 
chosen either from its own body or among other persons skilled in 
forest business. The State exercises control over the actions of 
these committees by means of inspectors, of whom there are twenty 
in Hungary, each having two or more entire departments assigned 
to him. The committee has power to decide, in accordance always 
with the provisions of the forest law, all questions that are from 
time to time submitted to it by the communes or other proprietors ; 
but it is compelled to take the advice of the inspector, subject to 
an appeal by them or by him in case of disagreement to the 
Minister of Agriculture. In urgent cases, the inspector, as the 
minister's representative, has power to stop fellings or other opera- 
tions which he considers detrimental to the forests ; and in such 
cases the administrative authorities and local police are bound to 
support him. In case the committee habitually fails in its duty, 
the minister can replace it by a State commissioner ; and this has 
once been done. The twenty inspectors, with their twenty assist- 
ants and offices, cost the State ^£8932 in 18S4, and £9360 in 1885. 
The supervision exercised according to law by these officers is not at 
present liked by the proprietors, especially by those among them 
who desire to enrich themselves at the ex^^ense of future genera- 
tions ; but the good advice they have received has added many 
thousands of pounds to the value of their forest capital. Experience 
continues to show the necessity for the maintenance of the existing 
system ; and the inspectors are now called upon to redouble their 
efforts in order to safeguard the public interests, and to correct the 
errors of the past. 

The State will take charge of, and manage through its own 
officers on behalf of the owners, the conmuinal forests in any 
department the administrative committee of which applies for this 



FORESTRY IN HUNGARY. 



15 



to be done ; and many of the departments have availed themselves 
of this privilege with the most satisfactory results. Small private 
proprietors may associate themselves together for the payment of 
the establishment prescribed by the law ; and, similarly, communal 
forests of limited extent may be grouped together for purposes of 
management, and the overcharging of their budgets be thus avoided. 
But if they neglect to provide in some manner the necessary 
managers and guards, the departmental administrative committee 
or Minister of Agriculture has power to appoint them. 

The number and distribution of the superior oflScers and 
subordinates employed by the State is as follows : 



Central Office, 
Inspections, 
State forests, 
Communal forests man 

State, 
Higher school, 
Lower school. 



ged b}' the \ 
• -J 



Superior 
Officers. 


Subordi- 
nates. 


Menials. 


Total. 


27 

40 

505 

12 

7 
6 


1342 

1 

-3 


264 


27 

40 

2111 

13 

7 
9 


597 


1346 


264 


2207 



The superior officers are of the following classes, viz. 



Officers corresponding in rank with Conservator 

Secretaries, 

Superintendents of Working Plan 

Assistant ditto, 

Deputy Conservators, 

Assistant ditto, 

Sub-Assistant ditto, 

Storekeepers and Paymasters, 

Engineers, 

Inspectors of Depots, 

Probationers, 

Apprentices, 

Doctors, . 

Registrars, 

Accountants, 



No. 


Yearly rate of Pay, 
and Allowances for 
lod^'ing, Office, Ser- 
vants, and Horses. 


28 


£172 to £332 


5 


110 „ 


116 


9 


115 ,, 


164 


2 




60 


27 


98 ,, 


142 


60 


94 „ 


106 


140 


76 „ 


98 


35 


60 „ 


84 


4 


84 „ 


152 


13 


57 „ 


83 


26 




44 


74 


29 ,, 


38 


14 


51 „ 


90 


8 


56,, 


68 


60 


48 „ 


200 



In addition to their yearly pay and allowances, these officers 
receive from 25 to 60 loads of firewood, and are permitted to 



16 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

cultivate fnun 5^ to 28J acres of land, according to their grade. 
The pay and lodging allowance of subordinates ranges from £18 to 
£-12 a year; they receive from 17 to 25 loads of firewood, and are 
allowed to cultivate from 4-| to 5h acres of land, according to grade. 
The annual cost of the above establishment is about £93,550, or 
about 6^d, per acre. 

The Inspectors receive as yearly pay, lodging, and office allow- 
ance, from £180 to £204, with £80 in addition as travelling 
allowance. 

The Assistant Inspectors receive from £80 to £112, with £56 as 
travelling allowance. 

The scale of pay for officers in the State service corresponds with 
that fixed, during the last century, for other officials of similar 
rank ; but it is considered too low, and will probably be raised. 
These officers are entitled to pensions under rules passed in 1885. 
When necessary, officers and subordinates are accommodated with 
houses in the forest, the number of buildings erected for this 
purpose being as follows, viz. : 



For superior officeis, 1 to 3 rooms, 


69 


Ditto, more than 3 rooms, . 


. 239 


For superior officers and guards, . 


. 867 


For guards, ..... 


. 680 


Offices, ...... 


27 



1882 

Tlie service of the managers and guards employed under the 
departmental administrative committees, is, like that of the State 
officials, permanent, and under fixed rules. They cannot be dis- 
charged except under a prescribed jjrocedure. The great private 
proprietors usually pay their employes at a rate which is from 25 
per cent, to 50 j^or cent, higher than that of corresponding grades 
in the State service; but their appointments are not so well secured 
to them, and they have no regular pensions to look forward to. 

In order to obtain an appointment as forest officer or manager in 
any of the forests which are, by the provisions of section 17 of the 
Forest Law, under the immediate control of the State, a candidate 
must be a Hungarian subject, who has completed his studies at the 
High School, and passed as Bachelor of Letters or Bachelor of 
Science. He must either undergo the course of instruction at the 
academy at Selmeczbanya, or pass the final examination there, or 
be trained in some foreign school of the same class in which all 



•FORESTRY IN HUNGARY. 17 

the required subjects are taught. He must then, after serving two 
years on probation, pass the State Forest Examination, held at 
Buda-Pesth, which he cannot do unless he is qualified as above. 
The proprietors of forests which are under the provisions of section 
17 cannot employ officers or managers who have not duly passed 
this examination. Section 37 of the Forest Law provides that no 
guard can, ten years after the promulgation of the law, continue to 
be employed in these forests unless he has passed a prescribed 
examination. He must, in the first place, either pass through one 
of the secondary schools, and then serve for a year on probation, or 
he must show himself to be proficient in reading, writing, and 
arithmetic, and serve for three years on probation ; after one or 
other of which tests, and as soon as he has attained the age of 
24 years, he is eligible to pass the Forest Guards' Examination, 
held periodically in various towns throughout the country. Guards 
are permitted to perform their military service after they have 
completed their course of instruction and probation. 

All officers, managers, and guards are sworn in, and they then 
wear a uniform, prescribed, in the case of the State forest service, 
by the King, and otherwise by the Departmental Administrative 
authorities. Up to the end of 1884, the following number of 
officers and subordinates in Hungary had been sworn in : 

Siqyerior Officers. 

In the service of the State, ...... 318 

In the service of other proprietors whose forests are under section 17, 695 

Ditto, ditto, are not under section 1 7, 589 

Total, . . 1602 

Of these, 449 have passed the State Forest Examination. 

Swhordinates. 

In the service of the State, ...... 1,323 

In the service of other proprietors whose forests are under section 17, 14,593 

Ditto, ditto, are not under section 17, 6,926 



Total, . . 22,842 

Of these, 690 only have passed the Forest Guards' Examination. 
About one-third of the entire number of subordinates have other 
employment in addition to their forest duties. There are 360 
sworn superior ofiicers and 2400 subordinates in Croatia and Sla- 
vonia. Emjyloyes of both grades can prosecute cases of forest 
offences, and, if they have been duly sworn in, their depositions 
constitute a complete proof against the offenders. 

VOL. XII., PART I. B 



ly TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Private proprietors, whose forests are not under section 17 of 
the law, can emijloy wlioni they please ; but their men must be of 
good character, and sufficiently instructed to be able to do their 
work efficiently. They have, however, at the present time, very 
few competent foresters. 

Working Plans, Produce, and Sales. 

All the forests included in Class (A.) {see page 1), being under 
the provisions of section 17 of the Forest Law, must, as before 
stated, be managed in accordance with the provisions of a working 
plan approved by the Minister of Agriculture. A period of five 
years, which expired on the 14th June 1884, was allowed for the 
submission of proposals on this subject ; but up to that date very 
few had been received, and most of the proj^rietors have had to ask 
for the extension of three years, which can legally be granted when 
sufficient cause is shown. In as many as possible of these cases, 
however, the Minister of Agriculture has, in the manner prescribed 
by the law, approved of temporary plans to regulate work for the 
next few years. These plans have been prepared by the inspectors 
from data furnished by the proprietors. 

The regular working plan consists of three parts — 

1. A statement of the jJi'esent condition c^/' the forest. This gives 
all information relative both to the forest itself and to its sur- 
roundings, which is likely to influence the management — such as 
its situation, its owner, the rights of other persons in it ; the wood 
markets and export lines ; the managers, guards, and workmen 
employed ; the previous system of working, the results of survey, 
and valuation of the growing stock. 

2. The use to lohich the forest is to be devoted. This must be 
determined on the assumption that it is to give a constant annual 
yield for ever, but, subject to this condition, the wishes of the 
proprietor must be considered. 

3. Management and yield. This part of the working plan deals 
with the species to be cultivated, the system of management to be 
adopted, the revolution, manner of regeneration, and division into 
blocks and compartments, as well as the working out of the pro- 
duce, and such like matters. The law lays down that the revolu- 
tion for high forest cannot be less than 60 years, and for simple 
coppice less than ten years. The annual cuttings are always to be 
determined by area, not by a consideration of the cubic contents of 
the stock and the rate of growth. All quantities of wood are 



FORESTRY IN HUNGARY. 19 

to be expressed in cubic metres. The smallest scale permissible 
for the working map is ytt/otto"' ^^ ^'^ inches to the mile. For 
small forests, not adapted to regular treatment, more simple working 
plans may be framed. For Forests of Protection the Minister of 
Agriculture determines the system of working ; but there can be 
no clearing, clean-felling, nor collection of dead leaves, grass, or 
herbs within them, and, generally speaking, they are closed against 
grazing. 

In the State forest service, the Working Plans Branch is an 
entirely separate one. In each Conservatorship there is a Working 
Plans' officer, with the necessary staff, who is immediately subordi- 
nate to the Director-General, from whom alone he receives instruc- 
tions ; but he is attached to the Conservator, and is obliged to 
furnish him, from time to time, with such information as he may 
require. The sjjecial branch undertakes all valuations, surveys, 
maps, and working plans ; it prepares all temporary plans and rules, 
and takes cognisance of any deviations from them or from the 
regular working plan ; it is consulted when the alienation of any 
forest land is proposed, whether in commutation of rights or 
otherwise. 

The procedure is as follows — viz., a draft of the proposals having 
been drawn up on the lines above indicated, it is submitted to a 
committee of five members, consisting of the Conservator, the next 
senior forest officer, the divisional officer, the officer in charge of the 
neighbouring division, and the Working Plans' officer. All other 
officers and guards, who are in the place where the committee sits, 
are present, but have not the power to vote. The report of the 
committee, which includes all opinions which are not in accord with 
the general views it expresses, is submitted to the Director-General, 
and is returned, after approval, in order that the details of the 
proposed plan may be worked out. When this has been done, the 
committee again assembles, and, having discussed them, submits 
the report to the Director-General. From his office the working 
plan is returned to the Administrative Committee of the Depart- 
ment, to be examined in accordance with the Forest Law ; and, 
after a further examination by the Inspector, it is finally approved, 
and its provisions are carried out. During 1885, 44 superior officers, 
20 temporary employes, passed students of the forest academy, and 
a staff of chain-men, flag-men, and labourers were engaged in the 
work. The expenditure, in addition to salaries and allowances, 
was £3989. 



20 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 

In the case of the communal and other forests, which are under 
section 17 of the law, the working plan must pass through the 
hands of the Inspector, and, after discussion by the Administrative 
Forest Committee of the Department, be submitted to the Minister 
of Agriculture, by whom, on the report of the Director-General of 
Forests, it is approved. All working plans are to be revised 
periodically. 

The following statement, which does not include the provinces of 
Croatia and Slavonia, shows the progress made, up to the end of 
1884, in the preparation of working plans : 

Square milea. 

Regular working plans approved, 395 

Temporary ,, ,, 4746 

Felling stopped pending the approval of the working plans, , 1462 

Total, 6603 

This represents rather more than 22 per cent, of the forests in 
Hungary alone. The areas set forth above are owned as follows, 
viz. : 

Proportion to the total 
area of each class. 

^y the State, 254 '^-H^.s ^^ev cent. 

By coinnmnes and public institutions, . . 6344 41 "5 J 

By private proprietors (forests of protection), 5 

The small proportion of the State forests which has been dealt 
with is remarkable. It is, however, expected that the work will be 
completed within the next twelve years. 

The mean annual yield of the Hungarian forests in wood, includ- 
ing that cut as thinnings, is as follows, viz. : 

Cubic feet. 

From high forest, .... 753,001,177 = 46^ per acre. 

„ „ coppice 244,722,038 - 38 „ 

,, coppice with standards, . . 2,267,367 - 56 ,, 



Total, . . 999,990,582 

This is equivalent to 63^- cubic feet per head of the population. 
The working plans approved to the end of 1884 show the annual 
yield as 912,005,282 cubic feet, the surface to be cut over each year 
being 390,952 acres. These figures give 2370 cubic feet per acre 
cut over, and 59 culnc feet per acre of the whole forest area. 



FORESTRY IN HUNGARY. 21 

It is said tliat the proportion of timber and firewood obtained 
from the three principal groups of species is as follows, viz. ; 

Timber. Firewood and Charcoal. 
Oak, ...... 2.5-40 per cent. 60-75 per cent. 

Beech and other broad-leaved species, 3-15 ,, 85-97 ,, 

Conifers, 70-85 „ 15-30 

III the State forests the mean area clean-felled over during the 
three years from 1882 to 1884 was 22,981 acres, and the produce 
was — 

Cubic feet. 

Timber, 32,664,860 

Firewood and charcoal, 53,163,882 



Total, 85,828,742 

with 3200 tons of bark. 

The mean imports and exports of forest produce during the three 
years from 1882 to 1884 were as follows, viz. : 

Tons. Value. 

Imports 139,666 £450,647 

Exports, 618,182 2,165,864 



Exports exceeded imports by . 478,516 £1,715,217 

The figures do not include considerable imports of wood from 
the Austrian provinces of Galicia, Carniola, and Styria ; so that the 
excess of exports over imports is not really so great as it would 
appear to be from the above statement — 96 per cent, of the re- 
corded imports and 42 per cent, of the recorded exports are trans- 
actions with Austria. Sawn deal and oak timber is exported to 
Germany, France, Holland, and Belgium, and large quantities of 
cask staves have been sent to France ; but as the customs-duty in 
Germany has been raised during the last few years, the exports to 
that country have considerably diminished. The present rate of 
export, which, however, forms a very small proportion of the 
timber annually imported by the other European States, cannot be 
maintained much longer, and it is indeed already beginning to fall 
ofi". The supply of cask staves sent to France from Slavonia will 
certainly be greatly diminished within the next ten or fifteen years. 
It is a noteworthy fact that the principal timber exporting countries 
of Europe, Russia and Sweden, are, like Hungary, commencing to 
reduce the quantity annually sold beyond their frontiers. 

The purchase and sale of wood forms an important branch of 



22 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Hungarian commerce. There are in the kingdom 499 dealers in 
timber, 1601 in firewood, 25 in tanning bark, 221 in charcoal, and 
36,798 carpenters, cartwrights, caskniakers, turners, parquet makers, 
and others. The sixty principal wood merchants have an average 
capital of over X8000, some of them having as much as £80,000 ; 
eighty others have an average capital of £4000. Some of these 
dealers buy the trees standing in the forest, which is the system 
most frequently employed, though it is considered to be prejudicial 
to regeneration, and they cut them up into logs ; others buy the 
logs, and convert them into boards and scantlings, which they 
dispose of generally to a lower class of dealers, with small capital, 
who retail them to the consumers. Although the sale of timber 
standing in the forest is largely practised, a considerable proportion 
of that from the State forests is sold in depots, to which it is taken 
either by departmental agency or by a contractor; and it is there 
sold, ordinarily by auction but sometimes by private contract, to 
one or more of the principal merchants, who pay for it at first class 
or second class rates, according as the dejDot is within or beyond 
12 kilometres, or 7 J miles, from a certain point fixed upon for this 
jiurpose in each district. 

The railways require 1| millions of slee^jers a year ; and, 
together with the Danube Steam Navigation Company, use wood 
to the amount of nearly 21 million cubic feet. There are 2533 
mines, smelting furnaces, and manufactories, consuming wood, 
which among them take annually about — 

4,270,000 bushels of charcoal. 
14,772,000 cubic feet of firewood. 
2,971,000 ,, mine props. 

1,230,000 ,, scantlings. 

124,000 „ planks. 

The annual export of coal is 2,362,000 tons, and the mean 
imports and exports of coal and coke during the three years, from 
1882 to 1884, have been— 

Tons. Value. 

Imports, 370,715 £313,069 

^-M'"rts, 75,523 ' 26,904 



Imports in excess, . . . 295,192 £286,165 

The manufacture of iron, which is very largely developed in 
Hungary, consumes large quantities of wood in the form of 
charcoal. On an average, 157,000 tons of iron are manufactured 



FORESTRY IN HUNGARY. 23 

annually ; and 56 million cubic feet of wood are consumed by the 
smelting furnaces. The mean imports and exports of iron^ during- 
the three years from 1882 to 1884, were as follow : 

Tons. Value. 

Imports, 105,008 £1,580,500 

Exports, 46,408 468,320 

Imports in excess, . . . 58,600 £1,112,180 

There are 1470 saw-mills, viz. : 

Thousand cubic 
feet of timber. 

179 Steam mills, working 320 IVames, each of which 

can cut up annually, 140 to 175 

69 Water mills, large, ,, 103 „ „ 70 ,, 106 

1242 „ small, ,, 1242 ,, „ 14 „ 18 

They are together able to cut up annually over 88 million cubic 
feet of deal, or from 50 to 60 per cent, of that quantity of hard 
wood. 

The rates obtained in 1884 for building timber, sold standing in 
the State forests, were as follows, viz. : 





Pence per 
Above 13| inches 
diameter. 


cubic foot. 
Below 13| inches 
diameter. 


Oak, 


31 


2-3 


Beech, . 


1-5 


1-3 


Ash,. Maple, Elm, 


2-9 


2-3 


Spruce, . 


1-8 


1-5 


Silver fir, 


1-8 


1-5 


Larch, . 


3-4 


2-4 


Scots pine, 


2-9 


2-2 



The average rate for timber of this class was therefore about 2 •2d. 
per cubic foot, and about 8s. lOd. per load of 50 cubic feet, which 
is an extremely low rate in comparison with that obtained for such 
timber sold from the French forests. Firewood is sold in the 
forest at from one farthing to one half-penny a cubic foot. 

The mean nett revenue of the whole of the forests taken 
together is £777,000, or 8|d. per acre. The actual receipts and 
expenditure for the State forests during 1884 and 1885 were — 

Receipts, . 
Expenditure, 

Surplus, . . . £161,916 £168,070 

The average annual surplus for the four years from 1881 to 



1884. 


1885. 


£493,805 


£499,754 


331,889 


331,684 



24 TIIANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

1884 was £180,000, or about Is. an acre, which is not more than 
one-seventh of the surplus per acre realised from the French 
forests. But the figures given above do not include the charges for 
the maintenance of the forest branch of the Minister of Agricul- 
ture's oflSce, amounting to £2992; nor do those for 188.5 include 
the sum of £14,640 expended on new buildings, and if this be 
added, the surplus of that year is reduced to £150,438. The 
capital value of the State forests has been calculated on the assump- 
tion that the mean nett revenue of £180,000 represents 2 per cent, 
thereof ; and, thus taken, it amounts to £9,000,000, or about 
£2, 10s. per acre as compared with £20 in France. 

The following appear to be some of the principal reasons for 
this remarkable difference, viz. : — the much larger proportion of 
tlie total area of the country which is occupied by forest (28 as 
compared with 17 per cent.), the smaller population (125 as com- 
pared with 181) per square mile, the less prosperous condition of 
the mass of the population, and the remoteness and inaccessibility 
of a large proportion of the forests. These circumstances tend, on 
the one hand, to a comparatively small local consumption ; and, on 
the other, to a reduction in the quantity of produce exported, and 
in the prices which merchants can afford to pay for it to forest 
proprietors. 

Rights of User, Forest Offences, Game. 

The rights which existed prior to 1848, and related chiefly to 
firewood and pasture, but sometimes also to timber, have in a great 
measure been commuted ; but much remains to be done in this 
direction, there being still 514 communes to deal with. Before 1884, 
however, the rights held by G28 communes in the State forests, 
had been commuted or regulated, and negotiations were pending in 
147 others. It appears from the record that there are now only 6 
communes, holding rights in the State forests, in which the question 
has not yet been taken up. As compensation in lieu of grazing 
rights, many communes received forest-land with trees growing on 
it ; but, in a large number of cases, they had hardly entered into 
possession when they proceeded to clean-fell the timber ; and the 
consequence is that these areas, which, if properly managed, would 
have afforded ample fodder for the cattle, and a certain amount of 
wood also, are almost completely ruined, and scarcely produce any 
grass. It is said that, even when all rights have been commuted 
as far as practicable, it will be necessary to leave from 30 to 40 



FORESTRY IN HUNGARY. 25 

per cent, of the entire forest area open as forest pasture ; but if this 
be the case, measures must be taken to protect the trees, so as to 
prevent the soil from deteriorating. 

Under the head of Infringements of Rules {Contraventions) are 
classed all acts and omissions provided against by the forest law, 
which are committed by the proprietor, his family, agents, or work- 
men. For instance, if a^ proprietor treats his forest in such a 
manner as to endanger its existence ; if he cuts down a Forest of 
Protection, or a forest of any sort, on ground incapable of being 
used as fields, meadows, gardens, or vineyards, he is guilty of an 
act of infringement. The proprietor of a forest under section 17 of 
the law, who cuts more timber than is allowed by the working 
plan, has to pay a heavy fine, and to replace the excess quantity 
cut, by refraining for the necessary time from the ordinary annual 
fellings. All other contraventions of the provisions of the working 
plan, the extraction of stumps and roots, pasturing of cattle, and 
the collection of dead leaves, grass, or herbs, are punishable by 
fine. Among punishable omissions may be mentioned the following, 
viz. : — non-submission of proposals for the working plan, non- 
employment of the necessary establishment, non-exercise of proper 
supervision, omission to re-plant or re-sow to the extent prescribed 
by law. Heavy fines can be inflicted for such omissions, as well as 
for neglect to report the resignation or dismissal of an emjyloye, and 
for failure to observe the standing orders for the prevention of 
forest fires, and attacks by insects, or the regulations regarding the 
transport of rafts and logs. 

Among Forest Offences (delits) are classed thefts of unfashioned 
produce, if its value, and that of the damage caused, are together 
not more than 30 florins (£2, 8s.) ; damage of any sort to the 
value of less than 30 florins ; dangerous acts and omissions, without 
regard to value ; and the purchase or sale of produce, the sale of 
which has been prohibited. Such offences may be disi:)osed of 
administratively by the mayor or head of the police. But thefts 
and damage to the value of more than 30 florins, acts and omissions 
which have resulted in a forest fire, thefts of fashioned produce, or 
the unauthorised collection of seeds, are offences which are punish- 
able under the ordinary law only. They are to be tried at once, 
taking precedence before all other cases. The delinquent pays the 
value of the stolen goods, as well as compensation to the amount of 
from one-quarter to the whole of the estimated damage he may 
have done ; and, except in cases of theft of dry wood, branches, 



26 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

shrubs, broken pieces of wood, bark, acorns or other fruit, he pays 
also an amount equal to the sum of both these together, into the 
Forest and Charitable Funds. 

Between 1881 and 1884, the following cases of Infringement of 
Rules and Oflfences occurred : 

Infringementa. Offences. 
Acquitted on appeal, . . . 17 5,830 

Coiifinued, . . . .171 36,179 



Total, 188 42,009 

The fines amounted to £7070. The number of such offences in 
tbe State forests alone, dealt with in 1884 and 1885, was 49,529, 
and the fines amounted to £9812. 

There is a great deal of game in the country ; and it is, owing to 
the introduction of laws for its preservation, decidedly on the in- 
crease. In the Carpathian Mountains are found the bear, wolf, lynx, 
red-deer, and roe-deer, besides hares, partridges, capercalzie, black 
game, and others. Before 1872, proprietors of land had not the right 
to prevent other persons from pursuing game over their property. 
But in that year it was enacted that the right of shooting and hunt- 
ing belonged solely to the owner of the land, and a close time for 
each kind of game was fixed. A law passed in 1883, however, 
does not allow this right over a property of less than 200 arpeyits 
(284 acres) in extent ; but small proprietors, owning not less than 
50 arpents (71 acres), may unite together to make up the required 
area, and they can then secure the sole right to pursue game over 
it. Proprietors who have less than 50 arpents, or do not join with 
others to make up 200, must farm their shooting with that of the 
communal land, and they then receive a proportional part of the 
income derived from it. Guns are taxed, and shooting licenses 
have to be taken out, while poaching is severely punished. Swoi'n 
forest em.j:)loyes are exempt from the gun and license tax ; but they 
can only shoot within the limits of their own charge, and with the 
consent of the proprietors of the land. 

It is said that during 1884 over about one-third of the Hungarian 
territory, 1,102,926 head of game valued at £53,200, and including 
280 bears, were killed ; and it is probable that the game killed in 
the entire country was worth nearly £100,000. 

There is a national sporting society, with 1200 members, which 
watches over the interests of the chase. It has recently introduced 
the wild sheep {moufflon) and the wild turkey into Hungary. 



FORESTRY IN HUNGARY. 



27 



Forest Schools. 

Tlie Academy at Selmeczhdnya. — The institution at Selmeczbanya 
was opened as a school of mines in 1770, but a forest class was 
added in 1808; some idea of the development of which maybe 
obtained from an inspection of the following figures, showing the 
numbers of forest professors and students at various periods : 



essors. 


Students 


2 


22 


2 


57 


2 


5 


2 


29 


2 


13 


2 


82 


5 


35 


6 


96 


6 


134 


6 


222 


6 


287 



1808- 9, 
1809-10, 
1814-15, 
1821-22, 
1833-34, 
1865-66, 
1867-68, 
1872-73, 
1873-74, 
1882-83, 
1884-85, 



This branch is now by far the most important, there being 325 
forest students, and only 80 miners. A forest officer of high rank 
has charge of it, under the control of the Director, who is a mining 
engineer. 

Young men who have completed their studies at the High 
School, and passed as Bachelors of Letters or of Science, are 
eligible for admission. The ordinary course of studies extends 
over three years, but candidates for appointments as forest en- 
gineers remain an additional year, in order to complete their studies 
in mechanics and architecture. All regular students must go 
through the entire ordinary course, and are examined every six 
months before a special commissioner, in order to test the amount 
of progress they have made. Fees are not charged, and twenty 
scholarships, of £24 each, are given to those among the poorer 
students who are found to have done the best. 

The courses of mathematics, physics, geometry, and architecture, 
which are conducted by professors belonging to the school of mines, 
are the same for the miners and the foresters, and there are no 
special professors for chemistry and forest botany. In the opinion 
of the heads of the Forest Department, the present organisation is 
unsatisfactory, the following being the principal objections taken 
to it. The school is under the Minister of Finance, instead of 



28 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARUORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

under the Minister of Agriculture, as it should be; for he is 
charged witli the control of both the forests and the mines. The 
subjects common to both branches are taught rather from the 
miners' than the foresters' point of view, to the prejudice of their 
application by the forest students to their profession. The Forest 
Department hopes that these drawbacks will be considered by the 
Government, and the school reorganised on a new basis. 

There is a magnificent library, and a museum containing splendid 
collections of various kinds, such as minerals, rocks, botanical and 
entomological specimens, samples of raw and manufactured produce, 
with models of forest engineering works, kilns, tools, apparatus for 
felling and converting timber ; a collection to illustrate the diseases 
of trees, especially those caused by fungi of various kinds ; sections 
of wood, and many other things. Some forests near the school 
are placed under the control of the Director for purposes of in- 
struction, and the students make annually one or two forest tours 
with their professors. 

There is a second school, with about 50 students, at Koros in 
Slavonia, but it is not in a satisfactory state, and is about to be 
reorganised. 

Mention has previously been made of the State Forest Examina- 
tion, which, in addition to that of the academy, must be passed by 
all candidates for the superior service before they can be appointed. 
The committee under which this examination is conducted is 
composed of twenty members, nominated every six years by the 
National Forestry Society, from among State or other forest 
officers, but appointed by the Minister of Agriculture. The presi- 
dent, who has the right to select annually from among the members 
of the committee three commissioners to actually undertake the 
examinations, is the Director-General of Forests, The candidates, 
who pay an entrance-fee of £2 each, are examined in the following 
subjects, viz. : — Sylviculture, working of forests, valuation surveys 
and working plans, construction of machines and buildings, forest 
protection, control of hunting and shooting, organisation of the 
forest service, functions of the various grades of officials, forest law, 
and the commutation of rights ; they are also required to show 
themselves capable of taking independent charge of a forest estate. 
On passing this examination, they receive a diploma. Of the 210 
candidates who were examined during the five years from 1880 to 
1884, IGO passed, and 50 were rejected. Every year one of the 
most promising among the young forest officers who has passed 



FORESTRY IN HUNGARY. 29 

the examination is sent abroad to study forestry in other countries. 
He receives an allowance of £80 towards his expenses. 

Secondary Schools. — Two secondary schools are supported by 
the National Forest Fund, one at Kinilyhalom, near Szeged, opened 
in 1883, and the other at Vadaszerdo, near Temesva, opened in 
1885. A third is about to be established in Transylvania. The 
course of instruction, which lasts two years, is both theoretical and 
practical ; the students, of whom twelve are admitted annually to 
each school, being taught the science of forestry to a sufficient 
extent to enable them to perform their duties satisfactorily, and to 
train and guide the workmen employed under them. They are 
maintained at the school either by the State, or from the National 
Forest Fund, or by private persons, as the case may be. Those 
sent up privately pay a yearly contribution of £12 for their lodging, 
food, and clothes. The age of admission is from seventeen to thirty- 
five, and candidates must be of sound health, particularly as to 
hearing and sight, and have a good knowledge of reading, writing, 
and arithmetic. Each school has a staff of three forest officers, one 
of whom acts as director. An increased number of schools is re- 
quired, especially in the north and west of Hungary. 

It has been previously said that forest subordinates are required 
to pass the Forest Guards' Examination. This is held in various 
towns throughout the country, before a committee of forest ofiicers, 
presided over by the local inspector. Of the 976 candidates who 
were examined during the five years from 1880 to 1884, 827 passed, 
and 149 were rejected. 

The National Forest Fund. 

This fund is mainly supported by the payment into it of four- 
fifths of the fines levied from persons convicted of forest ofi'ences 
the remaining one-fifth being paid to the communal charitable fund, 
so that the commune is interested in the conviction of ofi'enders • 
but if the proprietors of forests which are under the provisions of 
section 17 of the law compound offences, they must pay one-half of 
the sums so received into it. 

The receipts and expenditure of the fund during 1884 and 1885 
were as follows, viz. : 

1884. 1885. 

Receipts, .... £2000 £2080 

Expenditure, .... 2400 2668 

iJeficit, . . £400 £588 



30 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The law provides that one-fifth part of the gross income must be 
annually capitalised, so that in the course of time the revenue will 
be increased by the interest on the money so invested. The fund 
has now a capital of X8800, including about £3200 worth of school 
and other buildings. Its revenues are devoted to the following 
purposes, viz. : — The cultivation of plants for stocking bare ground; 
the maintenance of secondary schools, including the salaries of the 
professors and the support of a portion of the students ; the ex- 
penses incurred on the State Forest Examination and on the Forest 
Guards' Examination ; and the publication of professional works. 
The revenues are not, however, sufficient to cover all these charges, 
and the deficiency is made good from the general forest budget of 
the State. 

The National Forest Society, 

The society, consisting at the present time of about 1500 members, 
was founded in 1866, and has a capital of ,£16,000. It renders 
excellent service to the cause of forestry in Hungary, by giving an 
annual prize of £44 for a work on a professional subject, as well as 
by publishing a monthly journal, and in other ways. It grants an 
allowance to the widows and orphans of forest officers who have 
been members for five years, if they have been left in poor 
circumstances. 



CHAPTER II. 

A TOUR IN THE CARPATHIAN FORESTS. 
General Description. 

We reached Buda-Pesth on the 29th June 1886. and next 
morning proceeded to the office of the Director-General of Forests, 
where we were received with great kindness, and the final arrange- 
ments for our tour were made ; a detailed programme, showing 
where we were to go, and what we were to see each day, being 
drawn out, and circulated to the forest officers concerned. Next 
day we were received by Baron Gabor Keraeny, Minister of Com- 
munications ; and the Acting Director-General of Forests, M. 
Rouai, very kindly offered to allow M. Albert de Lavotta, an 
assistant Inspector, to accompany us on our tour, in order to 
arrange our journey, and act as Hungarian interpreter. 



FORESTRY IN HUNGARY. 31 

Accompanied by this accomplislied forester and linguist, as well 
as charming companion, we left Buda-Pesth on the evening of the 
2d July, and travelled by Miskolcz, Ssito rally a-Ujheli, and Kiraly- 
haza, to Marmaros-Sziget, which lies at the foot of the Carpathian 
range, in the north-eastern part of the kingdom. Between Miskolcz 
and Satorallya-Ujheli, we passed through the celebrated Tokay 
wine country ; and then crossed a vast plain, with very poor soil, 
on which Rohinia pseudo-acacia is now being successfully culti- 
vated. In the neighbourhood of Kiraly-haza, we twice crossed the 
Tisza, on which we saw many rafts slowly making their way down 
to the Danube. 

We were about to visit four Conservatorships, viz. : — Marmaros- 
Sziget, at the head of the Tisza ; Bustyahdza, on the Taracz ; 
Sipto-UjvAr, on the northern slopes of the Alacaony range of hills, 
which run parallel to, and to the south of, the general line of the 
Carpathians ; and Beszterczeb4nya which lies round the head 
waters of the Garam river. The conditions in the four districts 
are sufficiently alike to make it possible to give one general descrip- 
tion of them all. 

The total area is 1635 square miles, of which 1329 square 
miles are actually under forest, and the remainder consists of fields, 
meadows, and unproductive ground. Of the former, 1203 square 
miles are situated above the elevation of 2000 feet. The main 
crop is composed as follows, viz. : — oak, 34 square miles ; beech and 
other broad-leaved species, 412 square miles; conifers, 883 square 
miles. The whole of this area, with the exception of 95 square 
miles of Forests of Protection, managed on the selection system, 
are maintained as high forest, with a revolution of from 80 to 120 
years. The average annual revenue, expenditure, and surplus, 
during the four years from 1881 to 1884 were — 

Revenue, .... £191,157 
Expenditure, . . . 129,484 

Surplus, . £61,673 = ls. 2d. per acre. 

The four Conservatorships are formed by 40 divisions, averaging 
41 square miles, and 196 guards' beats, averaging 8 square miles. 
There are 144 officers of the superior staff, and 318 subordinates ; 
the total annual cost of this establishment being £24,435, or S^d. 
per acre of the entire area. 

Provisional working plans have been framed for the whole of the 
forests. The area annually felled over is 6677 acres ; 6805 acres 



3li TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBOKICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

were replanted in 1884, and 422 acres were regenerated naturally 
by successive fellings. The annual yield is somewhat over 16| 
million cubic feet of timber, nearly 14] million cubic feet of fire- 
wood and charcoal, and 3100 tons of tarniing bark. 

With a view to avoid the flooding of the local markets by the 
sale of excessive quantities of State timber, and thus lowering 
prices to the injury of private interests, it has been arranged to 
export at least one-half of the timber from the Marmaros-Sziget Con- 
servatorship to beyond the Hungarian frontier. Most of the wood 
coming from it, and from Bustyahdza, down the Tisza and Taracz 
rivers, is floated by way of Szolnok and Szeged, where a good deal 
of it is sold, to the Danube at Belgrade, and thence to Orsova, for 
sale to merchants from the Balkan provinces. But a part of it goes 
by rail to Austria and Germany, and a part to France and Italy, 
by way of Fiume. From Sipto-Ujvar, the main line of export is by 
raft down the Vag to the Danube, and thence to Buda-Pesth and 
Orsova. From Beszterczebanya it is down the Garam to the same 
destination. 

At Sipto-Ujvar there is a large tanning factory, which takes 
annually nearly 25,000 tons of bark, principally of spruce. About 
one-half of this quantity is resold raw, while the other half is 
boiled down, and yields 3000 tons of extract, which is exported to 
other European countries, and also to America and Australia. 

The prices realised in 1884 per cubic foot of wood standing in 
the forests were as follows, viz. : — oak, l|d. to 5|d. ; beech. Id. ; 
other broad-leaved species, l|d. to 3-|d.; spruce and silver fir, Id. to 
2^d. ; larch and Scots pine, 2d. to 3d. ; firewood from a nominal price 
to ^ of a penny. 2140 permanent, and 6300 temporary, workmen 
are employed in the forests. For the accommodation of the 
officers, and guards, and for offices, the following buildings have 
been erected : 

For officers only, first class houses of more than three rooms, 83 

,, second class houses, . . .12 

For officers and guards, ..... 359 

For guards only, ...... 250 

Offices, ....... 9 

There are 149 communes having rights in the forests; in 81 of 
thera the rights have been commuted or regulated, and the 
question is in process of settlement in the G8 others. The number 
of forest offences committed in 1884 was 52G7, and the fines 
inflicted amounted to £1713. 



FORESTRY IN HUNGARY. 33 

The figures which follow relate to three of the Conservatorships 
only, as information regarding Bustyah4za was not obtained. 
During 1884, 15 acres of forest were burnt, 38 acres were carried 
away by inundations, 142 acres of oak were destroyed by the 
caterpillars of the processionary moth, Cnethocampa processionea, 
Stephens; 216 acres of spruce by the typographer beetle, £gs- 
trichus typograpMis ; and 412,000 cubic feet of timber were blown 
down or crushed by snow. The comparatively small amount of 
damage done by fire is explained by the limited extent to which 
grazing is practised in the forests or these hills. 

There are in these three Conservatorships — 

1135 miles of first and second class roads. 
139 miles of wet and dry timber slides. 
494 miles of river used for floating. 
17 miles of canals used for floating. 

43 reservoirs containing 114,000,000 cubic feet of water, and 
30 booms aggregating 3844 yards in length. 

MiRMAROS-SziGET. 

On reaching the department of Mdrmaros, we ascended the 
valley of the Tisza, and arrived at Marmaros-Sziget on the 
afternoon of the 3d July 1886. Here we were hospitably 
received at the house of M. Belhazy, Forest Secretary, and at once 
conducted over the great saw mills, which have been established by 
private enterprise on the bank of the canal just outside the little 
town. As we entered the extensive yard we were greatly astonished 
at the vast quantities of timber by which we were surrounded. 
Piles of logs, few of them of remarkably large diameter, covered the 
ground in every direction ; the canal was crammed with rafts, the 
timber forming which was, we were told, not more than a single 
day's supply for the saws, while, within one month, the whole yard- 
full would be placed on the benches, fifteen in number, on which 
from 18,000 to 21,000 cubic feet of wood are cut-up daily. The 
machinery appeared to be old-fashioned, the saws cutting on the 
down stroke only, and being sharpened by hand. The occurrence 
of a conflagration in the yard would be disastrous ; but as a 
precautionary measure, a large vat constructed in a central position, 
is kept full of a fire-extinguishing fluid. A fire of waste wood, lit 
for the occasion, was extinguished in our presence, in order to show 
us the eflPect of its use. The timber, which is almost entirely 
spruce, and comes from the State forests near the head of the 
Tisza, can be delivered by the Forest Department at the mill for Id. 

VOL. XII., PART I. c 



34 TKAXSACTIOXS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBOIUCL'LTURAL SOCIETY. 

per cubic foot, which rate includes all charges for felling, logging, 
and transport by water, over a distance of 5G miles; and as the 
proprietor of the mills i>ays 2d. per cubic foot for it, there is a 
surplus of Id. for the maintenance of the forest, and as profit. 

Accompanied by M. Haluzy, the acting conservator, we left 
J^Iarmaros-Sziget early the following morning, and drove up the 
valley of the Tisza, stopping for a short time to look over the 
Crown Prince's shooting-box at Lonka, which is near the bottom of 
the valley, and surrounded on all sides by hills covered with forest, 
chiefly of beech. Spruce was tried, but it was unable to withstand 
the summer heat. After a brief halt, we continued our journey up 
the valley, meeting a great many rafts on their way down to the 
saw-mills. Here, in the lower part of the valley, the crop is 
principally beech, mixed with some oak, spruce, and other trees. 
Oak and spruce are the only kinds of wood that it at present pays 
to export ; beech is girdled, and if it cannot be sold as fuel, it is 
left to die in the forest ; and as the oak does not float alone, it is 
either mixed with the fir logs to form the rafts, or laid on the top 
of them, and thus conveyed down stream. Further on we reached 
the spruce forests, which are here almost pure ; that is to say, 
unmixed with other species. They suffer very much from storms, 
which do an enormous amount of damage ; the roots of the tree 
are very superficial, and it is consequently very liable to be thrown 
down. Something like one-half of the forests in the conservatorship 
are stocked with spruce, and it is said that in July 1885, during a 
storm which lasted 36 hours, half a million of trees were overturned. 
In the place where we were the storm had been severely felt, the 
entire forest having been laid low over considerable areas, and the 
barked stems lying in masses on the ground, like so many spilikins. 
The course of the wind could easily be traced down the valley ; 
here it had struck a spur on the right side of the stream, whence, 
after knocking over every tree in its path, it was diverted to the 
opposite side, and thence back again ; and it thus pursued its 
downward zigzag course, completely destroying the forests alter- 
nately on the right and on the left side of the valley. It is easy 
to imagine that such occurrences interfere very seriously with the 
provisions of the working plan, the regular fellings having to be 
postponed in consequence of them. The dread of these storms 
prevents the Hungarian foresters from regenerating their pure 
spruce forests by the natural process ; for if the crop were removed 
by successive instalments, and the wind were thus permitted to 



FORESTRY IX HUNGARY. 35 

enter, the trees left standing after the first felling would be at once 
blown down. Hence there is nothing to be done but to clean-fell 
and regenerate artiiicially. This is effected two years after the 
felling, either by sowing in vertical lines of patches — a gang of 
men moving up hill in a line — or by planting seedlings of from 
three to four years old. But in oak forests, which are rarely seen 
here, the regeneration is effected by natural means, one seed and 
two secondary fellings being made. When trees have been felled 
or blown down, the bark, which is exported for tanning, has to be 
removed from the trees at once, or they would be attacked by 
insects (usually Bostrichus typographus), and the timber must be 
got out as soon as possible. This is done by means of earth slides, 
and dry and wet wooden slides, which are used to convey it to the 
bank of the stream. We saw many such structures, principally 
temporary dry wooden slides, formed, in cross-section, of six or 
eight round poles, disposed in the form of a trough, with a down- 
ward inclination of 5° or 6° ; the poles at the sides have a larger 
diameter than those at the bottom, and the outer side of the trough 
is raised at the bends, so as to prevent the logs from jumping out. 
At one place a slide of this kind was carried across the stream, and 
the logs were projected by it on to a piece of flat ground on the 
opposite bank. A stout pole or tree-stem, one end of which rested 
on the ground, while the other was raised on a pair of legs, was 
ingeniously used to cause the logs, after striking against it in their 
fall, to fly off in any required direction, and thus prevent their 
forming an unmanageable heap round the mouth of the slide. 

After going some distance further up the easterly branch of the 
Tisza, we entered the spruce forests, and near the head of the valley, 
at an altitude of 2930 feet, reached the Hoverla reservoir. We 
were now not more than 2|- miles from the watershed of the Car- 
pathian range, which, rising to a height of about 6600 feet, here 
forms the boundary between Hungary and Galicia. The stream, 
which is shallow and rocky, with a mean fall of about TSO per 100, 
is, in its ordinary state, unfitted for floating purposes ; and the 
system here adopted is to arrest the water coming from the upper 
valleys, by means of a dam, which forms a reservoir. When this 
becomes full, the water entering it at the upper end passes the dam 
by an escape, which is always kept open, and the stream below has 
then, of course, its natural depth. The Hoverla dam, which is 39 
feet high, is formed of timber and stones, turfed over and faced 
with clay on the upper side. There are in it two outlets for the 



3G TRAXSACTIOXS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

water, at different levels, each provided with a wooden sluice gate 
raised by levers. When the reservoir is about to be used, some 
30 rafts, of from 12 to 24 trees each, are collected below it, lying 
in the shallow water, and anchored to the bank. The sluice gates 
are then opened, and, when the head of rushing water has passed 
the leading raft half an hour, the latter is let go, and the other rafts 
are loosed in succession at intervals of five or six minutes. The 
reservoir empties itself in about four hours, the temporary flood 
thus caused increasing the depth of the stream by about 2| feet, 
which enables the rafts to float easily over the stones and rocks 
with which the bed is lined, until they reach the larger river. 
Meanwhile the sluice gates having been closed, the reservoir is 
allowed to refill itself. 

The workmen engaged in forming the rafts use a very conveniently 
formed lever for moving the timber down to the water's edge, 
where the small ends of the logs are laid down stream, and then 
firmly secured by means of a stout wooden cross-piece, pegged down 
to a level bed axed out to receive it ; the ends are rounded off 
below so as to facilitate the passage of the raft over sunken rocks 
and other obstacles. The heavier extremities of the logs are not 
fixed in this manner, but are loosely attached by means of willows, 
oak saplings, or spruce branches, which, after having been passed 
through the fire, are twisted into ropes, and then forced into holes 
drilled into the logs ; they are kept there by means of pegs firmly 
driven in beside them. There are usually three such ropes, one 
from each outer log to the fourth or fifth log counting inwards, and 
a third joining these two across the middle of the raft. The heavy 
ends are thus allowed sufficient play to enable them to pass over 
rocks which they might otherwise catch on. A wooden pivot for 
an oar to work on is erected at each end of the raft. 

On our way back from the reservoir we paid a visit to the 
married priest of the Russian church, who received us most hospi- 
tably, and after dining with the ofiicer in charge of the division, 
we went down to the forest house at Raho, where, having driven 
sixty-nine miles during the day, we passed the night. 

We left Raho on the morning of the 5th, in a shower of rain, 
and ascended the valley of the northern branch of the Tisza, where 
a few silver firs were seen mixed among the spruce. The latter 
tree is ordinarily felled at the age of from 100 to 120 years, when 
it has in this locality a diameter of from 18 to 20 inches ; but the 
present being the first fellings since the framing of the working 



FORESTRY IN HUNGARY. 37 

plan, the trees are taken as they come, and those recently felled 
were not more than from sixty to seventy years old. We saw the 
remains of an old dry slide, made of round timber, and said to be 
five miles long ; and further on, after passing through a forest 
where the broad-leaved trees were being cut out, in order to favour 
the growth of the young spruce under them, we entered a small 
saw-mill driven by water, the proprietor of which had an excellent 
set of drawings on the walls of his shed, showing how to cut up 
logs of various diameters in the most advantageous manner. 

We were now once more approaching the line of water-shed and 
the Galician frontier, immediately beyond which, among the northern 
slopes of the Carpathians, are the sources of the Pruth, and we 
made a short halt at the village of Kdrosmezo. The valley is here 
wide and fertile, some of the houses being fairly commodious and 
well built, but most of them are mere hovels. We were taken to 
see the Russian church, where we were very politely received by 
the parish priest, and after breakfast were driven on by the forest 
officer in charge of the division, in his own carriage, drawn by a 
first-rate pair of horses. We passed through the village market, 
and then, after stopping to examine a shed for drying spruce seed, 
we traversed a forest where fourteen years ago the trees were all 
blown down. It happened to be a very good seed year, and the 
result has been that there is now an excellent crop of young, self- 
sown spruce on the ground ; but such good fortune is not often 
experienced. About this part of the valley there were immense 
quantities of windfalls. It might, indeed, almost be said that the 
wind both regulates the fellings and executes them ; for on account 
of the enormous number of trees blown down, the regular fellings 
provided for in the working plan can seldom be carried out. We 
looked over a nursery of spruce and silver fir, with some Scots 
pine and larch. The silver fir, which cannot be raised out in the 
open, can only be grown in localities where natural regeneration by 
means of successive fellings can be practised. 

Our attention was next called to a " river slide," constructed for 
passing the rafts over a steep rocky part of the river. The entire 
bed and sides of the stream were lined with fir poles, laid length- 
wise, the bottom being formed in broad low steps, over which the 
rafts pass to the foot of the huge staircase thus formed. At the 
lower end of the structure there is a deep pool, on which the last 
step floats, hinged by chains to its predecessor. When the rafts are 
shot down on to this floating platform or table, which "gives" 



38 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 

somewhat under their weight, they pass on in a horizontal direction 
down stream, instead of, as they would otherwise do, diving to the 
bottom of the pool. 

Here we again studied the construction of the rafts. Tlie 
minimum diameter of the logs at the thin or front extremity is 6| 
inches, and midway between the two ends, or between the points 
nearest to each end at which the tree is sound, a mark is cut, the 
girth over which regulates the sale rate ; but this system does not 
prevail in all districts. The length measurements are effected with 
a rough pair of compasses, formed by a bent wand, kept in position 
by a tie-piece, and furnished with metal points. The withes used 
for connecting the logs at the thicker ends are prepared by taking 
green spruce branches or young trees, ten feet long, and passing 
them through a fire, in which they are turned round on their axis 
and burned or roasted. The thin end is then fixed by means of a 
peg into a hole at the foot of a stout post, when the butt is split, 
and a picket being introduced crosswise and secured with a bark 
rope, the branch or young stem is twisted, the workmen walking at 
the same time round the post, up which the withe winds itself 
spirally. After this treatment it is sufficiently tough and flexible 
to be used in the manner previously described. The men who 
navigate the rafts wear pointed leather shoes, of almost exactly the 
Indian pattern, under which they are obliged to bind a sort of iron 
clog with four spikes to prevent their slipping on the wet rafts 
when passing over dangerous places. 

On leaving the rafts we inspected an earth slide, down which the 
logs are brought from the forest to the river. In order to prevent 
their foremost ends from burying themselves in the ground at its 
foot, a staging of poles is there erected, with a gentle downward 
slope, its lower end standing a few feet above the ground. As the 
logs come down they are received on this platform, and from it they 
are shot out in a nearly horizontal direction. Near this point we 
saw a remarkable sight. On a spur above us there had once been a 
mixed forest of spruce and larch. A violent storm overturned the 
shallow-rooted spruce, not a single tree of this species being left ; 
but the deeper and stronger roots of the larch enabled them to resist 
the force of the wind, and they were all left standing. They are 
now kept for seed. 

Towards evening, after travelling a distance of twenty-eight miles, 
we reached the forest house at Apsinecz, where we were to pass the 
night, and where several other forest ofiicers awaited us. Here 



FORESTRY IN HUNGARY. 39 

there is a large reservoir, covering an area of 16 acres, and having 
a depth at the dam of 42 feet. It contains over 14,000,000 cubic 
feet of water. We descended the shafts in order to see the sluice 
gates. They and the galleries weaken the dam at the part where 
the pressure of the water has the greatest force, and it is a pity that 
the galleries cannot be dispensed with. The two extremities of the 
dam are constructed of earth, with a wall of clay inside it and a 
rough stone facing on the upper side ; but the central portion is 
made of wooden frames filled with stones, the slope towards the 
water being faced with timbers. The joints between these are 
closed by battens, secured with a peculiarly-shaped double nail, 
which grasps and fastens them down very closely. The escape 
channel is constructed to carry rafts, so that when the reservoir is 
full, timber can be floated from higher up the valley over its surface 
and thence down country. The stream, which is here only a few 
yards wide, has a fall of about 6 in 100, and looks like a small 
Highland trout-stream, numerous stones standing up in its bed ; 
but when flushed by means of the water in the reservoir it can carry 
rafts of large timber. Before going in to dinner we went to look 
at the forest at the back of the house. "Wherever windfalls had 
occurred there was excellent natural reproduction, and in a place 
where the young poles had grown up to a height of about 25 feet 
some thinnings had been made, the felled stems being left on the 
ground, as they are not saleable. Deeper in the forest there appeared 
to be a dense crop of pure spruce, standing so close together as 
almost to exclude the light of day. The altitude of the reservoir 
is 2900 feet. The thermometer is said to descend during the 
winter to 20° below zero, Fahrenheit. But in 1879-80, which was 
an exceptionally cold year, it went down much lower. 

BUSTYAHAZA. 

Leaving the house the next morning on horseback, we followed 
the forest road, beside the stream, leading up the valley. At first 
our route lay through a forest of pure spruce, which clothes the 
hills in dense masses on either side ; but further on we met with 
the mountain-ash, the maple (Acer jxseudo-platanus), the willow 
(Salix caprea), and higher still, in the marshy ground, the alder 
(Alnus alpina). The scenery was lovely, and the path was covered 
with the tracks of red deer, which abound in these forests, the 
shooting being reserved for the royal family. Arrived at the head 
of the Tisza valley, we crossed the ridge (3946 feet) into the valley 



40 TRANSACTION'S OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

of the Tardcz and the Conservatorship of Bustyahdza, and were 
met by the officer in charge of the forest division we were entering. 
On our way down, a portion of an area of 9 square miles of spruce 
forest was pointed out to us as having been completely destroyed 
by insects {Bostrichus typographus) in 1862 ; and we then passed 
through a forest where, six years ago, the large beech trees, then 
standing over the young spruce, were cut out ; the latter are 
now making most satisfactory progress. There are a great many 
petroleum wells on the northern slopes of the Carpathians, in 
Galicia ; and search, which has proved fairly successful, is now 
being made for the oil on the Hungarian side. 

We continued to descend the valley until we reached the Turbat 
reservoir, the construction of which occupied six months, and cost 
£9G0. It contains 8-J- million cubic feet of water. The dam is 36 
feet high, 170 feet long, and is furnished with a sluice gate, which 
a single workman can easily open and close by means of a lever. 
This system, which is a new one, has answered so well, that it will 
now be adopted in all new works. The timber from these forests 
is floated a distance of 93 miles down the Taracz, to its junction 
with the Tisza, six reservoirs being provided, all in the upper 
portion of the valley. The highest of these is at Turbat, and the 
others, which are constructed in side valleys, are used to aflfurd the 
needful depth of water further down, where the bed has become 
wider. The first raft is not let go at Turbat until the reservoir has 
been opened for one hour. At Hoverla the time allowed was half 
an hour only ; but there the slope was only 1-20 per 100, whereas 
here it is from 8 to 10 per 100 ; consequently, as the rafts go 
faster than the water, a longer time is required to elapse before the 
first raft is let go. The bed is very rocky, and the floating work is 
both difficult and dangerous, scarcely a year passing without loss 
of life by one or more of the men employed on it. The starting of 
the rafts is a remarkable sight. They are moored to the bank ; 
and when all is ready, the men stand, almost naked, upon them. 
Suddenly the expected sound of the rushing water reaches them 
from above, when all cross themselves and fall on their knees in 
prayer. The forester holds his watch, and when time is up he 
gives the word ; the crew of the first raft then spring up, seize 
their axes, and cut away the moorings, the raft being at once carried 
down on its perilous voyage. Then, after the proper interval, the 
word is given to the second raft, and so on till all have been dis- 
patched. The reservoir empties itself in from 6 to 8 hours, and 



FORESTRY IN HUNGARY. 41 

the water, which increases the depth of the stream by 40 inches, 
is sufficient to carry down from 30 to 40 rafts. If the reservoirs 
ill the side valley are also made use of, 100 rafts can be sent down. 
Between 5 a.m. and 6 p.m. of the first day, they go 60 miles, and 
the remaining 33 miles of the journey are accomplished the second 
day, when, the fall being less, the rafts travel much more slowly. 
During the melting of the snow in spring, the reservoir fills itself 
in three days ; but in the dry weather, seven days are required. 
When we were there it was opened twice a week. 

The trees in these forests are larger than those in the Tisza valley, 
the rafts being usually composed of twelve stems, 60 feet long, with 
a mean diameter of from 18 to 26 inches ; but we did not see trees 
of a remarkably large size in any part of the Carpathian forests. 
Where the slope is very steep and rocky, river slides of the kind 
previously described have been made ; and, provided that the 
rafts are kept sufficiently far apart, they pass down them without 
much difficulty. At bends where they are likely to come in contact 
with the sides of the stream, the latter are revetted wdth logs, so as 
to present a comparatively smooth and even surface to the rafts, 
and thus prevent their being checked in their course. The trees 
are brought down to the river bank, during the winter on sledges 
running over the snow ; the cost, including barking and logging, 
being about -^^ of a penny per cubic foot ; while that of floating 
the timber down the 93 miles of river is only ^^ of a penny per 
cubic foot. 

We stopped to inspect some rafts in process of construction, and 
noticed that the system adopted differs, in some respects, from that 
in vogue on the Tisza. Here a pole is laid across the stream, and 
on it the small or foremost ends of the logs are placed, and held 
together by means of a half-round cross-piece, countersunk into their 
upper surface, and pegged down to each of them. At a short dis- 
tance behind this a withe passes across the raft, and is attached to 
each log by a forked peg, which grasps it. A similar withe at the 
rear end is attached to the outside and some of the intermediate 
logs. 

We stopped for breakfast at the new forest house at Turbacziel, 
the stream passing which is full of good-sized trout. Magnificent 
forests clothe the hills on all sides ; they have been a good deal 
damaged by wind, but there was a very fair show of young self- 
sown seedlings, where the conditions were favourable. 

After leaving Turbacziel, we passed a large river slide with its 



42 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

floating platform ; it is 670 feet long, has an average fall of 14 in 
100, and its construction cost £240. Below this point the bed is 
very bad in many ])laces, the slope being so steep, and tlie numerous 
bends so sharp, that one can hardly imagine it possible to float 
rafts over it, even with the aid of the artificial flood produced by 
the opening of the reservoirs. A little further on, the Bertyanka 
stream joins the one we were following, and the two go on together 
under the name of the Teresznlka. In this neighbourhood there 
are a great many earth-slides and dry-slides of round timber, one of 
which jiasses across the river, but, unfortunately, none of them 
were in use when we were there. On nearing Brusztura we were 
shown another river slide, the passage of which forms the most 
dangerous part of the floating route in this part of the hills ; and 
we then drove into the village, where we were most courteously and 
hospitably received by the Conservator, M. Kellner, who entertained 
us at dinner, and then drove us to Kiralymezb, where we were to 
sleep, and where, to our great regret, M. Halazy left us. The next 
day was not one on which, in the ordinary course of work, floating 
would go on ; but the Conservator very kindly ordered some of the 
reservoirs to be opened, so that we might have an opportunity of 
witnessing the interesting spectacle of the rafts passing down the 
Brusztura slide. He also gave orders for the opening of other 
reservoirs on the following day, in order that we might be enabled 
to perform a part of our journey to Taraczkos on one of the timber 
rafts. Before reaching our halting-place, we had travelled over 
34 miles of road since the morning. Next day, on leaving the 
house, we noticed that the alluvial banks of the Tardcz were pro- 
tected by revetments, from which the projecting tops of tree- 
branches stood out to break the shock caused by the rafts striking 
against them. We drove up a side valley, in a north-westerly 
direction, to Nemet Mokra, to the house of M. Bitter, a forest 
officer, who kindly conducted us over a most interesting settlement 
there. AVe were told that, 110 years ago, twelve families of 
German workmen from the Black Forest marched here with a 
banner borne before them, and settled. They were welcomed by 
the Hungarian Government, and granted certain privileges, which 
they still possess. They are given free sites for building their 
houses, which, however, they have not the power to sell ; and the 
State provides a church and school, paying the priest and school- 
master. The men are principally employed on forest engineering 
work, including slides and the revetment of river banks ; but they 



FORESTRY IN HUNGARY, 43 

are excellent and very skilful workmen, wlio can turn their bands to 
almost anything, and they receive good wages and pensions. There 
are now sixty-three families, in each of which there are, on an 
average, eight children ; they still speak German, and do not inter- 
marry with other races. We visited one of their houses, and found 
it most remarkably clean, comfortable, and well arranged. There 
were five rooms on the ground floor, and an attic above. The 
rooms were furnished with wardrobes, in which the clothes and 
spare bedding, which is collected for the daughters on their mar- 
riage, were stored ; and the clean white-washed walls were adorned 
with a clock and pictures. We also visited a second house, which, 
if not quite so comfortable as the first, was equally clean ; and it 
was evident that the settlers were prosperous, happy, and contented. 
On Sundays they put on a picturesque holiday attire, but, unfortu- 
nately, we had no opportunity of seeing it. The priest took us 
over the church, which is beautifully kept, and showed us the 
original silken banner brought from Germany by the first settlers. 

We then retraced our steps to the river slide, near Brusztura, 
and awaited the arrival of the rafts. The total length of this work 
is 270 feet; it is 30 feet wide, and has a fall of 15 in 100 — two 
floating tables, one in front of the other, being attached to the 
lower extremity to receive the descending rafts. This slide is 
dangerous, and its navigation exceptionally difiicult on account of 
its steep slope and curved form. Soon after our arrival, the flood, 
caused by the opening of the reservoir, commenced, and presently 
the first raft, manned by six men, appeared. It was carefully 
steered by means of two oars in front and one behind, so as to 
enter the slide at the inner side of the curve ; and, dashing down 
with frightful rapidity, was safely landed upon the floating tables, 
and thence launched out into the natural current on the outer side 
of the curve. It did not come in contact with the sides of the 
slide until it reached the second table. It was a really splendid 
sight. The men, who were drenched to the skin, had to keep their 
wits about them, and maintain their footing on the slippery logs, 
or tbey would certainly have been killed. They wore spiked clogs 
strapped under their feet, as they are not allowed to attempt the 
descent without them. 

On tbe morning of the 8th we started at 5 a.m., and drove two 
miles down stream, where we found a raft, fitted up in the most 
luxurious manner, awaiting us. Accompanied by the Conservator 
and M. de Lavotta, we went on board at once, and after saying 



44 TRANSACTIONS OF liOYAL SCOTTISH AUBOUICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

good-bye to the other kind friends who had escorted us thus far, 
we weighed anchor, and commenced our voyage of 16 miles, which 
distance we covered in about three hours. The passage down the 
river was most enjoyable, the scenery being beautiful, and no for- 
midable difficulties being encountered. On landing at Dombo, 
which is very largely composed of thatched houses, built and in- 
habited by Jews, we drove to the railway at Taraczkos, halting 
midway to inspect a forest railway, which was in process of con- 
struction, over a distance of 14 miles, to that place. We then left 
by train for Kassa, where we arrived late at night. 

Lipto-Ujvar. 

Leaving Klssa on the morning of the 9th at 6 a.m., we took the 
train to Lipto-Ujvar. We travelled up the valley of the Hernad, 
through fine oak, beech, and birch woods, which further on give 
way to cultivation, surmounted on the higher slopes by forests of 
spruce and silver fir. 

In this neighbourhood there are numerous iron, copper, silver, 
and antimony mines ; and the line of railway passes close by a 
group of smelting furnaces, the sulphurous smoke from which has 
completely destroyed and kept down all traces of vegetaticm for 
some distance around them. We noticed several noblemen's castles, 
with their distinguishing double roofs. The estates in which they 
stand were, generally speaking, granted with the patent of nobility, 
and the proprietor lives surrounded by the residences of the junior 
branches of the family, and by his tenantry and retainers, quite in 
the old feudal style. All members of the family use the name of 
the estate as a prefix to their surname. On leaving the valley of 
the Hernad, we passed over a high plateau near Poprad, which 
drains, on one side, by way of the Hernad, Tisza, and Danube, into 
the Black Sea ; and on the other, by some streams which we 
crossed, into the Vistula, and thence to the Baltic. From near 
this point we had hoped to see the splendid view of the highest 
peaks of the Carpathians, which, at a distance of nine miles from 
the railway, rise to an elevation of nearly 9000 feet ; but, unfortu- 
nately, the hills were covered with clouds, under which we could 
barely distinguish some patches of snow. We were sorely tempted 
to stop at Poprad, for the sake of paying a visit to the celebrated 
ice-cave at Dobsina, and also at Csorba to see the lake ; but our 
time was very limited, and we had not been able to include even 
this, much less the longer tour from Poprdd through the high 



FORESTRY IN HUNGARY. 45 

mountains to Csorba, in our official programme, to which we were 
obliged to adhere rigidly, as the arrangements made for us at all 
points of our route would otherwise have been disturbed. Hence 
we ran straight on to Lipto-Ujvar, following the course of the 
Tekete Vag, on which we saw many rafts floating ; piles of timber 
covering the ground near most of the railway stations. 

On arrival, we went at once to the house of the Conservator, M. 
Kossanyi, Avho, after breakfast, drove us through some magnificent 
forests of sj)ruce, silver fir, larch, Scots pine, and other trees, up 
the valley of the Tekete Vag, which is extensively used for floating 
timber, until we reached the commodious and comfortably furnished 
forest house, occupied by the officer in charge of the division, M. 
Adrianyi and his family, under whose hospitable roof we passed the 
night. 

On the morning of the 10th we made an excursion higher up the 
valley, stopping to look at some spruce, silver fir, Scots pine, and 
larch nurseries, situated at an altitude of 2600 feet. The plants 
are not only used in the State forests, but are also given gratis to 
communes and private proprietors. The demand for them is said 
to have been very heavy this year, all over the country ; and it is 
estimated that, if the present rate of issue be maintained, the large 
number of 25 million plants will be distributed from the State 
nurseries. Prizes are given by the State to private proprietors for 
successful planting operations. We noticed that the Scots pine 
plants were very much larger than spruce of the same age ; and 
that the latter appeared to flourish much better at the edges than 
in the centre of the seed bed, probably because they had more light 
and room. In planting on these hills it is customary to employ 
60 per cent, of spruce, 25 per cent, of larch, and 15 per cent, 
of silver fir. Scots pine is not much used. The plants are all put 
out directly from the beds, without being previously transplanted ; 
and the larch is planted at two years old, when it is found to suc- 
ceed much better than if allowed to remain longer in the nursery. 
The larch trees in these forests are particularly fine ; many of them 
are 110 feet high, and the quality of the wood is said to be better 
even than that of the trees grown in Styria. 

The logs felled at the higher levels are sent down on earth or 
timber slides, to the bottom of the valley, whence they are drawn 
by horses to the river side. At one point of the road, we noticed 
that the base of the hill was apparently thickly studded with piles, 
driven into the flat ground immediately skirting it. These turned 



46 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

out to be the ends of stems or logs, which, after sliding down from 
above, buried themselves deep into the soft soil, and then cither 
broke or were cut off. An arrangement for avoiding this, by- 
receiving the ends of the logs on a wooden staging, similar to that 
previously described, seems to have been required here. We saw 
many dry timber slides ; and the banks of the river for long dis- 
tances are revetted with poles, to facilitate the passage of the rafts. 
Much damage is here done by the ice, Avliich, during the winter 
months, frequently collects at various points in the stream, thus 
forming a temporary barrier, which dams back the current ; and 
when this bursts, the works are liable to be either washed away, or 
seriously injured. The floating work begins in the spring, when 
the river is fuller than at any other time, loose round logs about 
16 feet long, intended to be sawn up into planks, being the first 
timber launched on it. In the summer, the rafting commences, 
the reservoirs being used when necessary ; and later in the year, 
when the supply of water in them is failing, loose pieces of firewood 
are floated down. 

The prevailing winds sweep down the side valleys which descend 
from the south-east ; and the trees standing on the opposite side of 
the main stream are liable to be overturned by them ; but there are 
not nearly so many windfalls here as in the Mdrmaros-Sziget and 
BustyahAza forests. 

A few years ago, the young pine stems, taken out in the course 
of thinning, could be sold for use in the smelting furnaces ; but 
nowadays the consumption of them for this purpose is less than 
formerly, and it is very difficult to dispose of such produce. 

We inspected the Rasztoki reservoir, which lies near the head of 
the valley, and contains 1| million cubic feet of water; it has a 
canal alongside of it, down which the water, entering at the upper 
end, can be diverted, when it is desired to float loose pieces of 
timber from forests lying higher up. They are carried over the 
dam, by a canal slide with a steep fall, into the stream below. On 
our return to the forest house, we visited some plantations of 
spruce, which were put out hj clumps of two or three in each hole. 
In the afternoon we went down the river on rafts to Lipto-Ujvilr, 
passing through the most beautiful scenery, and shot down two 
river slides, the descent of which, if not so difficult and dangerous 
as at Brusztura, was sufficiently exciting, and gave us a good wetting. 
We landed at the wood dep6t, and proceeded at once to the house 
of the Conservator, with whose family we afterwards went to a ball, 



FORESTRY IN HUNGARY. 47 

and were mucli interested by witnessing the Czardas or national 
Hungarian dance. 

Selmecz-banya. 

Leaving Lipto-Ujvar by train on the morning of the 11th, we 
travelled westward, following the course of the Vag, on which 
many rafts were seen, to Ruttka, and thence, turning southward, up 
the Turocz stream, crossed a low ridge, and descended through the 
most picturesque country, past the charmingly situated village of 
Kormocz-banya, to the valley of the Garam river. The scenery 
here equals, if it does not surpass, anything we have ever beheld ; 
and we were fortunate enough to see it at a most favourable time, 
when the lights and shades were at their very best. At Berzenze, 
where we left the main line, we entered a small carriage on the 
miners' train, and made our way to Selmecz-banya, the seat of the 
celebrated forest and mining college. We were received at the 
railway station by the college authorities, and driven to the house 
of M. Soltz, head of the Forest Branch, where, after visiting the 
botanical gardens, and being entertained at supper in the council 
hall by the Director, M. Torbaky, we passed the night. The 
gardens contain a good collection of trees^ among them a deodar. 
Many of the species are American. 

The college, at wliich there are at present 325 foresters and 
only 80 miners, supplies trained candidates, not only for the 
State, but also for private proprietors and companies. It used to 
be attended by students of many nationalities, the number some- 
times exceeding 1000 ; but, for the last few years, all instruction 
has been given in the Hungarian language, and on this account, 
foreigners do not now enter the school. The young men live in 
the town, and attend the lecture halls, which, with the museums 
and halls of study, occupy seven large houses situated in various 
parts of it. The erection of a magnificent set of new buildings has 
been sanctioned ; the plans, which were shown us, have been 
approved, and the work will be undertaken immediately. The 
director and the head of the school of mines are the joint inventors 
of a system of accumulator, for use with the electric light ; it is 
employed in the main building of the college, and is believed to 
surpass any that has previously been brought out. The light is 
perfectly steady, and the electricity can be stored for an almost 
indefinite time. 

Early on the morning of the 12th we were shown over a part of 



48 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTUUAL SOCIETY. 

the college, including the magnificent and complete collection of 
models of slides of all kinds, of rafts, weirs, booms, reservoirs, and 
sluice gates, as well as of tools and other implements connected with 
the felling, cutting \ip, and export of timber. The models, which 
are on a large scale, are beautifully made, and have been arranged 
by M. Sz^csi, the professor in charge of this branch of the 
instruction, who very kindly explained the most important of them 
to us, and presented us with a copy of his illustrated work on the 
subject. He also took us over the splendid collection of forest 
produce, raw and manufactured, including models to show the 
method of making charcoal, and of extracting potash and tar from 
wood, as well as many other things. Unfortunately, we had not 
time to visit the natural history museums, which are believed to 
contain the best collections of minerals, rocks, botanical specimens 
and insects to be found at any such institution in the world. On 
these collections, which have been gradually brought together, 
no pains or expense appear to have been spared ; and they are 
well worth what they have cost, as they enable the instruction in 
these branches to be given in the most complete manner. 

We .attended an examination at the school of mines, and 
inspected the models and collections of surveying and other 
instruments connected with that branch of the college, after which 
we went over the library. One excellent feature in the method of 
instruction pursued at Selniecz-banya is, that splendid sets of 
figured tables, and clear large scale drawings are provided ; so that 
the necessity for making rough sketches, and drawing out figured 
tables on the blackboard during the lectures, is avoided. 

We regretted very much that, as we were obliged to continue 
our journey in the afternoon, we had not time to pay a visit to the 
mines, for which Selmecz-b^nya has been celebrated ever since the 
days of the Romans. 

Beszterczebanya. 
On arrival at Beszterczebdnya, we were at once conducted to the 
river Garam, to see the permanent boom, constructed for the 
purpose of catching the loose firewood floated down to the depot. 
The boom, which is about a mile and a quarter long, consists of 
masonry pillars, with a wooden grating between them. This is 
formed by two fixed horizontal beams, one above water, and the 
other near the bottom of the stream, with stout movable stakes 
between them. The latter are placed at intervals of about 9 inches, 



FORESTRY IN HUNGARY. 49 

and are passed through holes in the upper beam, merely resting 
against the lower one, and being kept in position by the weight of 
the water and wood jjressing against them ; they are given a slight 
slope up stream by the projection in that direction of the lower of 
the two horizontal beams. A similar arrangement, which is some- 
times adopted in other places ; especially where the occurrence of 
dangerous floods at certain seasons of the year renders it difficult to 
maintain permanent works, is to erect, instead of the masonry 
pillars, heavy timber tripods, against one side of which the grating 
is fixed. The entire structure can then be removed at pleasure. 
In the present case, advantage has been taken of a convenient 
reach of the river, at the lower end of which are two canals leading 
to two depots ; while at the upper end is the sluice gate, used for 
the passage of rafts. The boom crosses the stream between the 
canals and the sluice gate ; but owing to its comparatively great 
length, its direction is not far from being parellel to the line of 
the current. Great quantities of fuel come down, sometimes as 
much as 500,000 cubic feet being collected at one time. This 
accounts for the great length of the boom which is necessary both 
to enable the rafting channel above it to be kept open, and also 
to provide sufficient escape for the water, and thus prevent its 
being dammed back by the wood, which lies in a dense mass 
extending down to the very bottom of the river. The log-ra£ts, 
each of which consists of about 650 cubic feet of timber; are here 
secured with cross pieces both fore and aft. The bed of the river 
is no longer rocky, and there is no necessity to give the heavy 
ends " play." The rafts, which are floated two or three together, 
are attached with ropes, one behind the other, and thus taken 
down to the Danube, and thence to Buda-Pesth and Orsova. 
Before the heavy customs duties were instituted on the frontiers of 
Germany, most of the large timber from the district used to be 
despatched by raU for sale in that country. 

While we were at the boom, very little firewood was there ; and 
some men upon a raft were engaged in fishing up sunken pieces 
from the bottom of the stream. Their method of anchoring them- 
selves, by means of a pole pushed through a hole in their raft and 
jammed by the force of the current, is very simple and ingenious. 
We visited the depot, in which there was an amazingly large 
quantity of firewood, most of which is there converted into char- 
coal for use in the smelting furnaces. 

On the morning of the 13th we left by train for Brezova, and 

VOL. XII., PART I. D 



r»0 TUANSACTIONS OK KOVAL SCOTTISH AUUORICULTURAL SOCU'TV. 

thence drove to Roincz, to the bouse of the officer in charge of the 
Forest Division, M. Papp, After a short halt we went on, a distance 
of 14 miles, to see the reservoir named Kemeny Gabor. We stopped 
on the way to look at a small wet slide used for the floating of 
firewood ; it was composed, in cross-section, of three pieces, the 
bottom one being slightly hollowed out. The spikes used for fasten- 
ing the timbers together, so as to form the trough, were cut from the 
dead lower branches of spruce trees, sawn off close to the trunk. 
They answer the purpose perfectly, being almost as hard as iron. 
Here there is a very fine forest of spruce, silver fir, and Scots 
pine, the growth being rapid, and the damage resulting from storms 
very slight. 

Some open ground, which has become denuded through excessive 
grazing (a very rare occurrence in these hills), has been closed 
with the most satisfactory result ; and the contrast between the 
protected and unprotected portions of the valley was very striking. 
The torrents which had begun to form have been treated on the 
system adopted for such works in France. Further on we visited 
a nursery of spruce, larch, Scots pine, and black Austrian pine 
(P. Austriaca), and saw a number of dry fuel-slides roughly put 
together, their characteristic feature being that they are of an 
inexpensive nature and easy to construct, so that they can be 
readily made wherever they are required for temporary use. The 
dam of the reservoir at the head of the valley, which contains 
lOj million cubic feet of water, was formerly built of wood and 
stones, on a masonry foundation, at a cost of £3600 ; but such 
works do not last more than about fifteen years, and recently, when 
the dam had to be renewed, it was made entirely of masonry, on 
the old foundation, at an expenditure of about £5600. It may 
be said, then, that the cost of the new work was about double that 
of the old one ; but in view of its far more lasting nature, there 
can be no doubt that the more costly system is the cheaper in the 
end. Passing beyond the reservoir, we examined the mouth of a 
wet slide, winch is about 13 miles long, 2 feet 6 inches to 3 feet 
wide at top, 20 inches wide at bottom, and 2 feet deep. It is 
used for floating logs, and is formed of nine stems held together 
by wooden stakes and pegs. Three of these form the bottom, and 
there are three at each side, their inner surfaces, as well as those 
in contact, being smoothed and fitted so as to render the trough 
fairly water-tight ; but a fresh supply of water is let in at various 
points along its course. When it is in use there are from 10 to 



FORESTRY IK HUNGARY. 51 

15 inches of water in the trough, along tlie bottom of which the 
logs slide, aided by the current. In the afternoon we returned to 
Ronicz. 

Next morning, the 14th, we inspected the boom or grating used 
for the collection of firewood at the entrance to the depot. The 
water above it was full of billets of wood, a few of Avhich were let 
through at a time, and passed down the small depot canal. On 
their way they were cleverly fished out by workmen armed with 
iron hooks, mounted on long handles, with which they jerked them 
on to the bank. Any which escaped were caught by a second 
grating further on. 

We subsequently visited the large iron-works, the principal 
manufactures turned out of which are rod-iron and gas-pipes. 
Many of the furnaces are heated with gas made from coal or wood. 
We were shown a magnificent engine of 1000 horse-power, which 
was put in motion, stopped, and reversed in an incredibly short 
space of time; and a steam-hammer of 300 tons, the workman in 
charge of which exhibited his complete control over it in a variety 
of interesting ways. 

Conclusion. 

Our pleasant tour in the Carpathian forests being now at an 
end, we returned to Buda-Pesth on the evening of the 14th July. 
That we were enabled to see so many interesting things in such a 
short time was due entirely to the excellent arrangements made for 
us by the forest ofl&cers, by whom we were everywhere received 
and entertained, and who spared no pains to show us as much as 
possible, and to afford us information regarding their work. Had 
it been otherwise, and without the aid of our friend M. de Lavotta, 
from whom we parted with sincere regret on our return to Buda- 
Pesth, it is certain that we could not have accomplished half of 
what we did ; and our grateful thanks are due to the acting 
Director-General, M. Rouai, M. de Lavotta, and the many forest 
officers whom it was our privilege to meet. But we should imper- 
fectly express our acknowledgments of the hospitality shown to us, 
if we failed to record the graceful part borne in it by the ladies, 
who are perfect hostesses and most accomplished housewives. To 
them we owe it that, in spite of the fatigues which our rapid 
journey necessarily entailed, our brief stay in this interesting 
country was rendered as enjoyable as it was instructive from the 
professional point of view. 



52 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

It would be out of place here to enter on a description of 
domestic iife among the Hungarian upper classes, into which we 
were so fortunate as to gain an insight. But it is diflScult to avoid 
some allusion to the peasantry of the various races, Magyars, Russians, 
Slavs, Wallachians, Galicians, Jews, and gipsies (Czigan), we met with. 
A practised eye readily detects the differences between them, but even 
the ordinary traveller soon learns to recognise the Russian in his 
red cloth trowsers and embroidered jacket, his unmarried sister or 
daughter wearing a wreath of artificial flowers. Also the Galician, 
with his dark woollen Polish jacket, much embroidered and adorned 
with orange-coloured tassels. But the people with whom we came 
most in contact were the Wallachians, who, in the districts we 
visited, do the greater part of the work in the forests, especially 
that connected with the rafting and floating of timber. They are a 
wild looking people, dressed, as a rule, in dirty white clothes, with 
wide trowsers and coat sleeves, over which they wear a woollen 
jacket, so rough that it has the appearance of sheep skin ; also a 
very broad and stifi" leathern girdle, reaching from the hips more 
than halfway to the arms, and drawn together in front with four 
stout buckles. Their faces and the other exposed parts of their 
bodies, are much sunburnt, their feet being bare or encased in cloth 
or leather sandals ; and their long hair hangs unkempt about their 
shoulders. They present, at first sight, a striking resemblance to 
the wild tribesmen of the North- Western Indian frontier, and might 
easily be mistaken for them, if it were not for the straw hats worn 
by the men, and the skirts of the women. During the last few years, 
there has been a formidable immigration of Jews into Hungary, 
principally from Poland and the north ; and their treatment forms, at 
the present time, a serious political question. They are by no 
means popular in the country of their adoption, where we saw quite 
enough of their forbidding countenances. 

The Magyar peasants adopt different dresses in various parts of 
the country. But, as a rule, the men wear loose white trowsers, 
such as are worn by Afghans ; and in the districts about Besztercze- 
banya, the women wear a bright-coloured bodice, with short skirt, 
and long leather boots reaching to the knee, their hair hanging in a 
long thick plait down the back. 

The gipsies, when seen camping in their wretched wigwams by 
the roadside, are not attractive objects, but they are born musicians ; 
and the bands of them who frequent the hotels and promenades of 
Buda-Pesth, playing the wild and beautiful Hungarian airs, are 



FORESTRY IN HUNGARY. 53 

among the many attractions, which make it one of the most delight- 
ful cities in Europe. 

A visit to the Hungarian State forests is particularly instructive 
to the Indian forester, because the conditions in them resemble, in 
so many respects, those under which he has to work. There is 
probably no country in Europe where the export of timber by 
rough-and-ready means can be so well studied as it can now be in 
Hungary ; and if time could be found for it, a tour in the Car- 
pathians, during the months of April and May, might be most 
advantageously added to the course of instruction, now given to 
candidates for the Indian Forest service. 



CHAPTER III. 

A TOUR IN THE BANAT. 

General Description. 

The Domain of the Bandt is situated in the south-eastern corner 
of Hungary, between latitudes 44° 41' and 45° 31'. The eastern 
limit follows the crest of a chain of mountains, rising to a 
maximum height of 4775 feet, and forming part of the eastern 
Carpathian range. Spurs, alternating with valleys, run westwax-d 
from the high ridge, and fall with a gentle slope to the level of 
the great Hungarian plain, which lies at an elevation of from 300 
to 500 feet above the level of the sea ; the altitude of Bazias, on 
the Danube, being not more than 180 feet. Within this territory, 
an area of 834 square miles (of which 357 square miles, or nearly 
43 per cent., are forests, and the remainder fields, meadows, 
vineyards, and pastures) was conceded to a Company in 1855, 
together with its coal, iron, copper, and other mines, and the 
factories for working them which had already been established by 
the State. The Company also obtained the line of railway from 
Vienna to Buda-Pesth, and thence to Bazias, with the branch line 
to Resicza and Anina, making a total length of 723 miles; and 
also the coal mines at Kladno in Bohemia. It at the same time 
purchased, from the Yienna-Raab Company, 28 miles of railway 
running from Vienna to Raab, and the locomotive shops at Vienna, 
belonging to that Company. 



5i TRANSACTION'S OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The Domain in the Banat obtained by the "Austrian State 
Railway Company" has a population of 124,748, or 150 per 
square mile, consisting principally of Roumanians, but partly also 
of Bulgarians, who occupy Krassova and several villages in the 
neighbourhood of Oravicza, and are excellent farmers ; as well as 
of Servians, Slavs, who are principally miners, Hungarians, 
Germans, Bohemians, Jews, and Czigan or Gipsies. 

A portion of the cultivated land of the Domain belongs to the 
peasants ; but the forests are the exclusive property of the 
Company, which also owns the pastures in all communes in 
which there are mines or factories, the inhabitants having the 
right to use them on payment of a fixed rate per head of cattle. 
But in the other communes the pastures belong to the landed 
proprietors collectively, and the Company merely takes its share 
with the others. It possesses, however, seignorial rights over 
the whole Domain, which entitle it to the fishing and shooting 
and to levy dues on the sale of alcoholic beverages, as well as on 
mills and markets. The three latter rights are let for about 
.£7600 a year. The right to shoot and fish within the forests is 
retained by the Company in the hands of its forest staff; but 
elsewhere it is farmed out on leases. In return for these rights, 
the Comjiany maintains 21 churches, and nominates and pays 38 
priests and 43 schoolmasters, at a cost of about ,£5440 a year. 
The dominant religion is that of the Eastern Greek Church ; but 
there are a considerable number of Roman Catholics, and a few 
Protestants, chiefly members of the United Greek Church, and 
Jews. 

The central ofiices of the Company are at Vienna. At Oravicza 
in the Banat, there is an Inspector of Works who is charged with 
the construction and maintenance of communications within the 
Domain, including 44 miles of broad guage, 57 miles of narrow 
guage, and 38 miles of subterranean railway, used for working 
the mines ; also 62 miles of main roads, the property of the 
Company, 93 miles of communal roads maintained out of funds 
supplied by the communes, and numerous export I'oads in the 
forests. Thei'e is also at Oravicza an office, in which topo- 
graphical and geological maps, and plans of the mines, are 
prepared, and rights and concessions are recorded; and an 
Inspector who controls the forests, cultivation and pasture, over 
the whole of the Company's property. For this purpose, the 
Domain is divided into six districts, viz. : — those of Resicza, 



FORESTRY IN HUNGARY. 55 

Steirdorf, Oravicza, Dognaczka, Bogsan, and Maldova, over each 
of which is placed a superintendent with a foi-esi officer under 
his orders. 

Since the Company obtained the concession in 1855, it has 
constructed 500 miles of new railway lines, and organised a 
navigation service on the lower Danube, to connect Servia, 
Eoumania, and Bulgaria with its railway at Bazias. By this 
means, and- by the enlargement and improvement of its factories, 
it has quadrupled its out-turn of produce ; and can now dispose of 
it, not only in Austria and Hungary, but also in the neighbouring 
countries of Eastern Europe. 

The Banat is situated on a geological basin formed principally 
by thick beds of the secondary groups, presenting all important 
ages except the trias, and lying on gneiss and mica schist. 
Where the secondary strata are traversed by syenite, the Jurassic 
and cretaceous limestone has been crystallised, and here are found 
the metals which constitute the principal i-iches of the country ; 
they comprise magnetic iron, red and brown hematite, copper, 
lead, ii'on pyrites (from which sulphui-ic acid is made at Maldova), 
zinc, bismuth, silver, and gold. A large quantity of coal is found 
in the Carboniferous and Jurassic groups. Considerable deposits 
of Tertiary formation are also met with in the basin, principally 
in the neighbourhood of Krassova, Tirnova, and Maldova. 

The plains are covered by a deep layer of black vegetable 
mould, which is well suited to the cultivation of cereals, and 
produces excellent crops of wheat, oats, and maize. On the lower 
hills, where the soil is chiefly clay, lie the pastures, with forests 
here and there and large quantities of plum trees, cultivated, 
especially near Krassova, for the "raky'^ which is distilled from 
the fruit. The higher hills ai"e as a rule covered with forest. 

The plains of the Banat are the hottest part of Hungary, the 
spring and summer being very hot, and marked by protracted 
periods of dry weather. Snow does not lie here during the 
winter. Great cold is experienced in the mountains, where frosts 
occur late into the spring, but there is much less drought. In 
the exceptionally dry season of 1863, the rainfall at Oravicza 
(680 ft.) was 15-7 inches, while at Frauzdorf (1770 ft.) it was 
21*25 inches. The dry and cold winds from the south-east do 
much damage in all parts of the Domain, carrying the fine soil 
from the fields, overturning fruit trees, and making havoc in the 
forests. 



56 transactions of koyal scottish arboricultural society. 

Factories at Resicza, 

We left Buda-Pesth on the 16th July 1886, and traversed 
the well cultivated Hungarian plain, down to TemesvAr and 
Vojtek ; whence we took the branch line to Bogsan, and then the 
narrow-gauge local railway, following the valley of the Berzava, 
to Resicza, where the largest iron works in Hungary have been 
established. 

The town, which stands at an altitude of 817 feet, has now 
10,000 inhabitants, most of whom are in the service of the 
Comimny, which has erected 1200 houses for their accommodation ; 
it has gradually grown up around the high furnaces which were 
first lighted in 1771, and have been working without intermission 
down to the present time. But since the factories were originally 
established, they have been very much increased by the addition 
of reverbatory and other furnaces ; and since the Company came 
into possession, they have undertaken the manufacture of 
Bessemer steel, rolled steel rails, wheels for railway carriages, 
steel sleepers, boiler plates, girder bridges, and numerous other 
things. In consequence of this, the high furnace at Bogsan, the 
iron mines at Moravicza, and the coal mines at Doman and 
Szdkul, all of which are worked in connection with Resicza, and 
are connected with it by means of 38 miles of narrow-gauge 
railway, have been lai-gely developed. The building timber, mine- 
props, and charcoal required for the Resicza factories are furnished 
from 66,700 acres of forest, which cover the hills to the east and 
south. 

Arriving at mid-day on the 17th, we were conducted by M. 
Fery and M. de Bene, two of the Company's engineers, to a point 
about three or four miles up the river, whence the logs of building 
timber, brought down from the forest on trucks drawn by horses 
or bullocks, are carried by rail into the town. The wood for 
charcoal is floated down a distance of 28 miles, in the form of 
loose billets, and caught above the town at a weir, the river 
behind which was at the time of our visit crammed with them. 
About a million and a quarter bushels of charcoal are annually 
made at Resicza, nearly a million and a half bushels being turned 
out of the kilns in the forests above Franzdorf 

The light railway, by which we made our excursion, was 
constructed in 1872; before that year all transport between the 
factories and the mines at Moravicza, Doman, and Szekul, as 



FORESTRY IN HUNGARY. 57 

well as with the furnaces at Bogsdn, had to be effected over hilly 
roads by means of bullock-carts ; as many as twenty pairs of 
bullocks being sometimes required to move the heavier loads. 
The gauge of the line is 3 ft. 3 in., and the rails weigh llf lbs. 
per running foot. They are laid on wooden sleepers 2 ft. 3 in. 
apart, and measuring 5 ft. 5 in. by 5 9 in. by 3*9 in. About one- 
third of the total length of the line consists of numerous sharp 
curves of from 160 to 320 feet radius, by which it winds along 
the bottom of the valley up an incline of about 2 in 100. There 
is one tunnel, which is 260 feet long. 

We returned from our excursion through the park, which was 
laid out by the Company for the benefit of its workmen, on the 
occasion of the hundredth anniversary of the opening of the 
works"; and we then paid a visit to the Bessemer Steel Factory. 
The molten iron, brought from the high furnaces, is poured into a 
huge vessel, previously brought to a very high temperature, and 
through which a powerful blast of compressed air is then passed. 
This carries off the carbon in the form o£ carbon dioxyde, and at 
the same time drives off other impurities. The metal is then 
poured, by means of hydraulic machinery, into moulds, lined with 
a paste of crushed quartz ; and the blocks of steel thus formed 
are afterwards heated and rolled into rails. The heat in the 
factory was terrific ; but we were told that the health of the 
workmen does not suffer from it. 

The only fuel used in the high furnaces is wood charcoal ; and 
the ore is almost entirely magnetic iron of excellent quality. 
From 140 to 175 cubic feet of charcoal are required for the 
manufacture of a ton of iron, of which about 15,000 tons are 
turned out annually. Iron is also brought from Bogsd,n ; but the 
total quantity available for the Bessemer and Martin factories is 
insufiicient to enable them to be worked at full power. They do 
not make more than from 20,000 to 25,000 tons of steel per 
annum, but are capable of turning out double that quantity. 

In the evening we attended a Soiree, given in a building 
provided for such entertainments by the Company. The bands- 
men were all workmen from the factories. 



The Forests of the Domain. 

The total area of the forests in the Domain, is 213,905 acres, 
covering two extensive tracts, the most important of which lies 



58 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ou the mountain crests and slopes to tlie east and south, while 
the other is situated in the plains and hills around Bogsdn. 

On the plains and low hills oak predominates, the species being 
Quercus cerris, Q. conferta, Q. pedwiculata, and Q. robur ; but it 
is mixed with a varying proportion of wild cherry, wild plum, 
maple, and hornbeam (Carpinus orientalis ?) and other kinds. 
The oak grows higher up the southern and western slopes than it 
does on those having a northerly aspect, where it is replaced by 
beech, which is the principal tree of the Bdnat mountains. At 
intermediate levels, this ti'ee is found mixed with hornbeam, ash, 
elm, lime, and other bx'oad-leaved species ; but at higher eleva- 
tions, it is associated with conifers, the most important among 
them being the silver fir, which occupies considerable areas, in 
localities where the greatest cold is experienced, notably about 
Franzdorf. Here also well-grown spruce is found, and larch 
has recently been introduced. On the southern slopes of the 
mountain, where the soil is dry, Scots and Austrian pines have 
been planted. There are 176 species of ligneous plants in the 
BAndt. 

The forests have all been surveyed, and maps have been 
prepared and reproduced by photo-zincography in the Company's 
oflfices ; each forest officer and subordinate being in possession of 
a good map of the portion of forest under his charge. A valuation 
survey has also been effected, and the estimate of age-classes gives 
the following result, viz. ; 





Crop. , 


From 80 to 100 years old, and over 


„ 60 ,, 


80 years old, 


„ 40 „ 


60 


„ 20 „ 


40 


,, 


20 



Acres. 


75,625 


27,407 


26,428 


30,059 


54,386 


. 213,905 



Total, 

Working plans have been made for the forests of each of the 
six districts, into which the whole forest area has been divided. 
Near Oravicza where the soil is good, the revolution for silver 
fir is 100 years, for beech 80 years, for the forests of the plains it 
is 60 years. But, speaking generally, for the great beech forests 
between Resicza and Maldova, where the growth is slow, the 
revolution for high forest is from 80 to 100 years. In the forests 
around Bogsiin, where the soil is rich in vegetable mould, but dry 



FORESTRY IX HUXGARY. 59 

and shallow, the revolution for oak coppice is 60 years. In this 
southern latitude, oak trees a hundred years old give healthy and 
vigorous coppice shoots ; and regeneration by the coppice system 
is consequently very easy, if the operation is properly carried 
out. 

Two systems of felling high forest are practised, viz. — clean 
felling, which is adopted in forests of pure, or nearly pure, beech ; 
and selection felling, employed in mixed forests worked for large 
timber. The first-mentioned system is here preferred to that of 
natural regeneration by seed, on account of the violent storms 
which sweep over this part of Hungary, and overturn the 
standards left under the latter system ; thus not only interfering 
with its success, but also endangering the lives of the men 
employed in working out wood, and making charcoal in the forest. 
The regular system is also less economical of labour, which is 
here very scarce ; and it can therefore rarely be adopted. The 
selection method is supplemented by planting, when the crop of 
self-sown seedlings on the ground is insufficient. In addition to 
the re-stocking of the forest after clean felling, a good deal is 
done in the way of planting up blanks and bare hill sides. 

Between 1855 and 1876, over 240 million cubic feet of wood 
were cut in the forests of the Domain; and of this quantity nearly 
144 million cubic feet were converted into more than 73 million 
bushels of charcoal for use in the furnaces. In 1881 the forests 
produced over 23| million cubic feet of wood, of which more than 
10^ million cubic feet were converted into charcoal. 

Forests of the Berzava. 
On the morning of the 18th July, we started with M. Fery at 
an early hour, and drove a distance of 18 miles, to visit the 
forests in which the wood used at Resicza is grown. Our route 
lay through the Domain, and led us past several villages surrounded 
by fields and orchards. The company gives advances for build- 
ing, and allows the people, on the jiayment of a nominal land 
rent, to plant orchards of plum and apple trees, from the fruit of 
which they distil a spirit. The control of all such concessions is 
vested in the forest officers. We passed through some forests of 
beech mixed, at the lower levels, with hornbeam, birch, and other 
trees, and higher up, with spruce, silver fir, and a small propor- 
tion of larch. We noticed a considerable number of plantations, 
the plants standing in vertical lines. We halted at the village of 



GO TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Fr^nzdorf (1770 feet) ; and then turning southwai-d, followed the 
main valley of the Berzdva, until we reached the reservoir {2180 
feet), above which a portion of the birch forest is being clean 
felled. 

The cuttings are commenced at the end of September, con- 
tinued throughout the winter, and completed in May or June, 
when the logs are converted into billets 40 inches long. Between 
July and September, a system of temporary dry slides is con- 
structed of beech poles, about 6 inches in diameter ; and by this 
means the billets are conveyed — during the period from October 
to March — a part of the way down the valley. The temporary 
slides cost about 7d. to 8d. per running yai"d. In winter, when 
the frost is on the ground, a fall of 7 in 100 is sufficient for 
them ; but, for work during the dry season, a slope of from 10 to 
15 in 100 is required ; and if the billets do not run freely, the 
slides must be wetted, so as to reduce the friction. Over the 
last two miles above the reservoir, a system of wet slides has 
been constructed in connection with the dry ones ; and down 
them the wood is sent — between April and July — to a point 
immediately below the dam. The main channel of the wet slide 
is formed of planks from 2| in. to 4 in. thick ; it is 24 in. wide at 
bottom, 40 in. wide at top, and has a fall of 1 in 100. If such 
works are required to last for a single year only, the timber used 
is fir ; if for five or six years, it is beech; oak will last for ten 
years. The main portion of the existing slide cost 3s. per 
running yard, the feeders, which are of smaller section, costing 
2s. 6d. The slide, when in use, is full to the brim with water 
and billets, and men are stationed at sharp bends, or other points 
where obstructions are likely to occur ; in order to prevent a 
stoppage, by pushing the wood along. Where an exceptionally 
steep fall occurs, there is an ingenious arrangement for passing 
the water into a sub-channel, by means of a grating in the floor 
of the slide, and thus reducing the speed of the descending wood ; 
the water re-appears lower down, where the fall is less. The 
slide passes the end of the dam, the portion below which is 
furnished with a number of outlets, each leading into a shoot, so 
arranged as to throw the billets into the bed of the stream. 
Each outlet has a door, which, when it is opened and thi-own 
back across the main channel, bars the further passage of the 
wood, and permits it to escape down one of the shoots. When 
the first door has been open for some time, so that a large heap of 



FORESTRY IN HUNGARY. 61 

billets lias been deposited, it is closed, and the next one is 
opened, and so on, until the sti'eam bed, opposite the outlets, is 
sufficiently filled with billets, — that is to say, when some 350,000 
to 500,000 cubic feet have been accumulated. 

The dam, which has been built at a distance of about 5^ miles 
from the head of the Berzava, whei'e the forest is situated, is 
made of wood and stones, faced with clay ; it is 37 feet high, and 
the reservoir, when full, contains 4^ million cubic feet of water. 
When the sluice gates are opened, the reservoir empties itself in 
five hours ; and the billets are carried down the Berzava, which 
has a fall of 1 in 100 for the first mile, and of from 3 to 5 in 100 
for the rest of the way. The first weir, which is near Resicza, at 
a distance of 23 miles from the dam, is reached in about six 
hours. The wood caught at it is led by a canal 600 yards long, 
running beside the river to the first charcoal yard, where 26 
kilns are at work. A part of the wood which passes the first 
weir is caught by a second, 500 yards further down ; whence it 
is taken by a canal to a second charcoal yard provided with 34 
kilns. The remainder is arrested at a third yard containing 40 
kilns, by two strong weirs, beyond which none of it can pass. 
The narrow-gauge railway traverses the yards, and by it the 
charcoal is conveyed to the furnaces. The three yards hold 4| 
million cubic feet of wood, and are capable of turning out a 
million and a quarter bushels of charcoal in a year. 

The time occupied, from the commencement of the fellings to 
the delivery of the last batch of wood at Resicza, is about one 
year and ten months ; and the total cost, including that of felling 
and converting, is f of a penny per cubic foot (stacked). It is 
said that if the wood had to be conveyed by the carts to Resicza, 
the cost would be at least doubled. 

In the month of October, two years after the fellings were com- 
menced, charcoal-making is begun in the forest. All the wood 
unsuitable for floating is then jjut into kilns, which are circular 
in form, and of various dimensions, according to their situation, 
the largest containing 5000 cubic feet (stacked) of wood. The 
split billets are laid at the bottom, and round pieces cut from 
branches are placed above them. 

It is said that 100 cubic feet of stacked wood, equivalent to 72 
cubic feet of solid wood, yield 38| bushels of charcoal at Resicza, 
and 35| bushels in the forest, where the arrangements for making 
it are not so perfect. The wood is almost exclusively beech, the 



02 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

kinds next in order of impoi'tance being oak, lime, and silver fir. 
The foi'est now being cut is aged from 120 to 140 years ; and it 
yields 2450 cubic feet (solid) of wood per acre. Tliere is a good 
deal of advance growth on the ground, especially at the lower 
levels ; but, where this is wanting in sufficient quantity, the crop 
is completed by planting. 

Before leaving the reservoir, we were shown the arrangements 
for breeding trout, which are conducted by the forest officer, and 
•we then drove back to llesicza, stopping for a short time at 
Frdnzdorf, to see a dance given after a Roumanian peasant's 
wedding. The women's dress consists of a white embroidered 
garment, reaching to the ankles, a long and naiTow woollen band, 
■wound round the waist, and used for carrying loads, and a pair of 
bright-coloured and richly ornamented woollen aprons, one worn 
in front and the other behind, the latter ending in a long red 
fringe, which falls to the bottom of the white skirt. A red- 
flowered handkerchief, bound over the hair, completes a very 
picturesque and semi-oriental costume. Most of the girls wore 
bright-coloured natural flowers in their hair ; and the bride was 
distinguished by a white wreath. 

The men are clad in white, with a coloui-ed jacket ; they wear 
sandals, and wind strips of cloth loosely round the lower part of 
the leg. The dance appeared to us a rather monotonous one ; 
but those engaged in it, among whom was a large proportion of 
remarkably handsome women, seemed to be enjoying themselves 
thoroughly. 

On the morning of the next day, accompanied by M. Fery and 
M. de Bene, we paid a second visit to the Bessemer works, where 
we saw the making of railway-carriage wheels, and other things ; 
and in the afternoon we mounted to the high ground above the 
town, and inspected the wire-rope tramway, 270 yards long, used 
for carrying down ore to the furnaces. There are two trucks, 
one at each end of the I'ope ; the full truck in descending draws 
up the empty one, so that no engine is required. We were told 
that a wire-rope tramway, 17 miles long, and worked by steam- 
power, is in use in Transylvania. 

Anina and the Danube. 

On the 20th of July we left Resicza, and drove 37 miles across 
the hills to Anina, stopping on the way to examine the Bulgarian 
village of Krassova, through which our road lay. The country 



FORESTRY IN HUNGARY. 63 

is very much denuded of trees, apparently owing to excessive 
grazing, but some planting work is going on in places. At Anina 
we were received by M. Schmidt, the Company's chief engineer, 
who treated us with great courtesy and kindness. He took us 
over the ii'on-woi'ks, where we saw the manufacture of cast-iron 
columns, rolled iron bars, wire, and nails. Some very pretty 
ornamental ware of the same metal was also being made, and a 
specimen of it was presented to us. 

The locality is rich in both coal and iron, and also in a bitu- 
minous schist, yielding, on distillation, an oil from which petro- 
leum and paraffin, to the amount of 1800 tons per annum, are 
manufactured at Oravicza. 

We quitted Anina next day by train, passing through a beau- 
tiful beech forest, succeeded by an open country, which has 
evidently sufi'ered very much from over-gi'azing, the red soil on 
the hillsides being completely exposed in the neighbourhood of 
the villages. The scenery up to Oravicza is very beautiful ; but 
beyond this we crossed a cultivated plain, producing, in addition 
to grain crops, which were being harvested by the peasants in 
their white dresses, a great quantity of maize, and some potatoes 
and vines. We then travelled by way of Jam and Jassenova to 
Bazias, where we passed the night. 

On the morning of the 2 ■2d we went on board one of the 
Danube boats, and steamed down to Orsova. On our left were 
the spurs of the Eastern Carpathians, and on our right the Servian 
hills. The wide river is here very rapid and muddy, and there 
is a great deal of traffic on it, many steamers and boats of all 
kinds, including " dugouts," being seen. There were also some 
floating mills. The low Servian hills are, as a rule, well wooded ; 
but on the Hungarian side, where the general aspect is southerly, 
the forests are confined to the higher levels, the lower slopes 
being occupied by villages and fields. After passing down several 
rapids, we entered the beautiful defile of Kasan, where we saw, 
on the right bank, the remains of Trajan's road, cut out of the 
base of the clifis. His inscription on the rock is still legible. 
This is the finest part of the lower Danube, the scenery being 
equal to, or even surpassing, the best parts of the Rhine between 
Coblenz and Bingen. 

On leaving Orsova, we drove a distance of 16 miles, up the 
valley of the Czerna, in which there are some magnificent poplars, 
to the Baths of Hercules, where, after dining at the Kursaal, we 



64 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

passed the nigbt ; and, rising the following morning at 3 a.m., 
drove to the railway station, and took the train for Buda-Pesth. 
At first the country was very hilly and well clothed with woods, 
but as we advanced further the valley opened out, and was 
cultivated. We struck our old I'oute at Temesvar, and, crossing 
the Hungarian plain with its vast fields of maize, its yokes of 
oxen in the plough, and bands of horses treading out the corn, 
reached our destination the same evening. 

That we were able to see so much of the Bdnat in such a short 
time, was due, in the first instance, to our kind friend, M. Ronna, 
principal director of the company, whom we had met at Nancy, 
and who gave us the needful introductions. We are also much 
indebted to M. Willigens, Inspector- General, in administrative 
charge of the Domain, and M. Drexler, secretary to the Council 
of Administration, as well as to the local officers previously men- 
tioned in our narrative ; and our most sincere thanks are due to 
all these gentlemen for their kindness, and for the valuable 
assistance they afibrded us. 

We returned to Nancy by way of Vienna, Frankfort, Mayence, 
and Metz, after having made a most interesting tour. 



THE PROPOSED SCHOOL OF FORESTRY. 65 



II. The Proposed School of Forestry. By Sir Dietrich Brandis, 
K.C.S.I., Bonn, Germany. 

(Read at the Annual General Meeting of the Society, on the 26th of July 1887.) 

My friend, Dr Hugh Cleghorn, your late President, has done 
me the great honour of suggesting that I shoukl deliver an address 
to the members of the Boyal Scottish Arboricultural Society at this 
year's annual meeting. Unfortunately, I am unable to be present, 
and I therefore thankfully avail myself of my friend's offer, to 
read at the meeting a few words which I desire to address to the 
Society. First of all, I wish to express the great satisfaction 
"which my position as an honorary member of the Royal Scottish 
Arboricultural Society affords me. This great honour was conferred 
upon me fifteen years ago, while I was holding the position of 
Inspector-General of Forests to the Government of India. At 
that time it was very gratifying, and I may truly say, it was a 
source of great comfoi"t, under circumstances which were unusually 
difficult and by no means always pleasant, to find that my labours 
in the cause of Forestry were appreciated and recognised by the 
foresters of Scotland, 

I have said that the circumstances under which I worked in 
India were difficult. You are all aware that India has a civilisa- 
tion much older than the greater part of Europe ; that, while our 
ancestors, two thousand years ago, were leading a roaming life in 
the woods, living upon the game they caught, without fields and 
fixed habitations, a large portion of India was and had long been 
an open, highly cultivated country, governed by powerful kings, . 
with large cities, temples, and palaces, the inhabitants of which 
had an elaborate system of laws, a system of religion, and a 
literature rich in poetry. You are also aware that the civilisation 
of the West, although it commenced at a much later period, has 
in most respects overtaken and far outrun the ancient civilisation 
of the East. 

When, about thirty years ago, we commenced to take action, in 
a methodical manner, to place the management of forests in India 
upon a satisfactory footing, we were confronted with difficulties of 
a peculiar kind. You have all been accustomed in Scotland, 
from your early youth, to regard the proprietary rights in waste 
and forest to be as clear and settled as the proprietary rights in 

VOL. XII., PART I. E 



G6 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

fields and gardens. The boundaries of estates over heath and 
moorland are as well defined as where they run between farms and 
houses. In India, on the other hand, the propi'ietaiy rights in 
forest and waste-land had not developed to the same extent as the 
rights in the cultivated area. In most parts of the country, 
whether the rulers were Hindus, Buddhists, or Mahommedans, 
the prevailing idea was that the forest and waste belonged to the 
ruling power. This idea, however, was by no means general. In 
some provinces, noblemen and other large proprietors had, in course 
of time, appropriated all the waste-land and forest ; and in other 
districts, where the system of village communities had become fully 
developed, the waste and forest, and sometimes a part of the culti- 
vated lands also, were regarded as the joint property of the village 
community. Hence there was in many cases great uncertainty 
regarding the first and fundamental question, who is the proprietor 
of the forests 1 And the difficulty was increased by the existence 
of what ai'e called " rights of user " in the forests — viz., the rights 
which the inhabitants of the neighbouring villages had exercised 
from time immemorial to cut firewood and timber, to collect 
grass and other forest produce, and to graze their cattle in the 
forests. Similar rights of user, as yo\i are all aware, are found, 
not only in India, but in many forest lands of Europe. In the 
New Forest, for instance, the largest of the British Crown 
forests, the Crown has unrestricted proprietary rights in a small 
part of the area, while of the remainder a portion only may at 
one time be enclosed and planted, the same being thrown open to 
pasture and the exercise of other rights by the commoners when 
another area is enclosed. 

The British Government in India, as the guardian of public 
interests, could not any longer delay action in the matter. It 
had become apparent to all thoughtful observers that the long 
period of peace and quiet, brought about by the consolidation of 
the British power in India, had stimulated the process of clear- 
ing the forests for cultivation,' so that everywhere forest was 
disappearing to make room for fields. This steady increase of 
cultivation was the necessary consequence of the just and good 
govei-nment which India had enjoyed under British rule. At the 
same time, the consumption of timber was augmented, and the 
destruction of the forests was intensified by the construction of 
railways, the building of roads, bridges, and canals; by the 
erection of public buildings throughout the country, the gi'owth 



THE PROPOSED SCHOOL OF FORESTRY. 67 

of the export trade and of manufacturing industries, and by the 
steadily increasing well-being of all classes. Where the forests 
had not been cleared to make way for the plough, most, and in 
many places all, accessible timber fit to be used was cut and 
brought away, to be consumed as fuel and chai-coal, to be used 
for shipbuilding, for railway sleepers, or for house-building. The 
gradual disappearance of the forests, and the deterioration of those 
which remained, became alarming, and it began gradiially to be 
acknowledged that action must be taken in the matter. The 
Indian forest question had been brought before the British Asso- 
ciation for the advancement of Science, at the Edinburgh meeting 
of 1850, and a committee had been appointed by that meeting to 
study the question, and to submit a report. Of the members of 
that committee, two are still alive — your late President, Dr Hugh 
Cleghorn, and General (then Captain) Richard Strachey, the 
distinguished President of the Royal Geographical Society, who, 
while Secretary to the Government of India, has done more than 
any one to pave the way for a good organisation of the forest 
business. Upon Dr Cleghorn devolved the duty of writing the 
Report, which was submitted to the meeting of the British 
Association in 1851. 

Previous to this, action had commenced in India in different 
places. In 1842, Mr Conolly, the Collector of the district, com- 
menced the magnificent Teak plantations of Xilambur in Malabar, 
which for many years were in charge of a valued member of 
your Society, John Ferguson, of whose death last year I was 
grieved to hear. In 1847, General (then Captain) Frederick 
Cotton drew the attention of the Government of INIadras to the 
Anamalai Teak forests, and on his recommendation Lieutenant 
(now General) James Michael, Companion of the Star of India 
and an honorary member of your Society, was appointed, in 
1848, to conduct the timber operations in those forests. About 
the same time Dr Cleghorn, then Civil Surgeon of Shimoga in 
Mysore, had represented to the civil authorities of that State 
the evils resulting from the wholesale destruction of the foi'ests 
through the shifting kumri cultivation, by cutting and burning 
the forest, and it was mainly owing to his persistent repre- 
sentations that this wasteful system of cultivation was put a 
stop to in Mysore. In the Bombay Presidency, the late Dr 
Gibson was appointed Conservator of Forests in 1847, and in the 
Tenasserim province of Burma, which had become British territory 



G8 TRANSACTIOXS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

in 182G, repeated, but at that time mostly ineffectual, attempts 
had been made to secure the pi'otection of the Teak forests. All 
these ai'e well-known facts, and they have on several occasions been 
brought before your Society. What is not so well known is, that 
when it became necessary to reduce these detached efforts to a 
regular system, so as to secure lasting benefits to the country, the 
main difficulty was the uncertainty that existed regarding the 
proprietary rights over the forest i*anges of India. The solution 
of this difficulty, yoxi will readily understand, lies at the root of 
all good forest management. 

After Dr Cleghorn had for a series of years worked hard as 
Conservator of Forests of the Madras Presidency, he was called to 
report upon the forests in the Punjab, which province, as you know, 
occupies the extreme north-west corner of India. While he was 
engaged in finishing this duty, we were together at Simla during 
the summer months of 1 8G3, and he then clearly and fully explained 
to me the state of the forest business in the Madras Presidency. 
After discussing the question in all its aspects, we came to the con- 
clusion, that what was wanted there, as well as in other provinces, 
was to demarcate the State and village forests ; that is, after 
careful local inquiry, to define the boundaries of the forest areas 
over which the State, the village communities, and private land- 
owners held proprietary rights. Our views we embodied in a 
joint-memorandum, and this document was submitted to the 
Government of Madras. Active measures had at that time been 
taken in this dii'ection in several provinces — foremost in the 
Central Provinces, under Sir Richard Temjile, then the Chief 
Commissioner of that territory, who, most of you will remember, 
in October 1881, gave to your Society a most interesting account 
of forest conservancy in India. In the Presidency of Madras, 
however, unfortunately the necessity of action in this direction 
was not at that time recognised; and it was not until 1882, 
when, at the close of my Indian career, I was deputed to Madi'as 
by the Government of India, that a Forest law was passed, and 
that action in the right direction, on the lines of the joint- 
memorandum submitted by Dr Cleghorn and myself in 1863, was 
commenced on a sufficiently large scale. This happy result — the 
importance of which for the welfare of the people of Southern India 
cannot be overrated — was accomplished by your distinguished 
countryman. Sir Mountstuart Elphinstone Grant Duff, who at 
that time was the Governor of the Southern Presidency. 



THE PROPOSED SCHOOL OF FORESTRY. 69 

What I have said regarding the peculiar difficulties in this 
respect of forest administration in India, I intend should serve as 
an introduction to the main subject of my present address. My 
wish is, on the present occasion, to submit to your Society the 
views which I have formed regarding the proposal to establish a 
Forest School in Scotland, a proposal which I desire at the outset 
to state has my warmest sympathy. What had to be done in 
India, before the Government could undertake measures for the 
permanent good management of the forests, was first to determine 
which ai'eas were the property of the State ; and secondly, to free 
these areas of the customary rights of user with which they were 
burdened, or where this was not feasible, to define the extent of 
such rights, and to regulate the exercise of them. This work, 
which you will admit was indispensable, is in progress in most 
districts of the vast British Empire, and though it is and must be 
carried out to a great extent by the civil and judicial officers of 
government, yet it cannot be accomplished without the co-opera- 
tion of the forest officers. Hence you will understand that these 
gentlemen have to deal with questions altogether difierent from 
those with which wood-managers and foresters have to deal in 
Scotland. And in other respects also the work of a forest officer 
in India is very different from that of foresters in Europe. 

In the excellent lecture on the forests of India to which I 
have already adverted. Sir Richard Temple gave you a true and 
lively account of the forest fires, which in most disti'icts of India 
are, and have from time immemorial been, an annual occurrence. 
The season of spring, when the awakening of the vegetation in 
Europe gladdens the hearts of men, in most parts of India is the 
hottest time of the year. No rain, no dew, — the trees in most 
forests leafless, — grass, herbage, and everything else dried up by 
parching winds, and by the uninterrupted and relentless power of 
a fierce and burning sun. The smallest spark suffices to light a 
fire, which spreads over the grass lands and forests of entire 
districts. The great injury which these fires do to forests in 
India, has on several occasions been explained to your Society, 
and I shall not dwell upon this subject on the present occasion. 
It was mainly through the exertions of one of my old colleagues, 
Colonel Pearson, whose name in connection with the Indian 
Forest Service is familiar to you, that the first effective action on 
a large scale for the suppression of these fires was taken in the 
Central Provinces in 1864, where at that time he was Conservator 



70 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

of Forests. The measures to protect the forests against these 
annual fires form an important and often very difficult part of a 
forest officer's duty in most provinces of India, This work, 
which during the hot season is extremely laborious and trying to 
health, is happily not needed in Scotland. Again, in the drier 
districts of India one of the chief aims of forest management is to 
increase the supply of fodder for cattle, particularly during 
seasons of drought. But time presses : I must be satisfied with a 
bare mention of this most impoitant feature of Indian Forestry, 
and must give uj) the idea of entering fiu'ther into this branch of 
the subject. 

The main point of difference between the work of a forester in 
Scotland and that of a forest officer in India, consists in the vast 
area of the Indian forests, and in the magnitude of the operations 
involved in the management of these estates. You are aware 
that those forests in the British Indian Empii-e, which are the 
property of the State, and which have been either freed of 
customary rights of xisex", or in which these rights have been 
defined and settled, are called " reserved State forests." There 
are other forests, over which the Government exercises a certain 
control, more or less efiective according to circumstances, but on 
the present occasion I shall limit myself to the reserved forests. 
Well, their area, according to official documents, on the 1st April 
1885, amounted to neai'ly 50,000 square miles, or 32 millions of 
acres, all the property of Government, and managed by Govern- 
ment officers. You will at once understand that for the protection 
and management of so large an area, a very large staff of officers, 
numbering many thousands, are employed, and that nearly the 
whole of these are and must as a matter of course be natives of 
India. Among these again there are, as you can readily imagine, 
superior and suborbinate officers, and in order to give candidates 
for the superior native forest service the needful professional 
education, a Forest School was established in 1878 at Dehra Dun in 
Northern India. Of this Forest School I am glad to see you have 
in the last volume of your Transactions an excellent account 
by Colonel F. Bailey of the Eoyal Engineers, who, after having 
organised the Indian Forest Survey, became the first Director of 
the School, and Conservator of the extensive forests attached to 
it for the practical instruction of the students. At this school, 
my former colleagues tell me, there are now about sixty young 
men from all parts of British India, Hindus, Mahomedans, 



THE PROPOSED SCHOOL OF FORESTRY. 71 

Buddhists from Burma, and native Christians. Only a com- 
paratively small number of the highest appointments are filled by 
men sent out annually by Her Majesty's Secretary of State for 
India, The number of these appointments is, I am informed, 
now about 170, and it is not intended considei'ably to increase it. 
Although these ofiicers sent out from home are, on arrival in 
India, in the first instance employed in subordinate positions, yet 
when they have become familiar with the language and the peculiar 
work in India, they are destined to fill the highest appointments. 
Hence a most important part of their work consists in directing a 
lai'ge staff of subordinate officers. From among them are selected 
the chief forest ofiicers in the difierent provinces, the officers 
charged with the preparation of working plans, and the professors 
of the forest school. With them rests, and must generally rest, 
the initiative in professional matters, and any mistakes made by 
them may have a far reaching and very mischievous effect. You 
will readily understand that they ought to be picked men, 
thoroughly familiar with the science and practice of forest 
management in Europe, and with the experience gained in forest 
administration in those countries, where it is best understood, and 
where it exists on a large scale analogous to what we find in 
India. 

Now I will direct your attention to the manner in which 
forest business is managed on the Continent of Europe. In the 
kingdom of Prussia, for instance, the area of the State forests 
alone amounts to 6,600,000 acres. More than twice this area is 
in the hands of towns, villages, public corporations, and private 
individuals. The whole of the large forest area of Prussia, — up- 
wards of 22,000,000 acres, — is managed on a regular system, with 
the object of maintaining a uniform annual yield in wood, timber, 
and other forest produce, the amount of which over a large portion 
of the area is slowly increasing every year, as the I'esult of the 
steady improvement which takes place in the condition, and, con- 
sequently, in the productive powers of the forests. The number 
of the superior officei's entrusted with the management of the 
Prussian State Forests is 807. As regards their duties, they 
correspond in India to the superior Native staff, who receive their 
professional education at Dehi-a Dun, and the staff recruited by 
the officers whom the Secretary of State for India sends out. The 
professional education of the superior Prussian forest officers is 
organized thus : After passing the closing examination at one of 



72 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

the large German public schools, the candidates go through a 
practical apprenticeship of one year in one of the State forest 
districts, and after studying for two years at a forest school, and 
one year at a university, they may pi-esent themselves for their 
fii'st examination, which, like all others for State service in Prussia, 
is a pass, and not a competitive examination. A high standard 
is fixed, which must be attained. The next step is to spend two 
years in practical work in several forest districts, after completing 
which the candidate presents himself for his second or final 
examination, which, like the first, includes all branches of forestry, 
the questions asked having, however, more special reference to 
the actual requirements of the service, than was the case at the 
first examination. The closing examination at the public school 
is generally passed at the age of 19, so that, allowing one year for 
military service, and six months for the two examinations and 
the unavoidable delay connected therewith, the candidate will have 
attained the age of 26 or 27 by the time he has passed the final 
examination. He then receives the designation of Forst Assessor, 
and is eligible for employment in the State forest service. 
Government, however, is in no way obliged to find employment 
for passed candidates, and as a matter of fact, few obtain a 
permanent appointment in the lowest grade of the superior 
Staff", which is that of Oberforster, before they ai*e considerably 
past the age of 30, while those who do not find such employ- 
ment seek appointments in forests belonging to towns and 
villages, to public corporations, or to private proprietors. In 
other German States the ai'rangements are similar to those just 
described. There are local peculiarities, but the principle is the 
same; every whei'e a thorough and prolonged professional training, 
partly practical, partly theoretical, is required of candidates for 
the superior State forest service. 

I do not apologise for claiming your attention so long for the 
organisation of the Forest Service in Germany. You will presently 
see that it has a direct beai'ing upon subjects in which you are 
specially interested. My experience has taught me, that young 
Englishmen, Scotsmen, or Irishmen are, by constitution and habits, 
admirably fitted to make first-rate forest officers. Nevertheless, 
on the first occasion, when I had an opportunity of carrying the 
point, which I long had in view, I requested the Government to 
permit me to select two German forest officers for service in India, 
who had passed all examinations for the superior State forest 



THE PROPOSED SCHOOL OF FORESTRV. 73 

service. Tliis was in 1866. I took the greatest possible pains 
in this business, was favoured by circumstances, and was most 
fortunate in my selection. What I wanted were men as young 
as possible, who had successfully passed the prescribed course of 
professional training similar to that which I have just described 
to you. It thus happened that they were not Prussians. Dr 
Schlich, who succeeded me as Inspector-General of Forests when 
I left India in 1883, was a native of Hesse Darmstadt; and Mr 
Ribbentrop, who is now acting in the same appointment while 
Dr Schlich is employed at Cooper's Hill in starting the Forest 
School, at which, as you are aware, candidates for the Indian 
Forest Department are now educated, was a native of the former 
kingdom of Hanover, which in 1866 had just been annexed to 
Prussia. The fact that the Government of India have selected 
these two men for the important appointments which they now 
hold, and that for these appointments they have been preferred to 
many forest officers in India of great ability and experience, shows, 
that the thorough professional training which Dr Schlich and 
Mr Ribbentrop had received in their own country, had been most 
useful to them in India, and that its value has been fully recog- 
nised by Government. It is, as you may readily imagine, a source 
of great satisfaction to state these facts to you, and I venture to 
hope, that some day it will be carefully considered, whether those 
Indian forest officei-s, who are destined for the highest appoint 
ments in that country, ought not to receive a professional educa- 
tion as thorough as the candidates destined for the superior staff 
of the Prussian forest service. The time allotted to their studies 
at Cooper's Hill is two years, while the time allotted to their pro- 
fessional studies under former arrangements on the Continent of 
Europe was two years and eight months only. The time was 
not fixed so short because that was considei-ed as sufficient, but 
because it was and is not, I believe, at present deemed possible 
to assign a longer period or to organise the whole business in a 
different manner. The professional education of forest officers in 
Germany has not always been as elaborate and as prolonged as it is 
at present. In every country these are matters of gradual growth. 
But good and really effective forest management is of vital 
importance for the welfare of the people of India. We, all of us, 
who had anything to do with the growth of forestry in that country, 
started with the provision of a lasting and, if possible, steadily- 
increasing sui)ply of timber, wood, bark, and other forest produce 



74 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

as the aim and object of forest management, and, in addition, we 
hoped that by improving the forests on the liills the water supply 
for irrigation would be better regulated, that inundations and the 
silting up of rivers would be diminished, and the like. At a later 
period experience taught us that in certain parts of India, the 
sufferings caused by drought and famine might be somewhat 
mitigated by increasing the production of cattle fodder in the 
forests. And within the last few months it has been established 
beyond doubt, that in the Central Provinces the protection of the 
forests has already had an appreciable influence upon the rainfall. 
This had long been hoped for by enthusiastic foresters in India, 
but there was no proof for it. This proof has now been obtained, 
and I may add that I owe this most important information to 
the highest living authority on the subject, — to my friend, H. F. 
Blanford, the Meteorological Reporter to the Government of 
India. Deficient rainfall means famine in India, and we may 
therefoi'e hope that the improvement of forests on a sufficiently 
large scale in certain parts of the country will to some extent 
tend to diminish the risk of drought and famine. 

You will readily understand that with these important interests 
at stake, every effort ought to be made to steadily improve the pro- 
fessional training of the forest officers sent out to India from Great 
Britain. I shall not enter further into this subject, which, though 
of paramount importance to India, is not of such special interest for 
the members of your Society. But what I desire to say is this, that 
the requirements of w^ood-managei'S and forestei-s in Scotland are 
entirely difiei-ent from the requirements of Indian forest officers. 
It does not follow that in special cases foresters, who in Scotland 
have learnt their profession in the empirical manner hitherto 
customary, could not work their way up to the higher ranks of the 
Indian forest service. There have been many instances in India 
which show that iinder the guidance of good officers, and other- 
wise under favourable circumstances, men can make up, by means 
of industrious study, and of steady hard work, for their deficient 
professional education at the outset. Indeed, as explained to you 
in Colonel Bailey's excellent paper on the Indian Forest School, to 
which I have already adverted, the bulk of the work in the first 
organisation of Indian forest business was successfully accomplished 
by men who had not received any si)ecial professional training. 
This, however, was in the beginning, when forest work in India 
had more of an administrative than of a professional character. 



THE PROPOSED SCHOOL OF FORESTRY. 75 

As further progress is made, this will change, and new problems 
of a pi'ofessional chai'acter will present themselves, which will tax 
to the utmost the special knowledge and the skill of the forester 
in India. 

Mj advice in this matter is, to keep the two undertakings 
entirely distinct, the elaborate professional and scientific training 
of those who aspire to appointments in the superior forest staff 
of India, and the establishment of forest schools for wood- 
managers and foresters in Scotland, England, and Ireland. In 
Prussia and other countries of the Continent of Europe, the State 
is the largest forest proprietor ; moreover, it is justly held td be 
the duty of the State to watch over the good management of the 
forests which belong to towns, villages, and public corporations. 
In these countries, therefore, it clearly is the business of the State 
to organise the system of forest instruction. It is different in 
Great Britain, where, out of a total ai-ea under timber of about 
2,800,000 acres, the Crown has only about 100,000 acres, while 
the rest belongs to private proprietors. In the United Kingdom 
the condition of things is similar to that which exists in some 
parts of Austria, notably in Bohemia and Moravia, where the 
large forest proprietoi's have formed two Associations for the 
purpose of providing professional education for young men, who 
desire to enter their service as wood-managers or foresters. The 
professional education for the State forest service in Austria was 
considered too high and too expensive for the requirements of 
these private estates ; the proprietors therefore determined to 
help themselves. The Bohemian school at Weisswasser was 
established in 1855 ; students are required to pass through 
a middle class school, and to serve a practical apprenticeship 
of twelve months, after which the course of studies at the school 
occupies two years. A forest district of 2900 acres, the pro- 
perty of Count Waldstein Wartenberg, is attached to the school, 
and placed under the control of the Director for purposes of 
practical instruction. The Director, Chevalier Fiscali, is a dis- 
tinguished forester, and under him is a staff of five professors, 
one for those branches of forestry not taught by the Director 
himself, one for mathematics and surveying, two for natural 
sciences, and one for drawing and bookkeeping. Eulenberg, the 
school maintained by the Association of Forest Proprietors of 
Moravia and (Austrian) Silesia, was founded in 1851, and has a 
similar organisation. No fees are paid by sons of foresters. 



7G TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Ever since I heai-d of the plan to establish a forest school in 
Scotland, I have been of opinion, and have given expression to 
this opinion whenever I have had an opportunity, that as soon 
as the desire gains ground among proprietors in Scotland to obtain 
for their estates the services of wood-managers and foresters who 
have received a more systematic professional training than is 
attainable at present, they will find the needful means and take 
the needful steps for the establishment of a forest school. It 
clearly is their interest to increase the annual yield, and to 
improve the productive powers, which means the capital value, 
of their estates. These ends may to some extent be accomplished 
by a more systematic management of their woodlands, and this 
again will doubtless be promoted by giving to foresters a more 
systematic training in their j^rofession than they receive at pre- 
sent. I am, however, fully aw^are, that there are two circum- 
stances which, to some extent, may impede the speedy accomplish- 
ment of this idea — the low price of timber, and the very high 
rent at present obtained by the letting of grouse moors and deer 
forests. Of these two circumstances, however, the members of this 
Society are much better able to judge than I am, and I do not 
therefore attempt to discuss them. 

The natural and proper thing in the present case, is for the pro- 
prietors to take action on their own account. Should this, how- 
ever, not be the case, and should the Royal Scottish Arboricultural 
Society feel themselves stx'ong enough to take the initiative in such 
an undertaking, this would be an excellent and most important step 
in the great and good work which your Society has steadily pursued 
since its formation in 1854. Your aim from the commencement 
has been, to raise foi'estry in Scotland to the dignity of a profession. 
Your Transactions, the prize essays published by your Society, the 
Excursions to instructive forest districts, the great International 
Forestry Exhibition at Edinburgh, and the lectures delivered 
under the auspices of your Society, have all been important steps in 
the same direction. If the Royal Scottish Arboricultural Society 
should find itself to be in a position to take the lead in this 
great movement, the large landed proprietors might perhaps after- 
wards be disposed to take up the scheme and to work it out on their 
own account. Something of this kind happened at Weisswasser, 
which was at first established by the Bohemian Forest Society, 
and which was thus continued until 18G2, when the forest proprie- 
tors of the; province took over the institution. 



THE PROPOSED SCHOOL OF FORESTKY. 77 

In whatever manner the scheme of establishing a forest school 
for the professional training of wood-managers and foresters may- 
be acoomjilished, I desire to assure you of my hearty sympathy in 
the undertaking. In some excellent remarks, headed, " How to 
make the most of the Excursions arranged by the Society," your 
honorary member, William M'Corquodale — with whom in 1865 T 
spent a delightful and most instructive day in the woods of Scone 
Palace, near Perth — justly drew attention to the advantage of an 
accurate study of the methods of forestry practised on various 
estates. Much, very much, of the highest interest to the forester, 
may be seen and learned in the Scottish woodlands. Different 
methods of forestry have been practised under widely different 
circumstances, in some cases with marked success, while in other 
cases there have been failui-es. A forest school, if the teaching is 
of the proper kind, will contribute much to a better understand- 
ing of the circumstances which have led to success in the one 
case and to failure in the other. The students will be taught to 
observe accurately, to combine their own observations with the 
theoretical knowledge they have acquired, and this will eventually 
enable them to draw correct conclusions from the facts which they 
have observed. The school, if well directed, ought to become 
a centre of scientific research, the results of which will contribute 
much towards a more successful management of the woodlands. 
The foresters trained at the school will not only be more efficient 
in their work, but — and this is of very great importance — the 
better they learn to understand the connection, as worked out by 
science, between cause and effect in the life of trees and shrubs, 
the greater will be their enthusiastic attachment to their jjrofes- 
sion. True, healthy, enthusiastic attachment to one's profession 
is a blessing in the life of a young man, the value of which it is 
difficult to overrate. When the time for action comes in the 
matter of the Scottish Forest School, I shall deem it an honour 
and a pleasure, if it should be desired, and if circumstances should 
permit, to help with my advice, and some day, perhaps, to explain 
to the students some of the conclusions which I have formed as 
the result of many years' study of trees and shrubs in different 
countries. 



78 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIliTV. 



III. Forest Administration in the Canton Vaiul, SwitzerlaiuL 
By George Cadell, Lausanne. 

PRINCIPAL TREES OF THE CANTON. 

The canton of Vaud, though not one of the so-called forest 
cantons of Switzerland which are clustered round the Lake of 
Lucerne, yet possesses large and important forests, from which it 
deri\es a substantial proportion of its revenue. Lying along the 
northern bank of the Lake of Geneva, or, as the Vaudois prefer 
to call it, the Lake Leman, it extends from the slopes of the 
Jura, which form the frontier between France and Switzerland on 
the "west, to the confines of the central Alps on the east. It thus 
shares in the three shai'ply-defined zones of forest, into which the 
different climates and soils met with divide the small country of 
Switzerland. 

The beech, which is the characteristic tx'ee of northern Switzer- 
land, forms a continuous chain on the Jura, at an altitude of from 
1500 to 3000 feet. The chestnut, which in Switzerland occupies 
the place of the oak, borders the lake, and runs along the valley 
of the Rhone, uj) to the region where it is replaced by the larch.- 
And this last, which grows to a gi-eat size in the central Alps — 
trees of 80 feet in height and 6 feet in diameter being frequently 
met with — follows the canton to its eastern limits. 

THEIR RESPECTIVE HABITATS. 

The three distinguishing trees, then, of the canton Vaud are 
the beech {Fagus sylvatica), the chestnut (Castanea vesca), and 
the larch [Larix Europcea), and it may not be amiss to give here 
a short indication of their respective positions. The beech was 
formerly the dominant tree of the canton, as indeed it was of the 
whole of Switzerland above the central Alps. It has, however, 
gradually receded before the cultivation of the vine ; and the 
trees on the Jura, owing to the poorness of the calcareous soil, 
are knotty, and branch too close to the ground to form good 
timber trees. It is therefore chiefly used for firewood, and fur- 
nishes the principal supply of that article. 

The chestnut attains its most exuberant growth in the moun- 
tains, but is found in isolated patches throughout the canton ; 
and the larch, which is highly valued as furnishing lasting 



FOREST ADMINISTRATION IN THE CANTON VAUD, SWITZERLAND. 79 

materials for chalets, takes the place of the chestnut at a higher 
altitude. We may mention in passing that one often meets with 
chalets built of larch in the fifteenth century, the wood being 
quite black with age, but perfectly sound. 

Other trees are the white sapin (Picea pectitiata), which rises 
above the beech on the Jura and other mountains, giving way in 
its tui-n to the Cytisus aljnnus. The red sapin (Abies excelsa), 
which is found above the larch in altitudes where the cold is too 
severe for the full development of the latter. The maple {Acer 
opulifolium) is found in company with the Cytisus aljyinus above 
mentioned, while the Cytisus lahunmim prefers the lower slopes. 
The Pinus sylvestris, or Scots fir, is not found in its full develop- 
ment in Switzerland. 

FORMER PRODIGALITY OF FOREST RESOURCES. 

It may surprise our readers to be told that, with all this pos- 
session of forest wealth, with the absolute necessity for a lai-ge 
supply of wood fuel for the maintenance of the industries of the 
country, with the pressing duty of preserving barriers of forest 
for the protection of the villagers from destruction by avalanches, 
and of the soil from disintegration by floods, — the reckless use of 
these resoui'ces was such that thirty years ago the canton of Vaud 
was, in common with the rest of Switzerland, dependent upon 
foreign importation for its supply not only of timber but of fire- 
wood. 

An official report, which was called for in the year 1858-59, 
stated that " the actual production of the forests was not sufiicient 
for the consumption of the inhabitants — it forms only 76 per cent., 
and if one adds all the other combustibles we have still a deficit 
of 4 per cent." And again, " The Alps, which ought to furnish 
the wood necessary for the more populous districts of the plain, 
from which much wood is exported, do not produce even sufiicient 
for the demands of the inhabitants, without counting the needs of 
the industries and of the means of transport." 

And the consequences were more serious still ; for it was re- 
ported " that many of the inhabitants of the mountains know that 
avalanches now fall in places which were not formerly exposed to 
this plague." 

RENDERING NECESSARY A NEW FOREST ACT. 

This state of matters led to the passing of a new law, on the 



80 TRANSACTIONS OF KOYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

31st January 1873, for the administration of the forests, which 
took the place of the former law passed in 1835, and which forms 
the basis of the present system of forest regulation in Switzerland. 

LAWS PASSED BY THE FEDERAL COUNCIL, AND ADMINISTERED BY 
THE CANTONS AND COMMUNES. 

Here, with the indulgence of our readers, a little digression 
will be necessary, to form a correct idea of the working of the 
laws of the Swiss Goverinnent, which goes under the genei'al 
name of " communal." And this will perhajis be considered more 
pardonable if we reflect that it is this system of communal 
government which some of our politicians hold out as a model 
for our imitation, and as the one most likely to satisfy the wishes 
of those who shortly formulate their demands under the cry for 
local government. 

The Swiss Confederation is divided into 22 Cantons, and these 
again, severally, into numerous Communes, each of which is 
entrusted, so far as is possible, with the entire management of its 
local concerns. Some laws, — and the Forest Law of 1873, which 
we are considering, is one of them, — are called Federal Laws, and 
are of general application throughout Switzerland. But this 
application, within the broad lines laid down by the Federal 
Council, is left to the discretion of the Cantonal Governments, 
who again delegate their powers, but still retaining the power of 
supervision and confirmation to the Communes, or what we call 
the Municipalities. 

OF THE FOREST SYSTEM OF ADMINISTRATION. 

For the purposes of Forest Administi'ation, the Cantonal 
Government of Vaud divided their country into six circles, each 
of them placed under a Forest Lispector. Within these circles 
flourished side by side — 

a. State forests wholly managed by the State officials. 

h. Communal forests managed by the communes, but under the 
inspection and with the advice of the local State officials. 

c. Private forests, the property of px-ivate individuals, where 
State interference was but rarely called into play, except 
in the extreme case of wasteful management, which caused 
damage, not only to the property itself, but to those imme- 
diately surrounding it. 



FOREST ADMINISTRATION IN THE CANTON VAUD, SWITZERLAND, 81 

The ideal aimed at — and successive reports show that the ideal 
has been in part, at any rate, attained — was the administration 
of the forests with the concurrence and by the assistance of the 
people. 

Conscious of the difficulty of stating the position of matters in 
a clear and intelligible manner, we would ask the indulgence of 
our readers, while we have recourse to an actual example to 
throw some light on our meaning. 

EXAMPLE OF ITS WORKING. 

The mountains of the Hautes Alpes had, previously to the year 
1856, been swept bare of trees, and their unprotected slopes used 
solely for pasturage. In that year disastrous floods occurred, 
which at last moved public opinion, and a law was passed in 1860 
prescribing the re-afibresting of the mountains. The year follow- 
ing, the work was begun. In addition to the obstacles offered by 
nature, the unsuitability of the soil for plantations, etc., the 
scheme met with the greatest opposition, pushed even to fury, 
sometimes to crime, fi-om the mountaineers. These declared that 
the mountains were sacrificed to the plain, and that they weie 
thus deprived of their pasturages, and consequently of their flocks, 
their only means of subsistence. 

The remonstrances of the mountaineers were met not by 
absolute refusal, but by conciliation. The works of re-afibresting 
and re-grassing, if we may coin the word, went on side by side. 
And, in brief, their success was rapid and complete. The most 
violent storms of 1868, which had formerly caused such disastei'S, 
were absolutely harmless in the regenerated portions. The moun- 
tains became productive. Where a few sheep formerly found it 
difficult to live, by devouring all the existing vegetation, abundant 
crops of grass, capable of being mown, now sprung up. The moun- 
taineers, essentially a pastoral people, found not only food for 
their increasing flocks, but shelter and poles for the cultivation of 
their vines. Thus the very people who most violently opposed 
the re-aff'orestation of the mountains, were the most loyal sup- 
porters of the forest administration. Their confidence was gained, 
not forced. And this, as we have already said, is the ideal 
aimed at in the Swiss system of Communal Government. How 
this has succeeded generally in the forest administration of the 
canton of Vaud, let the report of the Department of Agriculture 
and Commerce itself show. 

VOL. XII., PART I. F 



82 TRANSACTIONS OF IIOYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



CO-OPERATION OF THE COMMUNES. 

" Many communes have fulfilled the engagements which they 
entered into on the occasion of ' coupes extraordinaires ' " (that is, 
fellings above the " possibility " of the forests, admitted in conse- 
quence of existing scarcity of wood, and in view of re-planting to 
make up the deficiency); "others have constructed at great expense 
ways of outlet for the passage of their wood, and devote to the 
care of their forest properties a particular and constant attention, 
on which we cannot but congratulate them, and cite them as 
examples." 

Now, we do not mean to say that this has all been done from 
pure and simple affection, or from pure and simple intelligence. 
Human nature is everywhei'e much the same. And without 
laws — ay, without strong and stringent laws (and the Swiss 
government, as we shall presently see, leaves nothing to be desired 
on this head), — human nature is nowhere uniformly sweet — no- 
where uniformly intelligent. But in the apj)lication of the law 
lies the test of wise administration. An ignorant, uneducated 
people may be ruled by the gauntlet of steel pure and simple. 
But if a government permit or encourage the education of its 
people, the gauntlet must at any rate be masked nnder a silken 
glove. And that government is most strong, which is least 
demonstrative. That rule is most useful, which is least often 
called into use. 



PERSONAL LIABILITY OF AUTHORITIES FOR ABUSES. 

We do not propose to inflict on our readers the phraseology of 
the law, to bear out the statement we have above made. We will, 
however, direct their particular attention to the 2}erso)ial liability 
of every one in the country, for the proper administration of the 
forests. 

Thus the State forest guards are enjoined to hand in, within 
48 hours, oflicial complaints of all contraventions of the law 
which occur within their beats. If they do not do so, they are 
held liable for all the fines and punishments incurred by the 
delinquents, without prejudice to other action. 

A subsequent article provides for the same proceeding, in the 
case of guards appointed by the communes. 

While, going higher up the social scale, the members of a 



FOREST ADMIXISTRATION IN THE CANTON VAUD, SWITZERLAND, 83 

municipality who knowingly Lave committed, or authorised, con- 
traventions of the law, are themselves liable to the fines to 
which such contraventions have given place, with the additional 
arid special fine of 15 francs per acre for all forest on which they 
allow pasturage otherwise than provided for by law. 



OF RIGHTS OF USAGE. 

The rights of pasturage, and other claims, made by dwellers in 
the vicinity of forests, which it is considered necessary to keep as 
State or Communal forests, are recognised, but only so far as to 
make their compulsory surrender a matter of pecuniaiy compensa- 
tion. The paramount importance of maintaining the forests in a 
healthy condition for the public good is distinctly made to over- 
ride all claims of private interest. And with such a report as 
we have alluded to above, resistance to government authority, in 
the enforcement of this general principle, is neither reasonable 
nor possible. 

THEIR SUBORDINATION TO THE PUBLIC GOOD. 

What we wish to insist upon, and bring into relief, generally, 
in the system, is, on the one hand, the strictness of the written 
law, and on the other, the reasonableness of its application. So 
long, for instance, as the balance of supply and demand was 
unduly depressed, the provisions of the law were bound to be 
enforced, if need be with rigour. But when this equilibrium was 
regained, interference with private rights is not attempted, and 
would not, if attempted, be tamely accepted. One talks, without 
the faintest idea of irony, of the " machinery " of such and such 
a department. Such a word is entirely out of place in describing 
the system of forest management in the canton Yaud. Granted 
that the red tape exists, — this is we suppose a necessity of all 
dejmrtmental working. But the colour of the tape is less red, 
and the strings of the tape are less tightly drawn in this com- 
munal arrangement, than in many other more polished systems of 
government. The people are assumed to have minds of their 
own, more or less open to i-eason. And more remarkable still, it 
is even suspected that the government official may have a glim- 
mering of common sense, and a certain reserve fund of individual 
discretion. 



84 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 
OF STATE ASSISTANCE AND ENCOURAGEMENT. 

(a.) By rewards ; (b.) By subsidies. 

But the administration of the forests is not a system of entire 
confidence in the intelligence of the people on the one hand, or of 
stringent enforcement of the law on the other. Encoui-agement 
is given to those who faithfully carry out, in their respective 
spheres, the recommendations which are made for the preservation 
or extension of the forests. Thus the forest guards and other 
officials, who fulfil their duties conscientiously and with zeal, 
receive annually prizes fixed by the Council of State ; and sub- 
sidies are given to the communes which undertake large measures 
of re-afibrestation within their limits, and also to individual pro- 
prietors. 

In the report of the Department for 1886 we read: "We 
desire to see a larger number of the communes and of individual 
proprietors entitle themselves to the benefit of the subsidies which 
the Confederation accords (viz., from 30 to 50 per cent, of the 
total cost) in the interest of the augmentation of the forest surface, 
especially in the high districts, or on lands whei'e the soil remains 
still unpi'oductive." 

(c.) By the supply of Plants. 

And under the heading of " Nurseries," in the same report, we 
read : " Re-afibrestation being ordained as one of the principal 
conditions of permission for extraordinary fellings, and recom- 
mended especially in the higher regions, it is necessary that the 
State should furnish to the communes and to private proprietors 
the facility for pi'ocuring plants of forest trees, not only in quantity 
and in quality, but at a reasonable price." 

We may mention that the " reasonable price " above referred to 
averaged 8 francs 18 cents (say 6s. 9d.) per 1000, the trees prin- 
cipally supplied being of the resinous kinds — the red and white 
.spruce, the larch, and the Austrian and Weymouth pines ; and of 
" foliage" trees, the beech, oak, maple, ash, alder, and poplar, the 
last two being specially recommended for planting on the sandy 
shores of the lakes. 

OP THE NATURE AND EXTENT OF THE COMMUNAL FORESTS. 

Looking to the price charged for the plants, it must be said 
that the maintenance of the nurseries is, so far as the State is 



FOREST ADMINISTRATION IN THE CANTON VAUD, SWITZERLAND, 85 

concerned, a duty more onerous than remunerative. But that 
it is appreciated is evidenced by the fact that the demand, espe- 
cially for beech plants, augments from year to year. The number 
of saplings bought by the communes from the State nurseries 
for the year 1886 is stated at 598,230. And it may further 
interest those readers who are fond of statistics, to know that in 
the same year 2,000,760 forest plants were put out in the com- 
munal forests, and 1855 pounds of seed sown in the communal 
nurseries. To compare these figures with the total extent of 
forest land in the canton under the control of the communes, we 
may mention that this consists of 3,838,895 hectares of forest 
trees, and 381,697 hectai-es of firewood trees — the hectare being 
equal to about 2J acres English measurement. 

OF THE CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE OF ROADS, DAMS, ETC. 

The construction of all roads giving access and egress to the 
various forests is a matter of arrangement with those communes 
that are interested, and which bear their proportion of the expense. 
In pi-actical working, few real difficulties lie in the way of agree- 
ment, the general rule being that all who benefit by the roads — 
be they State, Communes, or private individuals — share in the 
expense of making and of maintenance. The same rule applies to 
dams, embankments, sluices, and all works necessary for the 
floating of wood down the rivers, which form an important means 
of communication in the canton. 

OF DAMAGES TO THE FORESTS. 

Heavy falls of snow are the main cause of the damage annually 
done to the forests, and it has been found, as the result of ex- 
perience, that the minimum of distance between trees of the 
resinous species should be 1*20 m. — say 4 feet. Other enemies 
are the influence of the frost in the nurseries, and of the lightning 
on the higher slopes. But the amount of wilful damage done 
by either man or the animal creation is wonderfully small — an 
additional fact, which may be taken as evidencing the general 
acquiescence of the people in the forest administration. 

OF SHOOTING AND FISHING. 

The two minor departments of shooting (" Chasse ") and fish- 
ing ("Peche") have from last year (1886) been entrusted to the 
care of the forest inspectors, under the general heading of Agricul- 



86 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ture and Commerce. This duty has been entered upon in the 
same spirit as forest conservancy. Sportsmen have been invited 
to send in the modifications which they desire to see introduced 
into the existing laws, and, although their opinions are very diverse 
and frequently contradictory, this is no more than might be ex- 
pected from the primary labours of any commission, whose duty 
it is to sift the reasonable from the absurd or forced proposals 
which are brought under its- notice. The guards or gamekeepers 
are specially enjoined to make examinations of the contents of 
the stomachs of the animals which they kill, in order to demon- 
strate whether their destructiveness to game is in a greater or 
less proportion to their usefulness to agriculture. 

CONCLUSION. 

And now we have brought those of our readers who have been 
good enough to follow us, to the end of our short sketch of the 
Forest Administration of the canton Yaud. Our facts are taken 
either from personal observation or from official sources. Our 
conclusions are our own, and ai-e, of course, open to adverse 
criticism ; but we confess to a very candid admiration for many 
of the institutions of Switzerland. Viewed on the surface — and 
if the letter only of the written law be taken — they are democra- 
tively autoci-atic, by which we mean autocratic in the strongest 
sense of the word. Viewed in relation to the contentedness and 
well-being of the people who live under them, and by whose will 
they exist, they are eminently suited to the country. And with 
regard to the special department, whose work we have been 
reviewing, the amelioration of a property, racked to the utmost 
by waste and ill-usage, has been thoroughly carried out, and this, 
too, with the support of a people, from whom the temporaiy and 
partial sacrifice of what in Switzerland is one of the necessaries 
of life was demanded and was cheerfully submitted to. 



DR CLEGHOKN's services TO INDIAN FORESTRY. 87 



IV. Br Cleghorns Services to Indian Forestry. By Sir D. 
Brandis, late Inspector-General of Forests to the Govern- 
ment of India. 

Since Forestry is now recognised as an important business in 
India ; since it has become possible, by means of protection, and 
chiefly by means of protection against the annual ravages of fire, 
to convert the poor jungles of olden days into dense, well-stocked, 
and productive forests, which yield a large and steadily increasing 
revenue, — and mainly since experience has shown that Forest 
Conservancy, instead of doing harm to the people of India, pro- 
motes their well-being, and is a blessing to them and their country, 
— the question has, naturally, often been asked and discussed, in 
which part of the British Indian Empire Forest Conservancy was 
first started 1 

In the beginning of the century the Government of Bombay 
established a timber agency on the western coast of the peninsula, 
in order to secure a permanent supply of Teak timber for the 
Government dockyai'ds at Bombay. In 1847, Dr Gibson was 
appointed Conservator of Forests in Bombay, and ever since that 
time attempts have been made, with more or less success, not 
only to work the Government forests of that Presidency, but also 
to secure their maintenance, to protect and to improve them. 

Soon after Tenasserim had become British territory in 1826, 
repeated, but at that time mostly ineffectual, attempts were made 
to effect the protection of the Teak forests in that province. 

In the Presidency of Madras, Mr Conolly, the Collector of 
Malabar, commenced planting Teak on a large scale at Nilambur, 
and this was the beginning of those famous plantations, which 
have since been steadily extended by the Madras Foi'est Depart- 
ment, and which are now reported to cover 3500 acres. 

The object of the present paper is not to decide the question, 
whether Madras or Bombay may claim the honour of having first 
started Forest Conservancy in India, but to set forth the share 
which Dr Cleghorn has had in this business ; and hence it will be 
necessary to review somewhat more fully what was done in this 
respect in the Madras Presidency, where Dr Cleghorn commenced 
his labours. 

In May 1847, Captain Frederick Conyers Cotton (now Major- 
General and Companion of the Star of India) reported to the 



88 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY, 

Government of Madras on the Teak in the Anamahii hills, and 
asked for the services of an officer to explore the forests. The 
sanction of the Government of India having been obtained to this 
proposal, Lieutenant James Michael (now Major-General and 
Companion of the Star of India) was apjiointed in June 1848. 
In August 1849, the Court of Director called for reports on the 
results of Lieutenant Michael's work. The terms of the despatch 
are well worth recording, as evidence of the just views entertained 
at that time by the Court of Directors. They wrote : " We trust 
that effectual measures will be taken for its conservation (of the 
Anamalai Forest), so as to protect it from the serious injury 
which other forests have sustained." 

Captain Cotton then submitted a report on the operations of 
felling and converting, the making of a road across the hills, and 
the settlement of the Colengode and Cochin boundaries. He also 
reported the number of good Teak trees standing. 

In the Cochin disputed territory, . . 107,000 trees. 
In the Colengode ,, . . 28,000 ,, 

In the Government territory, . . , 61,700 ,, 



Total, . . . 196,700 ,, 

Minutes were written on the subject by Mr D. Elliot, Member of 
Council, and by the Governor, Sir H. Pottinger, and in February 
1850 the Government sanctioned Lieutenant Michael being kept 
on. In February 1851 he was sent to Moulmein to learn the 
methods of dealing with heavy timber, in December 1853 to the 
Kanara Forests, and in 1854 he was formally appointed Superin- 
tendent of the Anamalai Forests. The published reports (selections 
from the Records No. Y. of 1855) deal only with timber and roads, 
and there is no reference to conservancy. Lieutenant Michael, 
however, did more than this — he brought about the lease of valu- 
able Teak forests from the Nambadi of Colengode, and he started a 
system of clearing Teak seedlings, and young Teak trees, of dry 
leaves and other inflammable matter in the forests, so as to pro- 
tect them against injury by the annual fires of the dry season. 

In 1856, Lieutenant Michael went on leave, and Captain (now 
General) Douglas Hamilton was appointed in his place. He was 
in charge of the Anamalai Forests for several years, and at a later 
date — after a regular Forest Department for the whole Presidency 
had been organised — Captain Hamilton was succeeded by Lieu- 
tenant (now Colonel) Beddome. 



DR CLEGHORN's services TO INDIAN FORESTRY, 89 

About the time that Captain Cotton first drew attention to the 
Anamalai Forests, Dr Cleghorn was stationed as an Assistant- 
Surgeon at Shimoga, in the Nuggur Division of Mysore. Being 
interested in botany and a keen observer, he remarked the 
■wholesale destruction of forests in that district, chiefly through 
" Kumri" cultivation. It was mainly through his representations 
that the attention of Sir Mark Cabbon, then Commissioner of 
Mysore, and of Colonel Onslow, the Superintendent of the Nuggar 
Division of that State, was drawn to the necessity of Forest 
Conservancy. Dr Cleghorn's name is mentioned in a Report on 
the Conservation of Forests, which the last-named ofiicer sub- 
mitted to the Commissioner in May 1847.^ In consequence of 
this report and of Dr Cleghorn's representations, Kumri cultiva- 
tion was stopped in the greater part of Mysore and Coorg ; and 
in 1868, while on a tour of inspection through these districts, 
the writer of this note had the satisfaction of seeing large tracts 
of country clothed with well-stocked young forests, which had 
grown up on the old Kumri clearings. 

In 1 850, the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 
at their Edinburgh meeting, appointed a Committee to consider 
the probable effects, in an economical and physical point of view, 
of the destruction of tropical forests. The report was drawn up 
by Dr Cleghorn, and was submitted to the Association, which 
assembled at Ipswich in 1851. The other members of the Com- 
mittee were : Professor Forbes Eoyle, Captain R. Baird Smith, 
and Captain (now Lieutenant-General) R. Strachey. This report 
gave an exhaustive review of the question as it then stood, and 
as far as it related to India, and it contributed much to induce 
influential membei-s of Government in India and at home, seriously 
to consider the necessity of organising systematic measures of 
Forest Conservancy in India. 

In the Bengal Presidency it was Lord Dalhousie himself who, 
as Governor-General of India, carried through effective measures 
for the conservation of forests, chiefly in the newly-acquired pro- 
vince of Pegu ; while in Madras Lord Harris took steps in the 
same direction. In August 1856, Dr Cleghorn submitted a 
report to the Government of Madras, containing proposals for 
establishing Forest Conservancy. These proposals were sent up to 
the Government of India for sanction, which was accorded in 

1 Eeport of the Twenty-First Meeting of the British Association held at 
Ipswich in July 1851, p- 83. 



90 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

November; and on the 19th December 1856, Dr Cleghorn was 
appointed Conservator of Forests in the Presidency of Madras. 
An account of Dr Cleghorn's work during the first five years of 
his tenure of this appointment is contained in three general 
reports and other oflicial documents, which, with other impor- 
tant unoflicial papers, were published in the little book, entitled, 
"Forests and Gardens of South India," which Dr Cleghorn 
published in 1861, when compelled to come home on sick 
leave. This book has done much to pi-omote Forest Conser- 
vancy in India. The reader must not expect to find in it the 
record of a complete and scientific system of forest administra- 
tion, the introduction of which, under the circumstances, at 
that time would not have been feasible. But the record of the 
woi'k accomplished by Dr Cleghorn during this period shows that 
he directed his attention to such matters as called for immediate 
action, and that his recommendations in regard thereto were in 
the right direction. He justly laid great stress upon the necessity 
of acquiring a good knowledge of the principal trees and shrubs, 
as well as of the climate, soil, and forest growth in the difierent 
foi'est tracts ; he arranged for the supply of timber, charcoal, and 
firewood ; and in regard to the protection of the forests, he studied 
the chief sources of injury, indiscriminate cutting, fires, and Kumri 
cultivation. The result of his persistent I'epresentations was, that 
by an order of May 1860, the Government of Madras prohibited 
Kumri cultivation in Government forests without previous per- 
mission, and directed that this permission should be given spar- 
ingly, and never for spots in the timber forests. Dr Cleghorn 
had thus accomplished for the Madras Presidency the same result 
which, thirteen years previously, he had helped to bring about in 
Mysore, and in both cases the result accomplished through his 
persistent representations has been most beneficial for the country 
and its inhabitants. Dr Cleghorn was able to carry his point in 
this matter, becaiise he was known to be a true friend of the 
natives ; he entertained feelings of warm sympathy towards them, 
and had made himself familiar with their mode of life and system 
of husbandry. As a medical man his name was widely known, 
and he had acquired much influence among the native population. 
When urging the discontinuance of Kumri cultivation in Madras, 
as he had previously urged in Mysore, he knew that he was 
pro])Osing measures which in the end would be highly beneficial 
for the people themselves. Dr Cleghorn's single-minded desire to 



DR CLEGHORN's services TO INDIAN FORESTRY. 91 

promote the welfare of the people was known to those who at that 
time were in influential positions in Madras, and the confidence 
which they placed in him was the secret of his success in this 
important matter. 

At a later period Kumri has unfortunately been again per- 
mitted in Mysore, and in Madras the beneficial effect of the order 
of 1860 has subsequently to a great extent been rendered nugatory 
by the tendency which for some time prevailed in that Presidency, 
to regai'd as private property a large portion of the forest lands, 
particularly in South Kanara, which had formerly been considered 
to be the property of Government. These subsequent mistakes, 
though they have done great injury to the country and its in- 
habitants, do not in any way diminish Dr Cleghorn's paramount 
merit in this matter. Dr Cleghorn paid great attention to a 
proper arrangement of cuttings, so as to secure the maintenance 
and promote the natural reproduction of the forests. Under his 
direction numerous new plantations were established, while exist- 
ing plantations were maintained and extended. Establishments 
for the protection and proper management of the forests were 
organised in all districts. The time had not yet come for com- 
prehensive forest legislation, but local rules were issued, on his 
recommendation, by Government, which for the time being were 
sufficient. 

On Dr Cleghorn's return to India in November 1861, he was 
directed by the Governor-General in Council to proceed from 
Madras to the Punjab, in order to examine the forests in the 
Western Himalaya, with a view to obtaiii reliable information 
regarding the timber resources of that province, and to institute 
a systematic plan of conservancy and management. The ex^ilora- 
tion of the forests in the hills occupied the summer months of 
1862 and 1863, while the winter months were devoted to the 
inspection of timber depots, brushwood tracts of the plains, and 
the preliminary arrangements necessary for the formation of the 
Department, His Report on the Forests of the Punjab and the 
Western Himalaya, which was published in 1864, sets forth the 
results of his work, and has been of great value in facilitating the 
oi'ganisation of forest administration in that province and in those 
native states of the Western Himalaya where it was possible, by 
means of leases, to obtain the control of the forests. His work 
received from the Lieutenant-Governor of the Punjab great praise, 
and the Governor-General in Council expressed his concuri-ence in 



92 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

the high estimation entertained by the Punjab Govei-nnient of 
his services. 

Meanwhile (in October 1862) the writer of the present paper 
had been summoned from Burmah, where he had been in charge 
of the forests since January 1856, to advise the Government of 
India in the general organisation of Forest business. On his 
recommendation, Dr Cleghorn was associated with him on the 1st 
January 186-4, and remained in that capacity attached to the 
Government of India until 1st March 1865. Previously, in 
August 1863, these two officers had drawn up a joint memorandum, 
which was sent to the Government of Madras, and which urged 
the necessity of early demarcation of the Government and village 
forests in the Madras Presidency. These proposals were not, 
however, at that time approved by the Madras Government, and 
it may here be added that, in spite of the persistent representa- 
tions subsequently made on the same subject by the Government 
of India, no adequate action was taken in Madras towai'ds effecting 
a separation of the various rights and interests in the public 
forests and waste lands until the Madi-as Forest Act was passed 
in 1882. 

In April 1866, while the writer of the present paper was on 
leave in Europe, Dr Cleghorn was appointed to officiate as In- 
spector-General of Forests until April 1867, when the thanks of 
the Government of India were conveyed to Dr Cleghorn for his 
long and successful labours in the cause of Forest Conservancy in 
India. On his return to Madras, he resumed his work in that 
Presidency with his former zeal and industry. That, neverthe- 
less, during that period much less progress was made in the forests 
of Madras than in those of other provinces of the Empire, was 
due to the views of the Government of Madras, which at that 
time began to manifest themselves. Dr Cleghorn retired from 
the service in 1870, but has since been employed every year at 
the India Office as a confidential adviser to assist Her Majesty's 
Secretary of State in the selection of candidates for the Indian 
Forest Service. 

When Dr Cleghorn laid the foxindation of an effective system 
of Forest Conservancy in Mysore and Madras, Forestiy was very 
little known in India. A commencement had been made in several 
places, but Dr Cleghorn was the first to carry out conservancy 
measures on an extensive scale. His aims were large and com- 
prehensive, but the single-minded devotion to the task which he 



DR CLEGHORN's services TO INDIAN FORESTRY. 93 

had set himself gained the confidence of many who might other- 
wise have been hostile to the new measures advocated by him. 
A public resolution by the Government of India, of 10 th January 
1865,^ justly designated him as the founder of Forest Conservancy 
in India, and added — " His long sei-vices from the first organisa- 
tion of forest management in Madras have without question 
greatly conduced to the public good in this branch of the admini- 
stration ; and in the Punjab also Dr Cleghorn's labours have 
prepared the way for the establishment of an efiicient system of 
conservancy and working the forests of that province," 

Since Dr Cleghorn's retirement from the Indian Service, he 
has done much for the promotion of Forestry in Great Britain, 
particularly through the Royal Scottish Arboricultural Society, of 
which he became a member in 1865, and of which he has been 
President on two occasions — from 1872 to 1874, and from 1883 
to 1886. It was in a great measure due to his exertions that the 
International Forestry Exhibition of 1884 was held with such 
marked success at Edinburgh. 

^ Parliamentary Return on Forest Conservancy, Part I. India, 1871, p. 95. 



94 TRANSACTIONS OF ROVAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



v. Deciduous Trees, with Ornamental and Coloured Foliage, 
useful in Landscape Forestry. By John Methven, Leith 
Walk Nurseries, Edinburgh. 

(Read at tlie Annual General Meeting, 1887.) 

There cannot be two opinions as to the importance of practical 
foresters cultivating a taste for planting with a view to produce 
a pleasing effect on the landscape, while at the same time 
acquiring a knowledge of the various trees popularly known 
as " fine foliaged." We live in a time when the sesthetic is 
studied in everything connected with dress, architectvire, house 
furnishings, garden decoration, and other affairs of everyday life ; 
and the grand opportunities presented in forestry should be fully 
taken advantage of to improve the public taste. In view of the 
now almost innumerable species and vai-ieties of trees with 
attractive forms of foliage and gorgeous variegations, our plan- 
tations should show, more than they have hitherto done, that 
planters have an eye to the beautiful in the arrangement of 
colour and variation of form, which after all is the great charm 
in woodland scenery. Opinion is divided as to whether the fresh 
green of spring-time, or the rich colouring of autumn is the most 
beautiful, but that both are beautiful and charming cannot be 
denied. If we can produce the russet brown, the golden, and 
the crimson tints of autumn throughout the summer, surely an 
advantage is gained. There can be no doubt that many of our 
Lowland plantations could be brightened by a free admixture of 
such beautiful-foliaged trees ; and as park, avenue, or roadside 
trees, some of them are unequalled. Indeed, all of those of which 
specimens are shown (a list of which is given at the end of this 
paper) are perfectly hardy in our climate ; and of their orna- 
mental character thei'e is no question. Most of them are distinct 
species, while some are natural deviations from the original form. 
As an example of what I consider a " fine-foliaged " tree, I will 
only instance the golden sycamore, or " Corstorphine Plane " as it 
is commonly called, the original tree of which grows within three 
miles of where we stand, near the village of Corstorphine, and 
which during the month of June is worth a pilgrimage to see. 
It produces leaves of the most brilliant golden colour, and is a 
conspicuous object in the landscape for miles around. So far, I 
have only spoken of the tcsthetic effects of these ornamental trees. 



DECIDUOUS TREES USEFUL IN LANDSCAPE FORESTRY. 95 

Nearly all of them, however, are excellent timber-producing trees. 
As such, many of them are of great value, and bring a high price 
in the market. 

I will now mention, in more detail, some of the most useful 
genera of this interesting class of trees ; giving a few hints and 
remarks which may lead others to make further inquiry into this 
attractive subject. 

The Maple (Acer). 

The Acers — which are represented by the Maples and Syca- 
more — are, it need scarcely be remarked, not only uniformly 
handsome as ornamental trees, but, without exception, exceed- 
ingly valuable for their timber. They are natives of Britain, 
various parts of the Continent of Europe; Asia, on the Himalayas, 
Japan, and North America. 

The Asiatic types, while bearing foliage of exquisite beauty of 
form and colour, are not at all likely, from their rather tender 
nature and weak growth, to take the position of forest trees in 
this country ; and it is to Europe and America that we are in- 
debted for the glorious species and varieties which so richly adorn 
our woodland scenery. There are a great many very distinct 
and beautiful varieties, all of which are worthy of consideration 
in the arrangement of trees for effect. 

The Horse Chestnut {jEscuIus). 

The Horse Chestnuts are a small but very interesting group of 
deciduous trees, remarkable for their symmetrical habits of growth, 
handsome foliage, and showy flowers, which in large specimens 
are produced in great abundance. They are indigenous to many 
parts of Asia and North America, and are perfectly hardy in this 
country. Than the common horse chestnut, there is no more 
beavitiful tree in our parks and ornamental plantations. It forms 
a noble characteristic object in the landscape, and superlatively so 
in early summer. Speaking of this tree, Mr Shirley Hibberd, in 
an interesting article in the Gardener'' s Magazine for June 1871, 
remarks : " During the last few weeks it has been like a new 
revelation to man of the power and goodness that inhabit the 
heavenly places. Its vast breadth of cheerful grass-green foliage ; 
its wonderful array of pink-tinted white flowers, render it, at 
least for the present time, the grandest tree in all the land." Of 
the tree in its normal state, we need add nothing more ; but 



96 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY, 

sports aii(i seminal varieties are of much value for ornamental 
planting. 

The Alder (Alnus). 

Of this genus there are only two or three species, but they are 
very generally found indigenous in moist situations throughout 
Europe, several parts of Asia, northern Africa, and North America. 
Though not commonly classed among ornamental trees, and com- 
pai-atively little planted for their timber, the species are, under 
favourable circumstances, very handsome, and are not without 
their claims as decorative trees. As an old writer very truthfully 
remarks : " The Alder suffers as an ornamental tree from an 
association of ideas— we not only see it very common, but we see 
it in low, dreaiy, dirty situations. Nevertheless, if the Alder be 
suffered to form its own head in an open advantageous situation, 
it is by no means an unsightly tree." 

Beside the species, there are now a goodly number of handsome 
varieties in cultivation, all of which are found to succeed well 
under similar circumstances with the normal type. 

The Aralia [Aralia). 

Of this genus only one or two species are sufficiently hardy for 
the climate of Scotland. Probably the most interesting of these 
is A. spinosa. It is an American species, particularly in Virginia, 
where it attains a height of from 18 ft. to 20 ft. It is hardy in 
Scotland, and examples may be found equal in height to that 
attained in its natural habitat. It forms a singularly handsome 
tree ; its magnificent foliage and fine outlines rendering it very 
conspicuous, and never failing to attract admiring attention. 

The Birch (Betula). 

The fine deciduous trees which compose this genus ai-e widely 
distributed over the temperate and colder regions of the world. 
They are perfectly hardy, and well suited for ciiltivation in this 
country. Though some of the species are chiefly regarded as 
forest trees, they ai-e, without exception, very ornamental, and, 
we need scarcely say, frequently met with in our parks and 
pleasure grounds. The common Birch has formed the theme of 
many a poet's song. Burns frequently alludes to it as the 
" scented birch ; " Coleridge calls it " the Lady of the Woods ; " 



DECIDUOUS TREES USEFUL IN LANDSCAPE FORESTRY. 97 

and Townley, with still greater enthusiasm, thus celebrates its 
praises ; 

" The pine is king of Scottish woods ; 
And the queen — ah, who is she ? 
The fairest form the forest kens, 
The bonnie birken tree. 

" AVhat magic hues the sunset pours 
All througli a birken glade ! 
Sooth you might think that every leaf 
Of living gold was made. 

" And every stem is silver bright. 
Wrought featly o'er with brown, 
More daintily than jewel work, 
Upon our fair Queen's crown." 

The Siberian Pea-Tree (Carayana). 

Of the Caraganas there is not more than one species that can 
be called a tree, and that is C. arborescens, a beautiful free flower- 
ing form, with pinnate leaves, a native of Sibei'ia, and very 
hardy in this country. The young leaves have a striking effect as 
they develop in spring, being of a rich golden colour, which is 
retained till they are full-grown, when they gradually assume a 
light-green tint. Of the varieties of this species the golden one 
is very notable, the rich colour of the foliage being retained till 
the end of summer. 

The Hornbeam (Carpinus). 
There is only one species, C. hetuhis, of any use or ornament, 
and it bears a general resemblance to the beech, but has a stiffer 
habit of growth. It makes very fine hedges, as it retains its 
leaves for the greater part of the winter. It produces a valuable 
wood where hardness is a desideratum. There are several varieties, 
and one with variegated foliage makes a beautiful tree. 

The Hickory {Carya). 
The Hickory family is composed of only a few species, but 
these are all very beavitiful. They ai'e indigenous to North 
America — where the wood is in much request for cabinet-making 
purposes, while it forms a valuable article of export to Europe. 
The foliage of all the kinds is pinnate — the leaflets differing in 
number from five to nine. They have been long cultivated in 

VOL. XII., PART I. G 



98 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

this country, and have proved perfectly hardy, growing freely in 
most soils, and forming splendid park trees. 

There are few or no really distinct varieties, but all of the 
species are worthy of a place in any arrangement of decorative 
trees. 

The Chestnut (Castanea). 

The only one of thi.s family which we would select as an oi"na- 
mental tree is C, vesca, the Spanish Chestnut, a well-known and 
much appreciated hardy tree. It is a native of Asia Minor, where 
it attains to a height of from 50 to 60 feet. It is of rapid growth, 
perfectly hardy, and, when allowed plenty of room, forms a 
handsome spreading umbrageous tree, densely furnished with its 
ol)long shining leaves. 

Of this fine tree there are numerous very striking vaiieties, 
most of which are probably of European origin, and all of them 
vei-y desirable as ornamental trees. 

The Catalpa (Cataljm). 

Indigenous to Cai'olina, Georgia, and Floiida, this fine tree, 
Catalpa syrinyfcfulia, is only equal to the climate of Scotland in 
favoured situations. It stands well, however, in many parts of 
England, where it is seen as a broad spreading tree of some 30 feet 
in height. The leaves are cordate — from 5 to 6 inches across — and 
of a bright green tint. Where this tree thrives — and we have 
seen it in perfection in the southern and midland counties of 
England — it produces its large terminal panicles of white flowers, 
spotted with purple and yellow, in great profusion. 

The variety " aurea " is one of the finest of golden-leaved 
trees. 

The Laburnum (Cytisus). 

So far as trees are concerned among this family, the well-known 
plants called " Laburnums " are the type. Two species are 
cultivated in this country, the one, Cytisus alpinus — a native 
of the Apennines — and popularly known as the " Scotch Labur- 
num ; " and the other, Cytisus Laburnum, a native of Germany, 
but popularly called the "English Laburnum." They are very 
showy in the early months of summer, when clothed with their 
l)eautiful golden blossoms, and both have claims of a special kind 
upon the attention of planters of ornamental trees. 



DECIDUOUS TREES USEFUL IN LANDSCAPE FORESTRY. 99 

We introduce tliem, however, for the varieties with golden or 
variegated foliage, which are well worth the special attention of 
planters, from the bright colouring they give to groups of small 
trees, and along the mai'gins of plantations. 

The Beech (Fagus). 

The species of this genus form a limited but important group 
of evergreen and deciduous trees, with a wide geographical distri- 
bution over the temperate and colder regions of both the old and 
new world. They are famous alike for their highly ornamental 
character, and we need not say for the excellence of their timber, 
which is employed for a great variety of purposes. 

The evergreen species are not found to do much good as trees 
in this country. They are natives of both sides of the Straits of 
Magellan, and occur in vast forests in Tierra del Fuego, w^here they 
extend from the sea-side up to the snow-line of the mountains, and 
vary in height from about 40 feet in the more sheltered situations, 
to mere scrubby bushes, 2 or 3 feet in height, in the high and 
exposed sites. It is therefore to the common Beech, Fagus 
sylvatica, with its numerous varieties, that the planter has to 
look for his supply of ornamental trees. 

The Ash [Fraxinus). 

The large array of species and varieties which compose this 
group are widely scattered over Europe, some of the temperate 
regions of Asia, and many parts of America. They are, for the 
most part, of large growth, and more or less valued for their 
timber. "With few exceptions, they form remarkably handsome 
trees, and have long been favourites in our parks and other orna- 
mental grounds ; even the common form F. excelsior, commends 
itself to the attention of lovers of fine trees, by the warm green 
colour and elegant form of its leaves, its soft symmetrical outlines 
while young, and its picturesque grandeur in old age, all of which 
qualities render it a favourite in any arrangement of trees for 
landscape effect. 

The varieties are many and very varied, and are all worthy of 
a place in any collection of choice deciduous trees. 

The Tulip Tree (Liriodendron). 

Of this genus the only species with which we are acquainted is 
L. tulipifera, one of the handsomest, whether as regards habit of 



100 TRANSACTIONS OF RoYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

growth or foliage, of our luuJy trees. It is indigenous to 
North America, from whence it was sent to this country more 
than 200 years ago, and is now very widely distributed over the 
three kingdoms. In some districts, particularly in the southern 
counties of England, and in Ireland, it grows to an enormous 
size, and there jiroduces its beautiful flowers, resembling those of 
a tulip, from year to year in great profusion. It is perfectly 
hardy, and will grow in any loamy soil, if well drained. 

The varieties are by no means many, and the finest of all is 
that with golden variegated foliage. 

The Poplar [PojyvJus). 

The generic name, Popuhis, is said to have been conferred upon 
this family from one of the species being used in ancient times to 
decorate the public places in Rome, where it was commonly called 
" arbor jjopuli," or " Tree of the People." The various species and 
varieties are found in a wild state in almost every country in 
Europe, in the colder regions of Asia, and very abundantly over 
a wide area in North America. They are all deciduous, and, in 
many cases, lofty trees, closely allied to the willows, with which 
they are associated in the natural order Salicacece. 

Nearly all the species are sufficiently hardy for cultivation in 
Britain, and have long been employed by landscape gardeners 
in the formation of ornamental plantations. Of trees so well 
known, it is unnecessary to do more than call attention to the 
varieties with coloured foliage, all of which are specially adapted 
for producing a beautiful effect. 

The Plum (Prunus). 

Although best known as fruit trees, and as such, widely cul- 
tivated, the Plums have a representative of recent introdiiction, 
which well deserves a place among the choicest selections of orna- 
mental trees. This is known as Frunus Pissardi, a perfectly 
hardy species, with neatly-formed purjjle foliage, and of a free 
graceful habit of growth. It seems to thrive best in open sunny 
exposures, and in rich, but dry, soils. 

The Apple and Pear [Pyrus). 

Apart altogether from the various uses of the fruit-bearers 
which are included in this group of trees, comprising, as it does. 



DECIDUOUS TREES USEFUL IN LANDSCAPE FORESTRY. 101 

the familiar Apple and Pear, the Rowan, and the Service tree, 
there are a number of beautiful-foliaged species, well adapted for 
the purposes of the planter for landscape effect. These are all 
perfectly hardy, and, under ordinary circumstances, produce 
striking specimens, as conti'asted with the more sombre tints of 
the ordinary deciduous ti'ees. Several of the finest, with their 
varieties, are indigenous to this country, while America, and the 
northern parts of Europe, contribute a number of very interest- 
ing forms, all of which are of much service to the ornamental 
planter. 

The Oak (Qnercus). 

Remarkable for the great range of their distribution over the 
world — almost every country producing its representatives — the 
wondrous divei'sity of foliage in the various species and varieties, 
the facility with which they can be cultivated in this country, 
and the great value of their timber, give to this gi'oup an 
interest of a very peculiar kind. Few ti'ees are more ornamental, 
whether in youth or age, even in their normal state, and none 
are more beautiful in form and colour of foliage than the numerous 
varieties which now exist, and which, from time to time, are 
being added to our collections. 

The Sumach (lihus). 

This is an extensive genus of evergreen and deciduous trees, 
inhabiting a wide area in the temperate and warmer regions of 
both hemispheres ; very varied in their habits and general 
aspects, and for the most part are exceedingly handsome. Com- 
paratively few of the species, however, are hardy enough, to 
withstand our climate, but those which can endure it are frequently 
met with in our parks and ornamental plantations, where tbey 
are much and deservedly appreciated. It may be added, that 
all the species are more or less poisonous, and two, viz., B. 
radicans and R. vernicifera, are so much so, that it is best to 
avoid coming in contact with them. 

The "Willow (Salix). 

Of this very extensive genus, composed of shrubs from 2 inches 
in height to trees upwards of 90 feet, it is unnecessary to give a 
description. There are, however, a number of comparatively 



102 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

little known and very ornamental species and varieties, especially 
those of a " weeping " habit, which are worthy of attention, and 
all the sorts ave particularly well suited for planting in moist 
soils, where they delight to grow, and generally form very graceful 
and attractive objects. 

The Elder {Sambucux). 

Considering that this genus has such a wide distril)Ution over 
Europe, Asia, and America, it is somewhat remarkable that there 
are only three or four species known. The common species, ^S*. 
nigra, is so familiar that it is unnecessary to say more than that 
it is an eflfective tree, and that, take it for all in all, it is one of 
the finest of our strong-growing deciduous shrubs or low trees, 
and, along with S. racemosa and the many beautiful varieties of 
both species, is well deserving of more extensive inti'oduction into 
ornamental plantations. We need not add that all the varieties 
are quite hardy, and all require for their proper development, 
whether as regards foliage, flowers, or fruit, to be planted in o[)en 
sunny aspects, and in well-drained ground. 

TuE LniE {Tilia). 

Widely distributed over both Europe and America, the noble 
trees which compose this comparatively small gi'oup ai'e, without 
exception, hardy in this country, and, with their varieties, are 
ornamental in the highest sense. From the European type, the 
glory of our parks and avenues, to the gi-and species from Ameiica, 
with their now numerous varieties, we have an array of fine trees, 
to which the ea~]v planters in Britain were strangers. 



The Elm (Ulmus). 

No collection of ornamental trees would be complete without 
some representatives of the Elms, which, for stateliness of habit, 
tine variegations, and thorough hardiness in almost every situation, 
commend themselves to all who can appreciate the picturesque in 
the grouping of trees. The two species, U. campestris and U. 
viontaTUi, which form the type of the genus, are indigenous to 
England and Scotland ; and from these have sprung a pi'ogeny of 
varieties, all of which arc exceedingly interesting. 



DECIDUOUS TREES USEFUL IN LANDSCAPE FORESTRY. 



103 



List of the Leaves of Ornamental-Foliaged Trees, Exhibited 
AT the Meeting by John Methven to Illustrate his Paper. 



Acer campestre variegatum. 
,, eriocarpum Wieri laciniatum. 
, , insigne. 
,, laevigatum. 
,, platanoides dissectum. 
,, ,, laciniatum. 

,, ,, Lorbergi. 

,, ,, Schwedleri. 

,, pseudo-platauus Worlei. 
,, ,, Leopoldi. 

,, ,, variegatum. 

^sculus rubicunda variegata. 
Betula crenata. 

,, populifolia purpurea. 
,, pubescens asplenifolia. 
, , purpurea. 
Carpinu.s betulus variegata. 
Castanea vesca variegata. 
Cornus mascula elegantissima aurea. 

,, ., variegata. 

Cytisus Austriacum. 

,, laburnum aureum. 
, ,, quinquifolium. 

Fagus sylvatica asplenifolia. 
,, ,, castanaefolia. 

,, ,, cristata. 

,, ,, purpurea. 

,, ,, tricolor. 

, , , , variegata. 

Fraxinus excelsior simplicifolia. 
Juglans sulcata. 

Liriodendron tulipifera variegata. 
Platanus orieutalis. 
Populus iEgyptica. 

,, canadensis aurea Van Geerti. 
Prunus Pissardii. 
Pyrus aucuparia pendula variegata. 



Pyrus longifolia, 

,, vestita. 
Quercus Americana Albertsi. 

,, ,, macrophylla. 

,, cerris Lucombeana. 

, , , , variegata. 

, , comptonifolia. 

,, Concordia. 

,, Daimio. 

,, dentata. 

, , falcata. 

,, glandulifera. 

,, imbricata. 

,, laurifolia. 

, , lusitanica variegata. 

, , macranthera, 

. , nigricans. 

,, pannonica. 

,, pectinata. 

,, pyramidalis punctata. 

,, robur argentea variegata. 

,, ,, asplenifolia. 

,, ,, filicifolia. 

,, ,, heterophylla. 

,, ,, Louetti. 

, , , , maculata. 

„ nigra. 

,, sempervirens pyramidalis. 
Sambucus canadensis aurea. 

,, nigra argentea. 
Tilia alba variegata. 
,, Americana. 
,, Europe argentea. 
J, ,, asplenifolia speciosa. 

,, ,, bicolor. 

Ulmus montana argentea. 
Viburnum Opulus variegata. 



104 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE OF THE 
HOUSE OF COMMONS, 1887, ON FORESTRY. 

The Select Committee on Forestry — extracts from the Reports 
of which have appeared in the Traiisactions for the last two 
years — was ordered by the House of Commons to be re-appointed 
on the 16th of May 1887, " <o consider whether, hy the estahlish- 
meMt of a Forest School, or otherwise, our Woodlands could 
be rendered more remunerative." 

The Committee was nominated on the 20th of May, and con- 
sisted of the following members: — Viscount Ebrington, Sir Edmund 
Lechmere, Sir John Lubbock, Sir Richard Temple, Colonel King- 
Harman, Colonel Nolan, Dr Farquharson, and Messrs C. Acland, 
Biddulph, Craig Sellar, Evelyn, Farquharson, Munro Ferguson, 
Gilhooly, Egerton Hubbard, Fuller Maitland, Rankin, and Mark 
Stewart ; five members to be a quorum. Sir Edmund Lechmere 
was elected Chairman of the Committee. 

At six meetings held by the Committee on the 8th, 15th, and 
28th June; 6th, 12th, and 20th July, for the examination of 
witnesses, the following gave evidence : — William Barron, land- 
scape gardener, Borrowash, Derby ; John Wrightson, Professor 
of Agriculture, Downton College, Hants ; Rev. John B. M'Clellan, 
Principal of the Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester ; Earl of 
Ducie, Tortworth Court; Thomas J. Elliot, Professor of Estate 
Management, Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester ; Earl 
Bathurst, Oakley Park, Cirencester; Sir James Campbell, 
Bart., Deputy-Surveyor, Dean Forest, Gloucestershire; H. A. 
Britton, Timber Valuer, Wolverhampton ; Hon. G. Lascelles, 
Deputy Surveyor, New Forest, Hants; John M'Gregor, Forester, 
Dunkeld, N.B.; William M'Corquodale, Forester, Scone, Perth; 
John G. Thomson, Forester, Grantown, N.B. ; Robert Dundas 
of Arniston, Midlothian ; Rev. T. E. F. Flannery, Parish Priest, 
Carna, County Galway ; Andrew Gilchrist, Forester, Powerscourt, 
County Wicklow ; John Glutton, Ex-President of the Surveyors' 
Institution, London; Evan Powell, Land Agent, Llanidloes, Wales; 
Sir Joseph D. Hooker, Ex-Director of the Royal Gardens, Kew ; 
Rev. John C. Brown, Haddington, N.B. ; Viscount Powerscourt, 
Powerscourt, County Wicklow ; Sir Alexander Taylor, President of 



ItEPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 105 

the Royal Engineering College, Cooper's Hill, Staines, Surrey ; and 
Sir Richard Temple, Bart., M.P., The Nash, Worcestershire. 

The evidence given by these twenty-two witnesses is generally of 
an interesting nature, and, along with the proceedings of the Com- 
mittee, fills a bulky Blue Book of about 160 pages. The details 
are far too voluminous to be given here, but those interested in the 
subject can purchase the Blue Book — " Report from the Select Com- 
mittee on Forestry, with Minutes of Evidence, 1887," — for Is. 9d., 
through any bookseller. 

The interests of various educational institutions in England were 
warmly advocated by their representatives, as suitable centres for 
teaching Forestry ; the Scottish representatives, and all the other 
witnesses who touched upon the subject, were unanimous that 
Edinburgh was the best centre in Scotland ; and the Irish repre- 
sentatives, and others examined thereon, agreed generally that Dublin 
was the proper centre for Ireland. Among a mass of irrelevant 
matter, it is often difiicult to sift the facts bearing directly on 
the subject before the Committee, but the general opinion is clear 
enough in favour of a better system of education and training for 
Foresters, and that existing institutions should be utilised for the 
purpose. The weight of the evidence in favour of the best centre 
for a School of Forestry is about equally divided between Edin- 
burgh and Cooper's Hill. The first has the most complete educational 
equipment and greater economy to recommend it ; the second, the 
important fact that it has already a small School of Forestry 
attached to it, for tlie training of students for the Forest Service in 
India, but necessarily conducted on a rather costly scale for home 
forestry requirements. Several other schemes were i^ropounded, 
but no approach to unanimity was expressed regarding them. 

The following extracts bear more directly on Scottish Forestry, 
and the general question of a School of Forestry, and therefore may 
be deemed of greatest interest to the members of the Royal Scottish 
Arboricultural Society. 

In the course of his examination, on the 28th June, Mr John 
M'Gregor, Lady well, Dunkeld, Forester to the Duke of Athole, 
gave the following evidence : — 

"Since 1860 I believe you have had the entire charge of the 
Duke of Athole 's woods 1 " " Yes." — " Where are the woods situ- 
ated 1 " " All in Perthshire."—" What is the acreage of wood- 
land which you have under your charged' "About 20,000 
acres." — " What description of trees do the woods principally con- 



106 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

sist of ] " " The bulk is larch ; five or six thousand acres of larch 
mixed with spruce, and about a thousand acres of oak coppice. 
The remainder principally Scots fir. The largest larch plantations 
are those of Loch Ordie and Loch Hoishen." — " Have you any 
other description of pine 1 " " None, except specimen trees in policy 
grounds." — " Have you not the Abies Donglasii in your woods?" 
" A few thousand trees ; more experimental than anything else." 

" Have you given your attention to the general subject of the 
condition of woods and forests in Scotland 1 " *' In Perthshire ; I 
confined it to Perthshire, because I have never been much out of 
it." — "What is your opinion as to the management in Perthshire? " 
" It might be better." — " Do you consider that the land agents, or 
the factors, as they are called in Scotland, are fairly well informed 
as to the management of woods and timber 1 " " Very few of 
them." — " What are the subjects on which factors and woodmen 
are deficient?" "They are deficient in the knowledge of what 
trees ought to be planted on suitable soils, and when thinning out 
ought to commence ; and, in fact, the general management of the 
woods altogether." — " What are the special subjects which those 
who have charge of woods ought to understand?" " They ought 
to understand the soils and situations suited for the different 
varieties of forest trees to be cultivated for profit, and they ought 
to know the proportions in which those trees should be planted, 
and whether they ought to be planted mixed or pure." — "They 
should know something about the diseases of trees 1" " Cer- 
tainly." — "And of the insects afiecting trees?" "Yes; that is a 
subject which requires to be very much studied." 

" Will you give us some idea of the system pursued upon the 
Duke of Athole's estates as regards falling and thinning timber. 
Do you cut down a certain quantity every year ? " " That depends 
very much on the demand. We commence to thin as soon as ever 
a plantation requires thinning, and we thin out the least vigorous 
trees, the least valuable, leaving the best, generally, until the wood 
is ripe, and then it is all cut down." — " Have you a steady and 
ready demand for the fallings and thinnings ?" " We had before 
the gales of 1879 ; but since then the demand has fallen off, and 
the price has also fallen off very much." — " That is in consequence 
of the large amount of timber that was blown down by the gale ; 
the market has been over-stocked ? " " Ye.s, and the depression of 
the coal and iron trades as well." — " Do you consider that in Scot- 
land tracts of waste land can be planted with profit ? " "I think so." 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY, 107 

" Will you give some particulars in your own experience of the 
Duke of Athole's estates as regards profit 1 " " The present Duke 
has planted recently about 3000 acres, which are doing very well, 
principally Scots fir. We found that the old plantations afibrded 
much shelter to the arable land, and since the plantations have 
grown up they are very valuable as wintering for sheep. Some of 
our sheep farmers have to send their hoggs 100 miles away to 
winter; whereas if there were more woods in the valleys they 
would not require to send them away so far." 

" Can you give us any details of the average value per acre of 
yearly falls and thinnings V " Not of yearly falls ; but I could 
give you pretty accurately the value of a plantation of 366 Imperial 
acres of larch planted in 1817, which I had occasion to value a few 
years ago. The mode I adopted was to measure an acre here and 
there, through the wood. In all there were 17 acres measured. 
The number of trees per acre was 180 to 190, and the value would 
be about £40, 5s. per acre. That was the average over the whole. 
The acres on the lower part of the plantation were worth perhaps 
nearly £100 ; and at the top of the hill, with 1000 feet of altitude, 
the acre would not be worth more than £20 ; but over the whole 
the value would be about £40 per acre." — •" What would be the 
lowest elevation?" "About 300 feet to 400 feet."— " Do you 
mean it is worth now, to cut down, £40 per acre?" "Yes." — 
" That is standing 1 " " Yes ; for the wood merchant to cut it him- 
self, and do everything; the proprietor would have that." — 
" Clean cut V " Yes ; it is not yet at maturity. It will be more 
valuable." — " That is the present value, assuming a clean cut 1 " 
" Yes." — " But that is not the value at which you would put it if 
you were going to take part of it away and leave part standing 1 " 
" No."—" You could make more if you tried ? " " Yes."—" Sup- 
posing the property were going to be sold, would the timber then 
be valued at £40 per acre?" "I should think so."— " You still 
assume that it would be cut dowai this year; do you consider that 
there is an increase of value still in the timber, that it may be more 
valuable at a future day 1 " " Yes. If the property were to be 
sold I do not think the present purchaser ought to pay any more 
than it was worth at the present time." — " Do you think you can 
get anything more than the present value, without making a clean 
cut, so that the remaining trees shall grow into greater value, so 
that you can get more than £40 an acre?" "Yes ; I think if it 
were managed until the best trees were at maturity it would bring 



108 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

more money." — " Has this plantation paid anything at all since 
the year 1817; have there been any thinnings taken awayl" 
" Thousands of pounds' worth have been taken away." — " What is 
about the average annual value for the last fifty years 1" "I 
could not say that, because I had not the management of it all the 
time," — "Has there been any return from pasture?" "Yes. 
Before this was planted the pasturage was let for £5. It is now 
let for £15."—" The annual value of the 3G6 acres was only £5 a 
year before it was planted 1" " For pasture." — " Then you consider 
the larch has really improved the pasture 1 " " There is no doubt ; 
because it has killed the heather, and grass has come up instead." 

*' Have you given your attention to the question of schools for 
instruction in forestry 1 " " Yes." — " What is your general view 
of the question 1 " " At the present time there are no means by 
which a young man can learn anything about forestry except 
going about and working under foresters as a day labourer. The 
Highland and Agricultural Society have of recent years introduced 
examinations ; and they also offer premiums for essays on subjects 
connected with forestry." — " You are one of the board of examiners 
of that society ? " " Yes." — " Are Mr Thomson and Mr M'Corquo- 
dale, who are here, also members of that board 1 " " Yes." — " And 
Dr Cleghorn is the other member 1 " " Yes, those are the examiners 
in practical forestry ; there is also an examiner in botany." — 
" Perhaps you will give us the qualifications you require from the 
candidates ] " " They are supposed to have a thorough acquaintance 
with the details of practical forestry ; with a general knowledge 
of the following branches of study so far as these apply to forestry — 
the outlines of botany ; the nature and properties of soils, drainage, 
and effects of climate ; land and timber measuring and surveying ; 
mechanics and construction as applied to fencing, draining, bridg- 
ing, and road- making; implements of forestry; book-keeping and 
accounts. The examinations are open to candidates of any age. 
Then the syllabus of examination in the science of forestry and 
practical management of woods consists of : (1.) Formation and 
ripening of wood ; predisposing causes of decay ; (2.) Restoration 
of woodlands, consisting of, (1) Natural reproduction ; (2) Arti- 
ficial planting ; (3.) General management of plantations, cropping 
by rotation, trees recommended for different situations ; (4.) Season, 
and methods of pruning, thinning, and felling ; (5.) Circumstances 
unfavourable to the growth of trees ; (G.) Mechanical appliances for 
conveying and converting timber, construction of saw-mills; (7.) 



KEPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 109 

Qualities and uses of cliief indigenous timbers ; processes of pre- 
serving timber ; (8.) Management of nurseries; seed sowing; (9.) 
Collection of forest produce ; (10.) Manufacture of tar and charcoal ; 
(11.) Insects injurious to trees; preservation of birds wbich prey 
upon them, drawing a distinction between birds whicb are bene- 
ficial and those which are destructive to trees. That is practical 
forestry." — " What is the mode of conducting the examination in 
forestry?" "In the first place, written questions are settled by 
members of the Committee a few days before the candidates are 
asked to come up to Edinburgh. Those questions are submitted to 
the candidates when they come to the Society's Chambers, and 
they are allowed three hours to answer them. Then the oral 
examination takes place the day after. That occupies two or three 
hours, the candidates being examined first in practical forestry, 
and if they fail in that, they are not examined further." 

"The Society also gives premiums for approved reports'?" 
" Yes." — " Is that competition confined to foresters, or is it open 1 " 
"It is open." — "It is open to land agents or to anybody ? " "Yes, 
we have had land agents and land agents' clerks who come up." — 
" Do you think that forestry ought to be connected with the science 
of agriculture, as a part of agriculture, rather than of any otlaer 
science"?" "Yes, it would be more natural to combine them." — 
" What is the class of men who come up to these Forestry examina- 
tions of the Highland and Agricultural Society 1 " " They are 
assistant foresters generally, and land agents and their clerks." — 
" Do any actual working foresters, men who absolutely are working 
in the woods, come up for examination 1 " " No." — " You have 
no labourers 1" " They are young men who have it in view to be- 
come foresters who come up, thinking that the certificate of forestry 
from the Highland and Agricultural Society would enable them to 
obtain a situation." — " Most of them have learned what they know 
by practical work more than by study 1 " " By practical work en- 
tirely. They are working men, and know very little about 
scientific matters." — " They have not learned much by reading V 
" No, they are doing so now, but then it is very difficult for them 
to learn by reading, because there is no text-book worth reading." 
— " How long have these examinations been instituted?" "I am 
not very sure. They have been in existence for about ten years, 
but I could not say exactly." — "Are they attended tolerably well 
every year?" "Not very well. We have never had more than 
four candidates at one examination." 



110 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARRORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

" You bave read thi'ougli tlie evidence given before the Committee 
of last year, and of the year before t " " Partially, so far as I had 
time."— '' You read Dr Schlich's evidence?" " Partly."— " Do 
you concur with the views he expressed as to the locality of the 
school of forestry and the mode of establishing a school of forestry?" 
" Generally ; I do not remember what he says about the locality. 
Some of the witnesses approve of having a school concentrated at 
Cirencester or Downton, and others at Cooper's Hill. I do not 
think that would suit for Scotland at all." — "Looking at ^the 
question purely as connected with Scotland, what part of Scotland 
do you think would be most c<mvenient for such a school?" " I 
do not think that forestry can be properly taught in a school in 
class-rooms. They require to have some acres of land. Perhaps if 
5000 acres of land could be got containing proper soil for growing 
trees, that would be sufficient." — " Is there any agricultural school 
in Scotland with which a branch of forestry instruction can be con- 
nected ? " " There is nothing that I know of but the Botanic 
Garden at Edinburgh." — " Have you seen anything of any agricul- 
tural schools 1 " " Ko, never. I know^ nothing about them ; we 
have no agricultural schools in Scotland ; some large farmers take 
pupils, but that is entirely private." — ■" Have you ever had any 
pupils to farmers come up for examination in forestry 1 " " Yes, 
but they were young men who intended to become foresters." — 
"Or land agents?" "Or land agents."— " You have had them 
coming up for that examination with a view to their being land 
agents afterwards 1 " " Yes, they were at the time factors' clerks." 
— " Is there a sufficient number of young men anxious to become 
foresters to justify the establishment of a school of forestry ? " 
" Not at the present time, but then there is no encouragement for 
them. I think the proprietors must take the first step. If pro- 
prietors take any man they can get hold of for a forester, there is 
no use in a young man spending time or money learning forestry, 
if some retired gamekeeper is to be put in charge of the woods." — 
" Proprietors must show that they value the certificate?" "Cer- 
tainly." — " Do you mean that they must pay their head forester 
better than they do now 1 " " Well, I do not say that, but I 
would say that a forester, to be authorised to go and deal with 
woods, ought to be somewhat in the position of a doctor or 
veterinary surgeon. He ought to be certificated by somebody, 
who is qualified to give a certificate as to his competency." — "At 
the present time you do not think that that is so?" "I do not 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. Ill 

think so. I think the proprietors, as a rule, have stood aloof from 
the movement. We have an Arboricultural Society in Scotland, 
but the proprietors have not patronised it so much as they might 
have done." — " How is that Arboricultural Society maintained 1 " 
"By subscriptions from members." — "Who are the members 
chiefly 1 " " There are a good many proprietors members, but they 
do not attend the meetings." — " Are many foresters members of 
it 1 " They are mostly foresters." — " Is it important for a forester 
to have the exclusive management of the sale and the purchase of 
all matters connected with the woods he manages 1 " " It depends 
entirely on the size of the woods. If he has a very large charge, I 
think he ought to be entrusted with the whole ; if it is a very small 
estate, perhaps that is not necessary." — "A very small estate would 
hardly find work for a forester?" "No." — "But where there is 
the work for a forester you think he ought to be entrusted with 
the sale entirely] " " I think so." 

" You said something just now about the profitable cultivation 
of woods ; of course that entails the knowledge of markets and of 
the demand that is likely to take place. Have foresters in Scotland 
very little opportunity of gathering much knowledge of that kind ? " 
"The system observed on the Duke of Athole's property is when a 
lot is to be cut down, to advertise it, and take oS"ers from wood 
merchants, and that brings out the real value of the timber." — 
" But in order to carry on forestry profitably and with foresight, it 
is necessary even to plant with some idea of what is likely to be 
the future demand T' " Yes ; and to plant what is likely to grow. 
At the present time I think it would be very injudicious to plant 
larch extensively." — " Because you think larch has not become a 
success ] " "I am sure of it. There is hardly a larch plantation 
in Scotland free from disease, but then what that disease is, is a 
disputed question. I hold that it is caused by an aphis." — "That 
of course is a matter for scientific investigation 1 " " Entirely, and 
for that reason foresters should know a good deal about entomology." 
— " That of course requires special instruction ] " "Certainly." — 
" That can only be given at a school or college ? " " Quite so." — 
" Have you any practical suggestion to make as to how that 
difficulty can be met 1 " " No. If a school was to be organised 
and established, a person ought to be appointed who could give in- 
struction in that branch." — " You said there was a Botanic Garden 
at Edinburgh ; do you think anything could be usefully attached 
to that institution for this purpose 1 " " There is not a district 



1 12 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTUfiAL SOCIETY. 

near Edinburgh sufficiently large wliere a forest could be established, 
but there is no doubt the Botanic Garden would be a very useful 
l»lace." 

" In your examination for the Highland and Agricultural Society 
you deal with entomology]" " Oidy with insects which are injurious 
to trees." — " Cannot something be done by maintaining those ex- 
aminations, and making them more widely known 1 " " Yes, I 
think so." — " Were those examinations advertised much?" "Not 
very much. They were advertised in the newspapers." — " What 
fees have to be paid for these examinations'? " "Nothing." — " No 
fee at alH " "No." — "The certificate then is practically a free 
gift?" " It is a free gift." — "There is no expense to the candidate?" 
" None whatever. The only expense is his coming to Edinburgh 
to be examined. The certificate is signed by the president of the 
Society, the secretary, and the examiners." — "Are the questions 
ever published afterwards?" " They are published in the journal of 
the Society." — " Are the proprietors, who you say do not appear to 
appreciate these certificates as they ought to, aware of the amount of 
information that is necessary to acquire a certificate ? " "I hardly 
think so." — " You think a little improvement might be made in 
that way?" "Yes, very much." — "Is it your opinion that more 
can be d(me in that general way than by the establishment of a 
definite school specially for the purpose of forestry ? " " Yes, but 
there is no doubt that a definite school would be a very great step 
towards the better management of woods, and the publication of a 
text-book, such as they have with regard to Continental forests. 
We have no text-book ; the only book worth reading at the present 
time, is ' Arboriculture,' by the late Mr Grigor, a nurseryman at 
Forres." 

"With regard^to what you say about the appointment of foresters, 
I suppose you mean that the proprietors, in fact, are ignorant about 
trees, and not particular with regard to whom they appoint ? " "A 
good many of them." — " What is your opinion as to what is neces- 
sary in the way of a school, or in the way of improving the knowledge 
of timber in Scotland ?" "I do not see any better way than the 
establishing of a school. For instance, no gentleman would take a 
gardener unless he were a thorough gardener, accustomed and well 
able to grow vegetables and fruits ; he grows only annual crops ; 
and when the proprietor sees it necessary to have a proper gardener 
whose mistakes can be seen at the end of one year, I think it is far 
more necessary that he should have a thoroughly qualified forester 



KEPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 113 

whose mistakes may not be found out for thirty years." — " What 
kind of school would you suggest ? " " Something like what a 
number of the witnesses have been speaking about; I would suggest 
a school in Scotland with an extent of 4000 or 5000 acres." — 
" What sort of fees would you charge ] " " If it were such a school 
that gentlemen's sons might go there, I think they ought to pay a 
fee, and perhaps agents, but working foresters would be hardly able 
to afford it."' — "In anything that was established, there would re- 
quire to be a free class which working foresters could attend ? " 
" I think so, for poor young men who could not afford to pay a fee." 

" Is there much waste land in Perthshire which could be profit- 
ably planted?" "Very much." — "How much do you think 1" 
"I have no idea." — "Is there much difficulty in getting your 
timber to the market 1 " " No. The Highland Eailway has been 
of great benefit to the district." — "Are the rates high?" "The 
wood merchants complain about them. We sell to the wood 
merchants ; we are not so immediately connected with the rates as 
they are, but we hear the wood merchants complain very much 
about them." — " Do you sell your timber direct to the wood 
merchants 1" " We sell it direct to the wood merchants. When 
it is not a clean cut, we cut out such trees as require to be cut 
and measure them ; they are sold by the foot at three different 
prices." — " Is all your timber managed on commercial prin- 
ciples "?" "Except what is used for estate purposes." — "Is all 
the timber that is used for improvements in the estate home- 
grown timber?" "Generally." — "Is there any foreign timber 
used in houses ? " " Yes. If there is a great hurry to get 
a shooting lodge put in order, or a farmhouse, they sometimes 
take dry foreign timber, but where there is time it is generally 
home timber that is used." — " Do you think home timber might be 
used for building purposes? " " Yes, there is no doubt of it," — 
" You do not think enough trouble is taken to find markets for 
home-grown timber ? " " The only trouble taken is to advertise it 
to the wood merchants; we leave them to find the markets." — 
" What reasons do the wood merchants give for not taking home 
timber?" " None. They would take it if they had a market for 
it ; one reason is the depression of trade. The principal market we 
used to have for home timber was the coal and iron pits." 

" Is the growth of timber much hampered by game in Perth- 
shire ? " "A good deal." — " By what kind of game chiefly ? " "I 
would begin at capercailzie, they destroy the tops of the Scots firs ; 

VOL. XII.. PART I. H 



1 I i TKANSAC'TIONS OK HoYAL SCOTTISH AUIiOUICULTUHAL SOCIETY. 

» 

and hares and rabbits are the principal animals. I find that grouse 
are very apt to destroy young buds." — " You think the growth of 
timber is seriously hampered by game in Perthshire 1 " " If it is 
planted in large areas, not very much, but small belts are very much 
damaged by game." — " Do you raise any natural wood 1 " " No- 
thing but birch. There is a natural pine wood in Perthshire, the old 
wood of Rannoch. It is a wood of considerable extent entirely of 
Scots fir." — " Could more timber be grown on the system of its 
being allowed to grow naturally than by plantations 1 " " You 
require to introduce the seed somehow ; then you require to break 
up the surface." — " You do not grow any timber by the natural 
system 1 " " No." 

" Could you give the Committee a table of the original cost of the 
Duke of Athole's plantations, and what they paid during the last 
fifty or sixty years'?" " I could not tell you what they paid, but I can 
give you an idea what the cost was."- — " Have you no record of the 
annual value of the timber sales'?" " I have the sales books since 
ISGO." — " Could you tell us how much per acre, roughly, over a 
certain area it has been the last twenty years'?" "No, I could 
not. Because the wind-blown trees in 1879 have interfered with 
all our calculations in that respect." — " Up to 1879 you might?" 
" We might manage the general average income, but I could hardly 
give the income from the different plantations." — " You could not 
show us the increased value per acre V "A great many sheep 
runs are let from (3d. per acre up to 2s. or 3s., and at the end of 
fifty or sixty years when we have a crop we might have larch worth 
jE40 or .£50 an acre, so that it would be far more profitable to be 
l^lanted than to be kept for sheep. Some people say it would inter- 
fere with the grouse shooting, but I do not think so." 

" Is there any one kind of foreign timber more than another 
which rivals the home-grown timber. Does foreign i)itch pine or 
spruce run you close 1 " " We have a better quality of home 
spruce than tlie spruce we get from the Baltic ; it is harder ; and 
the old Scots fir wood of Glen Fishie, llannoch, and Braemar, is 
equal to any Baltic timber." — " That is natural timber 1 " " Yes." 

" You said you would not plant larch as a tree for profit V "I 
would not advise any proprietor to invest much money in plant- 
ing larch on account of the disease." — " Have you reason to be- 
lieve that the disease will be permanent 1 " " No, because I have 
seen some years that were not so bad as others."— " Is it in Scot- 
land a disease of such amount as to seriously damage the trees 1 " 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMiMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 115 

" It destroys them altogether, and in England also, I saw an in- 
stance the other day, where they were just as bad, in Hampshire." 
— " What tree would you j^lant 1 " " Scots fir is the surest to plant 
in Scotland on our hills. Scots fir and birch." — " How long is it 
before Scots fir comes to maturity 1 " " Scots fir will continue to 
grow until it is 120 years old, but it is fit for the market before 
that time." — " How soon would you make a final cutting of a 
Scots fir plantation at the greatest profit 1 " " Not sooner than eighty 
years." — "About two generations 1 " "Yes." — " Do you think then 
that planting Scots fir upon ground that can be rented at almost 
any money is a paying operation commercially 1" "I would not 
advise planting moorland if it were worth from 7s. 6d. to 10s. for 
pasture purposes. There is plenty not worth Is. which ought to be 
planted first ; the least valuable ought to be the first planted, and 
not beyond a certain altitude. Scots fir might be advantageously 
planted up to an altitude of 1500 feet, but not higher. I think it 
would be prudent to limit the planting of larch to between 1000 
feet and 1200 feet." — " Your opinion is that there is a considerable 
quantity of land in Scotland which might be commercially profit- 
ably planted with some kind of tree ] " " Certainly." 

"Have you tried the Douglas fir at all in Scotland 1" "Yes." 
— " Do you think that a good tree 1 " " In certain situations it is. 
It is a fast-growing tree, but it ought only to be planted on land 
suitable to spruce firs." — " Is there any deciduous tree which you 
would recommend to be planted 1 " " Yes ; ash, sycamore, and 
oak. Oak used to be planted extensively for the purpose of form- 
ing coppices, but now oak coppices do not pay. The only place 
where it would be of advantage is in steep ravines." — " Do you 
think that any amount of learning or foresight could possibly lead 
a man to know what would be the proper timber to plant to come 
into the market in fifty or sixty years 1" "1 have not the slightest 
doubt of it." — " You think it is possible ? " " Quite possible, un- 
less it were to be attacked by an insect such as the larch is ; of 
course no human foresight could prevail against that." — " What do 
you think would be the timber to be profitable fifty or sixty years 
hence V "I think at present Scots fir on moorland is most likely 
to be profitable." 

" With regard to the diseases of the larch and of trees generally, 
you said that you thought foresters ought to have a knowledge of 
the diseases of trees, and a knowledge of entomology, as insects 
create a great many of these diseases. Would it not be possible 



IIG TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

for foresters to send portions of a diseased tree for examination to 
scientific men 1 " " Quite possible." — " Would it not be a sufficient 
way of finding out the nature of the disease 1 " " It might be. I 
have sent specimens, and I have found scientific men to differ very 
much about the causes." — " Do not you think if scientific men 
differ so much about them, that partially scientific or wholly un- 
scientific men would differ a great deal more 1 " " No doubt." — 
" And you think it possible for working foresters with anything like 
a moderate education to acquire such a knowledge of the diseases of 
trees as to make it really worth while their going into that 1" "I 
think they would; I do not see anything to prevent it." 

"You just now mentioned the education of gardeners, and you said 
that no gentleman would take a gardener who was not a properly 
qualified man ; but there is no school for gardeners as far as I am 
aware either in Scotland or in England 1 " " No, but then they go 
to good gardens to learn." — " They are apprenticed, in fact 1 " 
" Yes." — " Do not you think a more practicable way of getting 
hold of working foresters is to have them apprenticed to good 
foresters who are at present working foresters, rather than to send 
them to some centralised school 1 " "At present there are very few 
large establishments like gardens where a number of apprentices 
would be taken in."—" Are there not sufficient of those to be able 
to train up a sufficient supply of new foresters 1" "I do not think 
so. I know Mr M'Corquodale, of Scone, takes pupils, or he did ; 
and I have had one or two myself, but they came as labourers. I 
took no fee, and I had not them put under apprenticeship. They 
simply saw the operations as they went on. There was no agree- 
ment whatever. They just came and went when they saw proper." 
— " Do you think it would be possible to get any knowledge of 
forestry, sufficient to give some kind of inkling, as you say in 
Scotland, to young men, by having some tuition at the elementary 
schools on that subject]" " That is well worthy of consideration." 
— " Do you think the Government would be justified in giving a 
grant, making it what they call a special subject 1 " " Yes." — 
" Giving a grant to such a subject as forestry"?" " Yes, they do so 
now for agriculture." — "Not in elementary schools'?" "It is a 
special subject under the Science and Art Department." 

" Do you think moorland at sixpence an acre might be very pro- 
fitably planted with trees ? " " No doubt." — " What would be the 
cost per acre of planting the cheapest place on a large scale "? " 
"About £2 an acre."— " Fencing and alU " "Yes, if the planta- 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 117 

tion were of a large area, because large areas can be inclosed cheaper 
than small ones." — "Do you know Ireland at alH " "No, I do 
not." — " If you have a large mountainous district of say half a 
million acres, and there is very little planting in it, do you think it 
would improve the country generally to plant a portion of that 
with trees 1" " Certainly." — " If the proprietors will not or cannot 
do it, do you think it might be of national advantage if the 
Government took it_]up 1 " " Yes." — " Are not there some districts 
in Scotland where the enterprising proprietors plant a good deal, 
and other districts with equal advantages where other proprietors 
do not plant at alH " "That is the case." — "In those districts 
where the proprietors do not plant, do you think some advantage 
would be gained if the Government were to take up their work and 
plant, of course keeping the increase of the trees to themselves. 
Do you think that might be done with advantage V "I daresay it 
might." — "You have not thought on that subject ■?" "It intro- 
duces rather a complicated question ; how would the proprietor be 
compensated'?" " Suppose they were paid for the land they give 
up, and were willing to give it up 1 " " It would be far better to 
have the land planted than left as it is at all events." — " And it 
would shelter the other land 1 " " Yes." — " And would generally 
improve and beautify the country 1 " " Yes." — " Would it not in- 
troduce new industries into the country 1 " " Very possibly." — 
" In those districts where the proprietors do not plant, do you think 
it would be advantageous for the Government to step in and plant 
trees 1" "Certainly." 

"You began life as a woodman?" "Yes." — "You picked up 
all the knowledge you got for yourself? " " Certainly ; I was at no 
school." — " Do you think you Avould have done better if you had 
had a course of scientific instruction 1 " "I have not the slightest 
doubt of it ; I have felt the want of it all along. I had to read 
up, and there are very few books to read." — " That is your 
own experience, and you are ^jrepared to recommend that men 
beginning life as foresters, should have some definite instruction ? " 
" Certainly." — " Have you formed any opinion as to what the 
length of such a course ought to be ; what is the shortest time. Of 
course these men are poor and cannot afford to pay very large fees 
or go on long? " " The very shortest time to see all the operations 
would be a year. He ought to be two years at the very least." — 
" Would that include the lectures and instructions at the school 1 " 
" If the school and the forest were to be within a reasonable 



118 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH AEBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

distance of each other, it might." — " Do you think it is advisable 
and necessary to teach young fellows of the rank of foresters on 
small properties, botany and elaborate things of that kind. Do you 
think they would be much better for itl" " They require to know 
as much of botany as would enable them to distinguish one plant 
from another." " That is a very simple matter. You would not 
be prepared to recommend a long course of botany?" *' No, I do 
not mean that." 

" I believe you said the management of the Scottish forests 
might be much better than it is now]" "Yes." — "In what 
respect 1 Where does the deficiency now lie in the management 
of the Scottish forests] " " The deficiency lies in this, that if it is 
left to the forester, he often does not know when to begin to thin, 
or when to plant, and what to do in other matters. Some men in 
charge of woods prune live branches off resinous trees." — " That 
bad management is in consequence of the ignorance of those who 
manage it ] " " To a certain extent." — " You said something about 
factors. Is it not the fact that most of the factorships on small 
properties are held by lawyers of the neighbouring towns ] " " On 
very small properties, but now I think resident factors are becom- 
ing more the rule in Perthshire." — " You cannot expect town 
lawyers to know much about planting]" "No, I do not think 
they pretend to." — " You think the better plan would be to have 
resident men who would superintend these matters ] " " Yes." 

" Do you think the low price of trees just now is more due to 
the gale of 1879 or to foreign competition ] " "I think it is more 
due to the depression of trade. If the coal and iron trades were as 
prosperous as we have seen them, our thinnings and our home wood 
would sell much better." — " The market, you say, was thoroughly 
glutted in 1879]" "Yes." — "Is it beginning to recover from 
that]" " Not very much yet." — " Was not the market glutted by 
the great gale of 1881 ]" "There was a succession of gales from 
1879 to 1883 or 1884."—" There was a gale in 1881 ] " "I am 
not certain, but I believe that altogether in four or five gales, there 
were 200,000 trees blown down on the Duke's estate. 1879 was 
the worst gale we had." 

" Could you say whether the great plantations on the Duke of 
Atholo's property and elsewhere have had any effect on the 
climate ]" "I think they have ; they shelter the low ground very 
much." — " Have they affected the rainfall at all ] " "I do not 
think there was any record kept of the rainfall before." — "A 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE OX FORESTRY. 119 

former witness before the Committee said he thought the effect of 
planting forests was to make the climate more equable and tem- 
perate ] " " That is the general opiniou, but I could not say so 
from experience." — " You cannot say that it affects the rainfall 
either ]" "I could not say." — " Have you a great deal of rain?" 
" No, it is not a very wet district in Perthshire. We have an 
average rainfall of 30 to 40 inches." " Have these plantations 
been successful as a commercial speculation 1" "I think so."- — • 
" But at present prices they are not?" "Even at present prices 
they are better than if left as moorland in their original state. 
Before 1879 we were getting 14d. and lod. a foot for larch, and 
now it is down to 9d. and lOd. Scots fir freely brought 8d. a 
cubic foot; now it is only id., and there is very little demand at 
that." — " I suppose anything over Is. a foot for larch pays well?" 
"Less than Is. pays well." 

" From whatever cause the cultivation of woodlands is much less 
profitable than it used to be when you began your career in con- 
nection with forests ; it does not pay so well V " Oak coppice 
does not pay nearly so well. The reason is that other foreign sub- 
stances are used for tanning leather." — " Does larch pay as well ? " 
" No." — " With regard to the 366 acres of larch, you said that they 
were planted on land from 300 to 1000 feet above the level of the 
sea? " " Yes, I am speaking from recollection of the figures on the 
Ordnance Survey." — " What is the highest elevation at which larch 
can be profitably grown?" "From 1000 to 1200 feet, provided 
the soil and situation are suitable." — " You said also that there is 
a good deal of waste land in Perthshire that might be planted ? " 
"Yes." — "Is much of that waste land at a high elevation?" 
" There is a good deal of it higher than 1200 feet ; but it would not 
be advisable to plant higher than that." — " But much of it below 
that is lit for planting?" "A great extent." 

" With regard to this disease in the larch that has caused so 
much ravage ; has it increased of late years ? " " Yes, I think it 
has." — "Can you tell us when the disease first appeared?" "A 
cotton-like substance was noticed first about 1800, and since then 
it has increased very much." — "Has any way of combating the 
disease or any remedy yet been discovered or made known ? " "I do 
not think there has."^" Have you found the Scots fir also subject 
to the ravages of an aphis or any other disease? " " I have found 
a white substance caused by a coccus on the Scots fir, but it does 
not kill it." — "' In the county of Surrey I find the Scots fir is 



120 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

subject to some disease 1 " " There are beetles that affect it, and 
there is also the caterpillar of the saw fly that devours the foliage of 
the Scots fir." — " But not to the same extent as the larch 1 " " No, 
the larch dies entirely." 

" Is it your experience that planting larch upon a sandy soil in 
Scotland makes pasture grow underneath the larch ; have you ever 
seen young larches turn a sandy soil into pasture ? " '• No, never. 
The larch destroys the heather, and grass comes up instead of the 
heather almost always." — " It does turn the heather into grass ] " 
" It does not turn the heather into grass, but it makes grass come 
in place of the heather." 

" What would be the average rental of the land which is under 
20,000 acres of timber 1 " " Two shillings an acre overhead." — 
" Have you any idea of what the value of the woods would be as 
they stand 1 " " No." — " You are substituting the planting of 
Scots fir for the planting of larch now 1 " " Yes ; and of course 
we are planting Scots fir where I would not plant larch under any 
circumstances." — '' You are not planting so much larch now as 
formerly ] " " No." — " There is a great advantage in planting 
timber in large blocks'?" Yes; it is so for various reasons; 
it can be done cheaper, and it aflfords greater shelter." — " Is it your 
opinion that there is a great deal of land which has little chance of 
being turned to the best advantage, because some small annual 
shooting or grazing rental is valued by the proprietor more than 
the distant prospect of a large return from timber?" "That is so." 
— " Are any of your plantations deer fenced 1" "Yes." — "What 
increase of cost do you suppose that would heV "About 4d. a 
yard more for the fencing." — " What would the planting and deer 
fencing amount to per acre 1 " "I could not tell that exactly." — 
" Could you do it for £4 an acre 1 " " Yes ; on a large extent," — 
" Five hundred acres 1 " " Yes." 

" In Dr Schlicli's evidence he rather seems to recommend the 
connection of a forest school with Cooper's Hill, where already 
students receive a certain amount of forestry instruction, with a 
view of managing Indian forests ; do you think a central school of 
that sort would be a good thing, and if it were established, do you 
think it would be better connected with Cooper's Hill, or with some 
more strictly agricultural college 1 " " Certainly it would be better 
to be associated with an agricultural college than with an institution 
like Cooper's Hill." — " Do you think that until any central school, 
or any school, can be established for the purpose of instruction in 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 121 

forestry, it would be a good thing to carry out generally the same 
system which has been carried out, according to your evidence, by 
the Highland and Agricultural Society'?" "Yes." — "The system 
of having boards of examiners in different parts of the country to 
examine candidates, not only candidates who are going to become 
professional foresters, but all candidates who desire to be examined 
in forestry ; do you think that system would be a good one? " " I 
think it would, because no candidate would come up fur examina- 
tion without preparing himself to a certain extent." — " And you 
believe that if some such system as that were adopted, it would call 
attention to the defects which you and other witnesses have given 
us evidence upon, as to the mismanagement, and the want of 
scientific knowledge of forestry generally 1 " " Yes, I think it 
would do so." 

" Besides the points which you have mentioned in your evidence, 
is there any other point upon which you would like to make any 
statement to the Committee 1 " " There is one thing, that if the 
woods were more extensive in Scotland, there would be more 
employment for workpeople ; the country would maintain a larger 
population." — " Then you think the forest area in Scotland might 
be largely increased 1 " " Very largely ; it can be very much ex- 
tended."— " With profit?" "With profit."— "Why is that not 
done now?" "I cannot tell. It is expensive for some proprietors 
to do so, and perhaps they are not very able to bear the cost ; that 
may be one reason." — "I suppose the largeness of the capital required 
is a consideration 1 " " Yes, very much so ; and it does not make 
immediate returns ; that is another consideration." — " Have you 
ever known a proprietor borrow money from Government, or a 
society, pay interest upon it, and make it pay 1" " 1 think it may 
be done ; I believe it can be done just now. The Lands Improve- 
ment Company lend money to proprietors to form plantations ; or, 
at all events, a certain proportion of the expense is found by the 
Lands Improvement Company." — "Would the return upon capital 
laid out in forestry be long deferred 1" " I do not think it would." 
— " How many years 1 " " Twenty-five years, perhaps." — " Is that 
the shortest time?" " I could not tell." — "Would there be no 
return at all before twenty-five years?" "Yes; the thinnings would 
be of some value after fifteen j^ears." — " Would there be no return 
for fifteen years ? " " No." — " Is not that rather a long time to 
wait?" " I do not know." — "You are speaking of larch planta- 
tions, I suppose ? " " Scots fir." — " Scots fir and larch 1" "I have 



122 TUAXSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBOUICULTUHAL SOCIETY. 

just stated that the larch at present is in such an unsatisfactory state 
that I would not advise a proprietor to invest largely in planting 
larch. It is so diseased." 

" Are not proprietors prevented by the danger of losing many of 
their trees by gales of wind in Scotland from planting ; you men- 
tioned a very great number that were destroyed in 1879 1 " " We 
have had a series of gales since 1879." — " Is not it the fact that 
proprietors may lose a number of trees in that way, and does not 
that deter them from investing money in planting ? " "I do not 
think so." — "It seems a reasonable thing that it should do so "? " 
" They were not entirely lost, although they were blown down. 
Of course it glutted the market, and it was an extraordinary 
occurrence." — " The price was very much lowered by the multitude 
of trees in the market through those gales 1 " " Yes." — " You 
think it is the slow return that prevents the planting 1 " " That is 
one reason." — "What other reason are there?" " When sheep farms 
are let, and when shootings are let, sometimes the sheep farmer and 
sometimes the shooting tenant objects to the proprietor taking off a 
slice of land and planting it." — " That means that sheep farming 
and shooting rents are much more lucrative than planting 1 " 
" They are more immediate." — " You think sporting rents have dis- 
couraged planting in Scotland; they have been an obstacle to 
making new plantations'?" "I do not think they have encouraged 
it at all events." — " Do you suffer much from squirrels?" " Yes, 
a dood deal." 

" If there is any evidence which you would like to give on any 
special point, which will assist the Committee in the consideration 
of this subject, we shall be glad to hear it 1" "I think there is 
nothing else." 

In giving evidence on the same date, Mr John Grant Thomson, 
Forester to the Dowager Countess of Seafield, at Grantown, Strath- 
spey, replied as follows : — • 

" In what counties are the woods belonging to Lady Seafield 1 " 
" They' are scattered over the counties of Inverness, Banff, and 
Moray." — " What is the extent of the Strathspey district in which 
you have special charge?" "Between 60,000 and 70,000 acres of 
woodlands alone." — "A considerable sum of money has been ex- 
pended on the estate since you took charge of it?" "A large 
amount of money; somewhere about £90,000 or £100,000." — 
" What do you consider the cost of planting in Scotland, including 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 123 

the carting, the plants, the draining, the wire, and the whole 
thing 1 " " It depends very much on the size of the inclosure. If it 
is a large inclosure it can be done much more cheaply than a small 
one. In one plantation out of a number that we made, I have the 
details here. It was nearly 900 acres in extent. It was fenced 
with six wires and wooden straining and intermediate posts. The 
straining posts were put in wherever they were required, at dis- 
tances 60 to 100 yards, and sometimes 120 yards apart, and the 
intermediate posts were six feet apart. The cost of that was 
£259, 10s. 2d. Then we planted 2,826,000 Scots fir. They were 
one year seedlings, two years transplanted, or two years seedlings, 
one year transplanted ; that is, the same age (three years old), 
but differently treated. Then there were 111,000 of larch, and 
50,000 of others, principally spruce. We have our own nursery, but 
the trees were charged the same as if tbey had been bought, some 
6s. or 7s. a thousand for the Scots fir. That came to £651, 6s. 
The expense of carting the plants from the nursery and planting 
them was £328, 19s. lid., and for drains, £64, 8s. 4d., making a 
total of £1304, 4s. 5d., or somewhere about 30s. an acre." 

" Have you read the evidence given before this Committee of the 
last year and the year before ? " " Partly." — " What are your 
views with regard to the cpiestion of a school of forestry?" "It 
would be all the better if there could be a school of forestry. If 
they had the theoretical as well as the practical part, it would be 
all the better for foresters." — " You have had some experience of 
training young men on the estate as foresters 1" "I have trained 
a large number." — " Do they come to you as apprentices or merely 
as labourers on the estate ? " " Tliey are labourers and apprentices 
at the same time. They stay with us two or three years, and then 
we generally get some other employment for them as foremen or as 
foresters." — " Do you think if that system were generally adopted, 
it would, to a great extent, supply the information which is re- 
quired 1 " " Yes ; at the same time it would be all the better if 
there were a higher school where they could get more instruction 
than could be given on private properties." — " They would get the 
practice on the private properties, and they would get more of the 
theory at the schools 1 " " Yes." 

" Have you a theory of your own as regards the question of re- 
production of trees. Have you noticed that where trees are 
frequently planted in the same soil there is a tendency to decay ? " 
"Yes. There is the decayed vegetable matter of former crops of 



124 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

trees, which forms a skin on the ground. The seed does not get 
down to the natural soil, and until it does get to the soil it 
will not make any perceptible growth. It may keep alive for a 
time, but it very seldom takes root at all. As soon as it gets to 
the soil it grows quite freely." — " Do you think the want of repro- 
duction in some of our woodlands is in any way attributable to 
that 1 " " Not unless the ground has been under a crop of wood 
for a great length of time. In the natural forests they have been 
under a crop of wood for many generations." — " In that case it 
would be better to grub up the old wood and plant fresh woodland 
in another place ? " " It would be much better." 

" You say that replanting on the same ground does not appear 
to answer. Do you apply that to planting the same kind of trees 1 " 
" Yes." — " Would it be different if you were planting chestnuts or 
oaks after firl" "Quite different, I have seen natural woods 
that have been under Scots fir, when they were cut away, the birch 
grew the next year, or a year or two afterwards, where Scots fir 
would not have grown." — " Do you think that with regard to a fact 
of that kind there is much to be learned by systematic experiment 1 " 
" There is, no doubt." — " There is nothing of that kind now estab- 
lished, is there 1 " " Nothing that I am aware of." — " What 
is learnt has been learnt hap-hazard from the experience of different 
men 1 " " Yes ; and when one is going through the country taking 
notes of any matter of that kind." 

" Do you think that more would be done for forestry by the 
establishment of a school for teaching young foresters either theory 
or practice, or by establishing a system of examination by competent 
men, and giving the men who are employed to examine some kind 
of position, such as professors ; an endowment, I mean, so that 
they might go about the country and study the question in a 
scientific way, and then by means of their examination direct 
the education of young foresters V "I think the best way would 
be to have the school; and have them examined there in the 
schools." — " Do you think there is a sufficient number of foresters 
employed to maintain a vschool ? " " There is a sufficient number 
employed if they would be able to pay the fees. As a rule, 
foresters are not over well paid, and if they had to pay heavy fees 
for a school, I am afraid they would not be able to do it." — " At 
the same time a school must be a paying concern if it is to go on. 
It is a question of demand whether the supply can be maintained, 
is it not?" '* I should be afraid that the number of pupils would 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 125 

not support a school." — " That is my fear; that is why I suggested 
the alternative ; if we cannot maintain a school, whether we can do 
anything in another way to promote intelligent forestry V " Some- 
thing might be done as you suggest by going through the country, 
and having centres where foresters might be examined." — "You 
have heard of the University local examinations?" "Yes." — 
" You have heard of the examinations spoken of by the last 
witness, conducted, I think, at Edinburgh only 1 " " That is by 
the Highland and Agricultural Society; yes." — "That system 
might be extended with profit?" "It would be with prufit if it 
were extended." — " Do you think these examinations are sufficiently 
appreciated by Scottish foresters and Scottish landlords ? " " There 
are only three candidates on an average, come forward each year for 
examination." — "Are you one of the examiners?" "I am." — 
" How are the examiners appointed?" "By the society." — "Are 
they all members of the society, or are they taken from outside ? " 
" I think they are all members of the society." 

" Do you think anything can be done in connection with the 
Botanic Garden at Edinburgh ? " " Certainly, you could get infor- 
mation there ; but, if I may be allowed to say so, I think if there 
is a school of forestry they would require a tract of land, so that it 
could be managed by the school itself. I do not suppose that 
private proprietors would be inclined to give their ground for 
experimental purposes." — " Experimenting on forestry would take a 
long series of years ? " " Yes." — " And all that time the rent of 
the land Avould have to be paid ? " " Of course." — " Therefore, 
you see that the undertaking is a costly one ? " " It would be a 
costly one. My idea is that they would require 3000 to 10,000 
acres." — " What do you suppose the rental of such a tract would 
be : 2s. 6d. or 5s. an acre ? " " You require to pay a great deal 
more than that. You require to have it where there is good soil, 
low ground as well as high ground." — " You would not be able to 
earn the rate out of the forest, would you?" "It should pay 
itself." — "You think that it is not an impracticable idea that a 
school might be established with a sufficient area of forestry to 
form an important centre of education for foresters ? " — " It might 
be established." — "I suppose the school need not necessarily be a 
very expensive affair ? " " N"o, it would not require to be very 
expensive." — " How much do you think a school need cost ; what 
would the stafi' require to be ? " " You would require a lecturer or 
a professor at, say £400 or .£500 a year, and you would require a 



12G TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

practical teacher of forestry, say at £200 a year, and that would 
be about all that you would require." — "I suppose men who are 
going to the Colonies or to India wt)uld come and be educated 1 " 
" I ex[)ect a great number would." 

" Have you much natural Scots fir ?" " A great deal of natural 
fir." — "Do you allow much of it to come up; do you inclose for 
the purpose of allowing natural fir to grow ? " " Great quantities ; 
to a great extent." — " What proportion of your timber is natural 
fir and what is planted. Is half of it natural fir?" "I should 
think about half is natural fir and birch." — "Do you get a higher 
price for it in the market 1 " " No, although it is better quality." — 
" You ought to 1 " " We ought to, but we do not."- — ^ Do you 
cut on a regular system, or so many acres a year 1 " " Not so 
many acres a year, but so much thinning, and clearing at the same 
time." — "Do you have a clean cut every year?" "Not every 
year." — "How many men do you employ?" "It varies very 
much ; we do a great deal of our work by contract, nearly all the 
cutting of trees is by contract, so much per hundred ; fencing is by 
contract, so much a yard or 100 yards." — " Since so much land has 
been put under timber in your district there has been a larger field 
for labour; it gives more employment?" "It gives more employ- 
ment for work-people." — " Have you much difficulty in getting 
your timber to the markets ? " " None now. We have the benefit 
of the Highland Railway and the Great North of Scotland Rail- 
way ; both run through the property." — " How much has timber 
gone down in price during the last ten or fifteen years ? " " Fully 
a third." — " Have you been much troubled by squirrels V " Very 
much."—" And by game ? " " Very little." 

" How many wood-cutters do you employ ? " " In Strathspey 
there are three foresters, and under each forester there is a regular 
staff of men." — "We have it in evidence that a school of forestry 
would be most useful to the head men ; men like yourself or your 
sub-foresters, and that technical education is not necessary for the 
men who are only employed to cut down trees, or do the regular 
planting? " " If those men had the education they might rise from 
being wood-cutters to being head men, and very likely would rise." 
— " A forest could be well managed by a skilled head forester and 
by men under his command who were not skilled ? " " Perfectly." 
— " You told us in evidence that probably young men could not 
afford the cost of the education ? " " Where there is a will there is 
nearly always a way." — " In speaking of forestry, must we not dis- 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FOUESTllY. 1:^7 

tingnish between forestry that is necessary for England, Scotland, 
Wales, and Ireland ; I mean, would a forester taught in Devonshire 
be a good forester for Strathspey 1" "I think not ; the two are dis- 
tinct." — "It was argued that there were certain general principles that 
were equally applicable to all parts of the United Kingdom, but 
that the pi'actice must be learned in the individual place 1 " 
" Almost in the locality." — " Have you any experience of training 
young men as foresters to go out to India?" "Several of them 
have been with me for some time before going out, after coming 
home from France." — "They went abroad first?" "They went 
abroad to France first and came to me afterwards." 

" Have you ever made a calculation of the cost of planting, from 
the beginning to the end, of any special plantation ? " " The one 
that I have just quoted is from the time the ground was inclosed, 
which included inclosing, planting, plants, and draining. It cost 
somewhere about 30s. per acre." — " Have you followed that up by 
also keeping au account of the cost of cutting and the thinning and 
any other processes, and on the other side, the money that you 
received for the sales of the particular plantation ? " " None of the 
plantations that I have made have, I may say, yielded any return 
yet." — " Then you are unable to give the Committee any information 
as to any profit which may arise or has arisen on any of your 
woods ? " " From calculations that I made on other plantations I 
think they should yield about 10s. a year; from 7s. 6d. to 10s. a 
year per acre."—" You think it would be worth planting any land 
which did not bring in a rental of 10s. a year?" " Yes, if you 
have a sufficient extent of it, but if it is only a little bit, the cost 
of inclosing a little bit is very much extra. It comes to be very 
expensive if you fence a small bit." — "Do you think there would 
be a sufficient number of foresters who would take advantage of any 
school that were established so as to make it worth while setting 
up a school ? " "I think a good number would take advantage of 
it." 

" Do you think the system of apprenticing boys and young men 
is a good one for teaching them practical forestry ? " "I think 
so." — " Is that a system which is largely adopted in Scotland ? " 
" I always have several young men with myself ; I cannot speak 
as to others." — " I presume they go out to be head foresters to 
smaller places?" "To smaller places, and sometimes to pretty 
large places." — " Do you know what the present acreage of forests 
in Scotland is?" "I think there is somewhere about 730,000 



l'2S TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

acres of woodland in Scotland." — " I forget whether the Scots fir 
forests are returned annually with the agricultural returns or not 1 " 
"I think they are." 

" Do you think that growing trees in Scotland is an industry 
which is likely to be sufficiently useful from a national point of 
view to make it the duty of the State to subsidise it ? " "I should 
think so." — " Why ? " " Because I think timber is sure to rise in 
value. Foreign competition will very likely fall off" as it gets more 
inland and more expensive to bring it home, and the home timber 
will rise in value." — "That has not been the process the last 
twenty-five years ? " " No, it has not." 

" Are you able to say from your own experience whether these 
great plantations at Strathspey and elsewhere have had any eff"ect 
on the climate V "I think they have. I know of one plantation 
that was cut down. There was a spring of water in it before the 
trees were felled ; shortly after the trees were felled the spring 
dried ; now it is replanted again, and they are up four or five feet 
high, the waters have returned to the spring. The trees prevent 
evaporation." — " Speaking generally, has the effect of the planta- 
tions on the surrounding agricultural land been beneficial or other- 
wise 1" " They have been beneficial as far as shelter is concerned. 
A great number of farmers have applied to get a small portion of 
their farms inclosed for the sake of the shelter." — " Can you say 
whether it has affected the rainfall or not 1" "I could not say 
whether it has, further than the instance I have given you about 
the spring." 

" You just now said you calculated the profit upon certain 
forests to be something like 7s. 6d. per acre ; what do you suppose 
would be the value of that land to let for other purposes ; would it 
be as much as that 1 " " No ; it would be worth about from 8d. to 
Is. an acre." — "It is practically bog land or moor land?" "Not 
bog land, but moor land, dry moor land." — " What do you think 
it is worth for the shooting rent and the sheep rent?" "Well, 
taking the two together, from Is. to Is. 3d. an acre." — " Have you 
any knowledge of woodlands in England ? " "I have had experi- 
ence in the Crown Woods both in the Dean Forest, and at Chop- 
well, in the county of Durham." — " Do you think there are many 
districts in England where it would be desirable to plant forests on 
a large scale?" "Well, I have not sufficient knowledge of the 
country to say." 

" Do Scottish proprietors have much difficulty now in finding 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 129 

competent men to manage their forests for tliem 1" " Occasionally 
they do find difficulty, especially large proprietors." — " Is there a 
difficulty in finding the skilled labour which is necessary to pro- 
perly attend to forests?" "Not a great deal." — "You yourself 
would not find difliculty in finding skilled labour?" "I have 
always more applicants than I can find employment for." — " Men 
who do their work well ?" " Yes ; who are anxious to get into the 
employment for the sake of what they see, and of the prospect of 
getting appointments afterwards." — " Where do the Scottish pro- 
prietors now go to find foresters or men to manage their forests 1 " 
" They frequently apply to myself, and frequently they apply to 
others, such, as Mr M'Corquodale, and to nurserymen." — " Do you 
think that Scottish proprietors generally would be favourable to the 
establishment of a school of forestry in Scotland?" "I think 
so." — " Do you think it is a matter that they would care very much 
about, or that they would merely accept it 1" "I think that they 
are taking more interest now than what they used to do in the 
plantations." 

" You told us that the late Lord Seafield invested a large sum of 
money in planting?" "Yes."— "Y^ou said £80,000 or £90,000. 
Does he expect to get a tolerably good return from that from a 
commercial point of view ? " " Yes, commercially ; but then there 
are other reasons to be taken into consideration. As I say, there 
are parts of it planted for ornamental and other purposes. Of 
course, as to what is planted for ornament and other purposes, you 
do not look to that for interest on your money. You look at 
it from a diff"erent point of view ; the beauty of the place, or some- 
thing of that kind. But the large plantations will pay interest on 
the outlay, and rent for the land as well." — " Do you think there 
is an obligation on Scottish proprietors, or any proprietors, to plant 
a certain proportion of waste lands every year ? " "I think so." — 
"Even if it does not pay?" " It will pay ultimately, I have no 
doubt." — " Do you think that Lord Seafield would have been 
as well off if he had not planted trees, but left his moors for 
grouse ? " ''I think not." 

" We have heard from several witnesses that there is a great deal 
of waste land in Scotland and elsewhere which might be planted 
with advantage ; of course every waste land will not carry trees 
profitably ; it is no use planting in soil if it is not adapted for 
growing trees?" "No, it is no use planting in soil that will not 
grow trees, but there is very little soil but what will grow trees." — ■ 

VOL. XIL, PART I. I 



130 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORIOUT.TURAL SOCIETY. 

" Damp, boggy soil will not ? " " No, that will not grow trees ; 
nor rocky soil, bare rock would not do." — " That would exclude a 
great deal of waste land in Scotland and elsewhere, that has been 
been spoken of 1 " " Yes, if you take it all in one tract." — " Do 
you think it reasonable to believe that some portion of the diseases 
of trees arises from their being planted in unsuitable soil?" 
" Partly. I think it is quite wrong to plant the same kind of 
trees in different kinds of soil. Some soil is more suitable for one 
tree than for another." — " You say that it would pay to plant any 
piece of waste land which is bringing in not more than 10s. an 
acre; but in the one case you are getting your 10s. without ex- 
penditure, and in the other case you have got to go to a great 
expenditure to get your return. You have got to put down an 
immense sum before you can get a return from trees, and grouse 
moors will bring you a return without any expenditure at all. 
Does not that affect the commercial asj^ect of the thing?" "These 
forests do not destroy shooting altogether." — " But they destroy 
the grouse shooting, certainly ? " " Not for a number of years 
after they are planted." — "You may get black game, but not grouse 
long after they are planted V " You get grouse from three to five 
years after. It depends on the state of your heather." 

" In your experience is the use of wood in this country shrink- 
ing at all, from iron being more used 1 " " For large beams and 
such things as that the demand is falling off, but for ordinary pur- 
poses I do not think it is." — " With regard to foreign competition ; 
do you think that will probably lessen in future ? " "I think 
foreign competition will probably lessen in future." — " Is it your 
view that trees are brought over more cheaply on account of freights 
being cheaper from a less trade 1 " " Yes ; and labour is cheaper 
abroad just now, but it is sure to rise as English capitalists go 
there." 

"Is it your opinion that the woods in Scotland and elsewhere 
are as badly managed as some of the witnesses want to make out 1 " 
" There are some of them not very well managed." — " You do not 
admit that as regards your own woods V "I think our own 
woods are managed tolerably well." — "Do you think they are as 
well managed as they might be if they were more scientifically 
managed according to the theories of some people V "I am not 
aware of anything in which they could be managed better than what 
is, in fact, being done at the present time." — " I wanted to ask you 
that question on account of a further question. Do you think your 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 131 

woods are sufficiently well managed to make it desirable as a train- 
ing ground for students and young foresters ; whether they could 
be adapted to that purpose 1 " " Well, as I have said, I have 
trained a great many young men who have gone out to be foresters, 
and they have turned out very good men." — '• Then, in fact, you 
have practically got a small forestry school of your own? " " Yes, 
on a small scale." — " You train all your own staff, do you not ? " 
" Well, two of our head men were not trained with me, but all the 
others have been trained with me." — " Do you consider those men 
you turn out to be quite competent to take charge of woods on a 
small scale 1 " " Quite, and some of them to take charge of woods 
on a large scale." — " In addition to that, are you good enough to 
take young men for a short time 1" " Yes, we take a considerable 
number of that kind." — " You would be of opinion that a short 
course of practical instruction carried on in your woods would be 
enough to fit a young fellow to take charge of a considerable plan- 
tation afterwards 1" " He would see a great deal in a few weeks 
or in a few months, but he would require, I should say, to be twelve 
months before he would be competent to take charge." — " Do you 
think he would be competent to take charge of woods without a 
course of lectures in botany, natural hist(jry, and geology for 
instance?" "He would be all the better for that." — "It would 
be quite a short course ? " " Quite a short course." — "Half-a-dozen 
lectures would be enough to tell him all the botany he would re- 
quire V " A dozen." — " Then how many for natural history 1 " 
" Half-a-dozen." 

"Is it an advantage of scientific instruction that it would 
stimulate young men to make investigations and work them up. 
Would it give them the lines on which they could work scientifically 
and get further information?" " There is no doubt it would, but 
the drawback is, that unless they are able to get better salaries than 
they are getting they could not afford to go to a great expense with 
their education." — "That is exactly the p)oint ; the difficulty in 
getting good cheap and practical instruction for your young men, who 
will get from £1 to 30s. a week? " " Yes, or from £80 to £100 
a year." — " It would be absurd to think of sending them to a large 
school for two years' training in matters of science ? " " The re- 
muneration would not pay the expense." — " Would you consider it 
possible to establish at your woods or elsewhere a short practical 
course which would make these young men quite fit to manage 
woods on a moderately large scale ? " " The difficulty of that would 



132 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

be that one proprietor might be willing, but perhaps his successor 
might object to it, so that you would require to have a school that 
would be independent of any one individual." — " Do you mean to 
say that the woods would have to be independent V " The school 
would have to be independent," — " There 'are no woods in the 
possession of Government which are sufficiently well managed or 
extensive to allow that instruction V " Not unless Government 
wouldassist in getting a tract of land as I suggested before for 
experiment." " You think it would not be practicable to work the 
thing in Scotland in any of the existing woods on account of the 
difficulty you have suggested 1" "I do not think it would be." — 
" Have you had some experience of English woods as well as of 
Scottish woods 1" "I have been in the Government woods in 
England." — " Do you consider that the same rules of forestry, look- 
ing at the difierence of climate and other differences between England 
and Scotland, would apply to England and Scotland, the same 
system of management of woods?" "I do not think it would 
apply to the South of England." — " You mentioned the interesting 
fact that when you cut down Scots fir that birch came up instead ? " 
"Yes." — "By a sort of natural succession?" "Yes." — "Have 
not you found the same thing in England, that when you cut down 
an old wood some other kind of trees grow in its stead 1" "I 
have not had sufficient experience." 

" You know all Scotland pretty well, do you ? " " Except the 
south-east." — " Has there been an increase in planting in Scotland, 
or a decrease, of late years'? " " Until within the last two or three 
years there was a large increase." — " You mean that in the last 
two or three years there has been a decrease? " "There has been 
a decrease." — " To what do you attribute it chiefly?" "To bad 
times, and the difficulty in getting farmers to allow their land to be 
planted. Farmers are very unwilling to part with the land, the 
times are so hard upon them." — " I should have thought that 
farmers would be rather glad to get rid of a good deal of their 
land ? " Unfortunately it is often the best bit of grazing that is 
taken for planting." 

" Have you regular apprentices under you, men regularly appren- 
ticed for so many years 1" " Well, not by any regular form of 
writing, but they come with the understanding that they will re- 
main for two years or three years, and they look forward to getting 
something better out of it." — "Then if there was a School of 
Forestry, these men who had been with you for two or three years 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY, 133 

would go to the School of Forestry 1 " " They would go to the 
School of Forestry." — " You say you do not think the number of 
people would maintain the school ?" "I am afraid of it." — Could 
you utilise any of the Scottish Universities. There is a chair of 
agriculture, is there not?" "Yes." — "There is no chair of 
forestry ? " " No chair of forestry." — " Would a chair of forestry 
be of any value, in the place of a school of forestry ? " " Well, not 
unless they had the practical teaching along with it." — " If there 
was a chair of forestry in the Universities to which these lads who 
have been three years with you could go and attend the lectures in- 
stead of going to the forestry school, they could get the scientific 
teaching from the professor of forestry, could they not ? " " They 
could get the scientific training, but they could not get the practical 
training." — "But they could get the practical training from you in 
the three years they are with you, and then they could go to the 
University and get their one year, or whatever it may be, of scientific 
training? " " Yes."—" Has that been mooted at all ? " "I have 
never heard it mooted." — " What wages do these lads get when they 
have been with you three years 1" " They get 12s. to 14s. a week 
with me." — "On leaving?" "All the time they are with me; 
then they look forward to getting on as foreman at 18s. or 20s. a 
week, or they may happen to get a forester's situation at £60 or 
£70 up to £100 a year."—" And a house ? " " And a house ; the 
salary is occasionally higher." 

Mr William M'Corquodale, who has been Forester to the Earl 
of Mansfield at Scone, Perth, for the last fifty years, gave the fol- 
lowing interesting details in the course of his examination : — 

"You have been employed extensively as a wood surveyor?" 
" Yes." — " Have you in that capacity visited much of the woods in 
England as well as in Scotland?" "Yes." — "You have had a 
general experience of wood management in England?" "I have 
inspected several estates in England." — " What is your general 
impression as regards the management of woodland in England. 
Is it very far behind that of Scotland ? " " The estates that I have 
been employed on were not so far behind. They were pretty well 
lip." — " Do you find that those who have the management of woods 
are fairly competent to undertake their duties as woodmen ? " 
" Yes, there are many who have been regularly trained as foresters 
and they are competent to take the management of woods." — " In 
England ? " " Yes." 



134 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTUEAL SOCIETY. 

" Have you practically trained young men on Lord Mansfield's 
estate in the same manner that Mr Thomson has done at Lord Sea- 
field's ? " " Yes ; I always kept a certain number of young 
men." — " Were they merely labourers, or were they apprenticed to 
you in anyway?" ** We have very few labourers. They are all 
young men, assistant foresters." — " Do they come to you for a 
certain time 1 " *' They come for a certain time ; some of them 
serve a regular apprenticeship. I have some from England just 
now." — " Have they had previous experience in wood management 
before they come to you ?" " Many of them come as journeymen ; 
but I train a number of young men from the commencement. 
Some of them stay three, four, five, and six years." — " Do you con- 
sider when they leave you that their practical knowledge is sufficient 
to enable them to manage woods skilfully without any theoretical 
instruction 1" "I consider that many of those who remain for four 
or five years are very competent when they leave me." 

" Do you think a school of forestry is really required in Scot- 
land 1 " " Well, I do not think a school of forestry would be very 
well supported." — " Do you think, independently of the measure of 
support it might receive, it is really required?" "Young men 
training for the Indian forests might take advantage of it, I have 
no doubt ; but the truth is that foresters in Great Britain are not 
very highly paid, and they cannot afford to acquire very expensive 
education." — " Do you think it would be sufficient for present pur- 
poses that young men should receive a practical instruction in 
such woods as those of Lord Seafield's, Lord Mansfield's, and 
others?" "I do." — "And then go to Edinburgh and complete 
their theoretical education in the manner which has been sug- 
gested ? " "I think they could be suflSciently trained as practical 
foresters without a forestry school." — " Do you think that through 
the agency of the University of Edinburgh and the Highland and 
Agricultural Society's examination, there would be sufficient pro- 
vision made for the necessary theoretical instruction ? " "I do not 
think there would." — "You think that thei'e would be something 
more required than the advantages which the University of Edin- 
burgh would afford if there was a Chair of Forestry ?" "If there 
was a Chair of Forestry." — "Without it you think not?" "I 
think a chair combined with the Agricultural Chair might be quite 
ample." — "There is a Chair of Agriculture?" "I think there 
is." — " To that you would attach a Chair of Forestry, that is to say, 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 135 

that the same person, the professor of agriculture, should also 
instruct in forestry ?" "I should think so." 

" Do you think, at the present time, with the drawbacks of pre- 
ferential rates and foreign competition, that timber really can be 
grown to a profit ? " " Foreign competition is the ruination of our 
own timber, I know." — " But with all these disadvantages, do you 
think still that there is any hope of growing timber in Great Britain 
and Ireland at a profit V "Yes, I think that timber may yield a 
pretty good return if well managed. There is a great mistake 
frequently made in not planting the proper tree. It is a crop that 
cannot be altered for fifty or sixty years ; and the right tree should 
always be put into the right place." — " Then who are the persons 
who should direct that proper selection ; the factors, or the land 
agents of estates ? " " Well, I do not think the factors are very 
competent," — "But they are the persons who naturally would 
make the selection?" "There is frequently advantage taken of 
that by such as Mr M'Gregor, Mr Thomson, and myself. We, 
and such as we are, frequently go to give advice. I have been 
employed on the estate of Lord Dalhousie, on which I have laid 
out 22 sites for new plantations varying fi'om 10 to 200 acres 
each." — " But by some system of instruction the factors, who are 
really responsible for this selection of the trees and the supervision 
of the plantations, could be made quite capable of managing woods 
without the special advice of such gentlemen as yourself 1 " " It 
is very rarely that factors have experience in selecting trees for 
growing. For instance, taking land going to be planted, if my 
opinion was to be asked I should say on some lands, ' plant larch 
and Scots fir intermixed in equal quantities ; ' on other lands I 
would recommend silver fir to be planted for a permanent tree, and 
so on." 

"You have had a good deal of experience with the Douglas fir?" 
"Yes." — "Have your plantations siicceeded ? " " They are doing 
remarkably well. Lord Mansfield's are the most extensive planta- 
tions of the Douglas fir {Abies Douglasii) I know." — " Have you 
suffered much from trees being blown down with wind ? " " No. 
There is one plantation on which a good many were blown down ; but 
there is one on the side of the railway to Dunkeld that has never 
had a tree blown down in it. There are eight acres of it. It is a 
pure Douglas fir plantation. It was thinned in the spring of this 
year. We have taken 620 trees out of it ; and they are the largest 
of their age I ever saw. They measured about 60 feet in length ; 



136 TRANSACTIQNS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

they are twenty-seven years of age ; many of them girth 5 feet 9 
inches in circumference 3 fe^t above the ground. I never knew of 
that amount of growth in any conifer of the age. There are 
two trees of the Douglas fir growing on the estate of Lynedoch ; 
and when they were fifty years of age they were 73 feet in length. 
These trees contained 150 cubic feet of timber each. The larch 
is a very fast-growing tree ; and very rarely indeed have I found a 
larch fifty years of age to contain 50 cubic feet of timber ; but the 
Douglas firs have added 3 cubic feet for every year of their 
growth." — " Have you put any Douglas fir timber into the 
m.arket 1 " " This is the first lot that has been thinned out ; 
I have sold individual trees, perhaps a score at a time, but this is 
the first lot of any consequence." — " Can you tell what it cost to 
plant all those eight acres of Douglas fir ? " " We reared the plants 
from seed.s, and the planting cost about 10s. per acre." — "What 
did you get for the G20 trees that you sold 1 " " They are not sold; 
they have just been cut." — " What do you expect they will fetch 1 " 
" I do not know how they will sell, as the wood is not known, but 
I should hardly expect that they would sell for as much as larch 
spars, for which we get 4s. to 6s. per 100 feet run." 

" Is it your experience that plantations in Perthshire have suf- 
fered much from game 1 " " They have suifered very much." — ■ 
" There has been great loss by game ? " " Great loss. The rabbits 
and hares will eat the bark of trees from 80 to 100 years of age, 
elm, ash, and beech. I have seen them peeling them, raising 
themselves up as high as they can, and not leaving any of the bark 
within two feet of the ground." — " You find game is very pre- 
judicial to forestry in Perthshire ? " " Yes, very." 

" Have you any experience of making a plantation with borrowed 
money ? " " No." — " Can you imagine any man who would borrow 
money from the Government at three per cent, and make it pay ? " 
" Well, it might pay ; but it will take a considerable time before it 
does. Lord Stormont wished me last year to draw out a note of 
what 20 acres would cost to plant, and what they might realise in 
eighty years. I have drawn out this paper for Lord Stormont. 
Perhaps I may read it." — "Yes; pray do." " It was 20 acres of 
land to be planted under larch." — " Will you give us the heading 1 " 
" First of all, there is the cost of fencing 20 acres, £41 ; cost of 
plants, £25 ; cost of planting, £8 ; rent of 20 acres at 10s. per 
acre, £10; that amounts in all to £84. Then there is compound 
interest on above £84 for twelve years, that is £126, 8s. 7d. 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 137 

Then, first, thinning at twelve years of age 4000 trees at Id. per 
tree, £16, 13s. 4d. ; deduct cost of thinning, £8, 6s. 8d. ; deduct 
balance in favour of thinning, from £126, 18s. 7d., and then that 
leaves £118, lis. lid." — "Can you tell us how much an acre you 
made it at the end of eighty years ? " "At the end of twelve years, 
£16, 13s. 4d., for the 20 acres at Id. per tree. Then I take the 
£118, lis. lid. ; at seventeen years of age, compound interest for 
five years, £130, 2s. 10|d.; at seventeen years of age, second 
course of thinning 300 trees per acre, 6000 trees at 2d. per tree, £50; 
cost of thinning, £25 ; deduct balance in favour of thinning, £25. 
Then it reduces it to the amount of £105, 2s. 10|d. Then taking 
£105, 2s. IQld. at twenty-two years of age, compound interest at 
five years, £124, 14s. Hd. ; third course of thinning 8000 trees at 
4d. per tree, being at the rate of 400 trees per acre, £133, 6s. 8d. ; 
cost of thinning and repairing fence, £50, 16s. 8d. ; deduct balance 
in favour of thinning, £82, 1 Os. ; then that reduces the amount to 
£42, 4s. Id. for you to charge compound interest on. At thirty 
years of age the interest is wholly paid off, because the planting 
and everything is paid off in thirty years. It is like thirty 
years' purchase. Then at thirty years of age balance in favour of 
plantation, £57, 3s. 10|d. ; at thirty-seven years of age, 200 
trees per acre, that is 4000 trees at 2s. per tree, £400 ; deduct 
cost of thinning, £33, 6s. 8d. ; balance in favour at that age, 
£366, 13s. 4d. At forty-five years of age, 100 trees per acre, 
2000 trees at 2s. 6d. per tree is £250 ; cost of thinning, 
£31, 5s." — "You need not read all the figures; can you give us 
the total result ? " " The result is, ' Matured crop at eighty years, 
130 trees per acre, in all 2600 at 20s. per tree, £2600, and the 
total amount in favour of plantation is £3217, 12s. 2|d.' That 
leaves exactly £2 per acre of rent throughout for the land." — 
" Throughout the period of how many years ? " " Eighty years." — 
"Will you hand in that document ? " "Yes." — "Have you 
allowed anything for rates and taxes in that estimate ? " " The 
rent is calculated from the commencement." — " But there are rates 
to be paid every year upon it ? " " The rates are not included. 
The rates on plantations in Scotland are very small." — "You make 
no allowance for that, do you ? " " There are no rates mentioned." 
" You said you did not think that there would be enough 
demand for a School of Forestry in Scotland to make it pay?" " I 
scarcely think it." — " Do you think there would be enough demand 
to make it desirable for Government to pay for it ? " " If there 



138 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURATi SOCIETY. 

were established a forest school, and if there were a large Government 
forest in connection with it, I believe it might be taken advantage 
of, and be of great service in training young men." — " If there 
were established a school in connection with some of your large 
woods in Scotland (for instance, your woods), do you agree with 
Mr Thomson, who said that the difficulty would be that one pro- 
jirietor might approve of such an arrangement, and that his successor 
might not?" "I do not know really that it would be taken 
advantage of as it ought to be." — " Do you not think, that if you 
had a forest school on a small scale attached to some of your large 
woods in Scotland, the proprietor would have this advantage, that it 
would guarantee that the woods would be thoroughly well worked, 
and that it would be a guarantee for the scientific management of 
that particular wood V " 1 believe it would be advantageous." — • 
" Have you any plan to suggest, short of a Forestry School, as to 
any smaller school than a Forestry School, at which young forest 
men, getting from £70 to £80 a year, would receive a better train- 
ing for their work?" '"I do not think that ordinary school teachers 
can teach much of the science of forestry." — " They have not been 
trained themselves, in fact ? " "I do believe that if young men are 
very well educated, and properly trained, and serve a regular 
apprenticeship, they would come out very useful foresters for any- 
thing either at home or abroad." 

** I believe you have nothing farther to tell us about the com- 
mercial value of the Douglas fir?" "No, I cannot say, because it 
is a new kind of timber ; it has never been brought into the 
market, but I have tried it in fencing and for gates and gate-posts, 
and it has been found to do very well. We had some fine trees 
blown down about eleven years ago, which I had cut up into fence 
posts, and they have been put into wire fences. They are still, that 
is eleven years, in the wire fence, wearing twice as long as Scots fir 
posts would do." — " You think it is a good quality of wood from 
what you know?" "I think it is." — "It is not subject to any 
disease like the larch ? " " It is a tree that is exceptionally free 
from insects. I do not know a single insect that is peculiar to it." 

" Do you find silver firs worth anything as timber ? " " Yes ; 
about eleven years ago I could not get reliable information as to 
how they would last as railway sleepers, from engineers or foremen 
over the surface men of railways. I got four silver fir sleepers cut, 
and they were laid on the railway when they were laying sleepers, 
four miles out from Perth ; they were laying at the same time new 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 139 

Baltic sleepers, and I got the engineer to lay them together to fairly 
test them. They were Liid eleven years last April. They are still 
in use, and most of the Baltic sleepers were thrown out three or 
four years ago. I believe that the silver fir sleepers will wear for 
four or five years yet." — " Do you know whether the value of these 
foreign fir trees varies a great deal according to the locality and the 
soil in which they are growing V " Do you mean foreign ? " — " I 
mean your silver fir. That is not an English tree. The general 
experience of it is that it is inferior as timber, is it not 1 " "The 
quality depends a good deal on the soil and the climate. For 
instance, Scots fir that is grown in Scotland is a great deal richer, 
and more full of resin, than a Scots fir grown in England. If you 
split up a bit of old Scots fir it will blaze like a candle, it is so rich 
and full of resin. That is not the case if it is grown in England, 
as far as I have seen." — *' What sort of soil were these firs grown 
in that you cut such good sleepers out of ? " " The subsoU is stiff 
till, with a good rich loam on the surface." — " They were grown in 
good land 1 " " They were grown in good land. I believe these 
silver firs are likely to wear out larch sleepers ; larch sleepers stand 
on an average eight or nine years, and these silver firs have been in 
eleven years. There was nothing applied to them, no creosote, or 
anything of that kind." 

" You say that the higher the altitude where the Scots fir grows 
the better the quality of the timber ; is it better in Scotland than 
in England 1" "1 did not say that the higher the altitude the 
better the timber ; but the quality of Scots fir is generally very 
good upon high altitudes." — " But Scots fir grown in Scotland is 
better than that grown in England?" " Yes, it is." — " Because it 
is a more northern climate and more suitable to it 1 " " Yes, I be- 
lieve it is, and there is something in the soil in Scotland that 
produces a rich timber full of resin." — " You have spoken of the 
Douglas fir tree. You have a high notion of its value, and you 
have also spoken of the silver fir. Have you any experience of any 
other of the foreign pines recently introduced ; for instance, the 
Corsican pine 1 " " The quality of the timber of the Corsican pine 
is something the same as the Scots fir ; it grows very rapidly, but 
it is very shy to start after being transplanted. When planted out 
into the forest a great many die. They are very bare of fibrous 
roots. It is a very difiicult tree to establish, but when they are 
once established in the forest they grow very rapidly, and I believe 
it is going to be a very good timber tree." — " Have you any ex- 



140 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

perience of the Sequoia or Wellingtonia ? " " Yes, but it will 
never be a good plantation tree nor very ornamental ; it tapers so 
much. It would not cut up advantageously." — " I mean what 
they call in America Sequoia sempervirens, they find a very useful 
tree in America ; it is half-brother to the Wellingtonia. Do you 
grow it?" "No." 

From a proprietor's point of view, Mr Robert Dundas of 
Arniston, Midlotliian, gave some useful evidence bearing on a 
Forestry education in connection with the Scottish Universities, 
stating as follows : — 

" Will you give us your views as to a school of forestry ? " 
" Well, as to that, there has been a great deal of talk about schools 
of forestry, but I think the want of them has been much exag- 
gerated ; I do not think there is the real want that is stated. 
People go about, and they see woods that are neglected, and it is 
put down at once to want of scientific knowledge on the part of the 
foresters, but the fact is that the bulk of the woods we see neglected 
now-a-days is due to the unremunerative nature of wood growing, 
and because the owners cannot and will not throw away good money 
after bad in keeping them in order ; that is really the cause. Then 
with regard to one or two other points. I think there never was a 
time when in Scotland, at least (the only part I can speak about), 
the foresters were such a highly-educated intelligent set of men as 
they are just now; I think they are thoroughly up to their work. 
You may give them, of course, a little scientific training on the top 
of their practical knowledge ; but I do not think there ever was a 
time when there was a more highly educated and better set of men 
than the Scottish foresters are just now. Then there is one objec- 
tion which strikes me at once to what are called the Schools 
of Forestry, and that is the large expense it would be to the country 
in establishing them and keeping them up when once they were 
established. I do not think that a young man would learn his 
work so well in what would be a school of forestry, as he would as 
an apprentice under a thoroughly good forester on a well-managed 
estate. I saw a good deal of that when I was young, because Mr 
Brown, my forester, of course became very well known all over both 
England and Scotland, and numbers of lads came to be trained 
under him and to learn their work. In fact the demand on him to 
supply foresters was so great that they were, many of them, not 
quite long enough there who were sent out ; but he turned out a 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE OX FORESTRY. 141 

great number of first-rate men, who to this day, many of them (and 
I think it is forty years ago), are up and down different parts of 
England and Scotland. In fact the only possible plan of training 
a set of good foresters is by apprenticeship on a large estate under 
a thoroughly good man. That would take a man on to say twenty- 
one or twenty-two years of age. Then if it was thought desirable 
he might go to any of the institutions. The Scottish Universities 
are the cheapest places for instruction you can have, and in England 
there are now arising similar institutions here and there where 
scientific training is given at a very cheap rate. That might follow 
the young foresters' five or six years' learning of the work under a 
thoroughly good practical man, but I certainly should be sorry to 
see any attempt made at starting a school of forestry without first 
of all trying the plan of utilising the institutions which are in exist- 
ence, such as the Scottish Universities and the training institutions 
in diflPerent parts of England. I have had a little experience about 
that. I am patron of a few poor bursaries in the University of 
Edinburgh, and small as they are (they are only £20 a year) there 
is always a number of candidates. It shows that the system 
of establishing bursaries, if that were tried, need not be very ex- 
pensive to the nation ; there is always a great competition to get 
these little £20 bursaries. Occasionally I have applications from 
men who have been in trade, artisans who for some reason of their 
own wish to get a scientific training, or even occasionally they wish 
to go out as missionaries and to get training for Church work after- 
wards. But the main point is that I think £20 or £25 a year 
would be sufficient to enable a lad, after he had learnt his practical 
work thoroughly, to go to Aberdeen or Edinburgh and to get what 
additional scientific training might be thought desirable there. I 
think that the nation would get far more for their money in that 
way than they would by establishing a school of forestry. I think 
schools of forestry would be very expensive, and I do not know 
that they would turn out good results. Of course one must also 
keep in mind that the number of foresters for whom places are to 
be had is very limited ; it is only upon a large estate that remunera- 
tion can be given for a well-educated forester. I think there w^ould 
scarcely be openings if schools of forestry were established upon a 
large scale for the lads that they woi;ld turn out. Then as to 
teaching boys at parish schools or public schools of forestry and 
agriculture, I have no idea that that would answer. I think a lad, 
if he intends to take to farming or forestry, must learn the practical 



142 TRANSACTIONS 01<' KOYAL SCOTTISH ARnORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

part first of all, and then got any scientific addition to it later in 
life when he is able to take it in better. I think as far as forestry 
schools go, Avhat I have said explains my view." 

" What are bursaries. Are they what we call exhibition scholar- 
ships 1 " " Yes ; they are established by money being left for the 
purpose." — " Are they obtained by competitive entry ?" " A great 
many are by competitive entry. These I speak of are in private 
patronage." — " You are aware that the Highland and Agricultural 
Society have taken up the subject of forestry?" "Yes. I have 
been taking a leading part for many years in it." — " And a certain 
amount of value is attached to those who have gained their certific- 
ates ?" "Yes. But if there is anything to be done in the way of 
forestry education, I think it would have to be by establishing 
bursaries or some mode of that kind." — "Young men might, after 
working a certain time upon a large estate, if they obtained any of 
these bursaries, supplement their instructions ? " " Yes, quite so, 
by a session or two. I am not speaking at random on this ques- 
tion, because I have known several cases of farmers' sons who, 
before beginning regular work, have gone to the University of 
Edinburgh for one or two winters, simply to get scientific teaching 
on the top of what they had acquired with their fathers on the 
farm, and in one instance I knew the son of a forester who did the 
same." — " But then there must be somebody capable of giving the 
scientific instruction, a professor of forestry, attached to the univer- 
sity 1 " " Yes. There are many of the Chairs in the Edinburgh 
University which could be utilized for any such purpose." — " The 
instruction in forestry might be combined with agriculture ? " " To 
begin with, there is a Chair of Agriculture and Rural Economy. 
Rural economy ought certainly to include forestry. The Professor 
is a young man newly ajipointed, and I should say he ought to be 
perfectly able to take in hand both forestry and agriculture. Then 
at the same time there is geology, botany, natural history, and 
chemistry. I think the great advantage to young men of getting 
a course or two is, that although they may not go very far into the 
science, it teaches them how to observe. The want of accurate 
observation is a great drawback to foresters and farmers. They 
have never been taught to use their eyes in matters of minute 
detail, especially as to the causes of diseases of wood and the 
diseases of plants. It is very difficult to get an accurate account 
of what the man really sees unless he has gone through a certain 
amount of trainiu" to fit him for accurate observation." — " Would 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COIIMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 143 

not that accurate observation be fostered by a scliool of forestry 1 " 
" Of course it would, but when you have got an institution like the 
University at Edinburgh and the University at Aberdeen, where 
you have a staff already at your hand, it would be rather an ex- 
pensive way of going to work to start another one. My point is, 
that at all events before starting a school of forestry the teaching 
of forestry should be attempted in combination with the existing 
staff at Aberdeen or Edinburgh, both of which are within reach." — 
" Would not the absence of woods from the neighbourhood of 
Edinburgh and Aberdeen be a drawback to that ? " " No, I do not 
think so, because I am contemplating that the young men who go 
there simply go there for a winter course, and that they have been 
five or six years at the practical part of their business and have 
learnt that already." — " Then with regard to the expense, you 
spoke of the very large expense of a school of forestry ? " " Yes." — 
" The evidence that we have had points to some X600 or £700 a 
year as being necessary for salaries. You would not regard that 
as very heavy 1" "I do not see how anything worth establishing 
could be done at that sort of price." 

" Do you know whether the Agricultural and Rural Economy 
Lectures at Edinburgh University are well attended?" " That I 
do not know. Professor Wallace has been a very short time in the 
Chair, and the class had gone down very much before he was 
appointed." — " His predecessor had not a large attendance ? " 
" Under his predecessor it had not answered well ; I think there is 
no reason why the Professor of Agriculture in Edinburgh should 
not also teach forestry." — "Do you know what class of men go 
there as students ? " " Well, the bulk of them are those who are 
intending to be land agents, and I suppose a certain number of the 
higher class of farmers' sons." — " Your idea would be that lads who 
were to become foresters should have their practical training under 
an existing forester in some of the large estates? " " Yes. With 
regard to practical knowledge, they should be thoroughly up to 
their work before they leave the man under whom they are beiiif 
trained." — " And then get scientific training ? " " And then get 
scientific training for a winter, or perhaps two winters. I would 
do it in the Scottish fashion, which is taking a half-year at a time. 
As you know, there are many Scottish lads who cannot afford a 
whole year, and they work during the summer, and they go to the 
University and get their class lectures during the winter. That is 
the only practical way of giving scientific training to a forester." — 



144 TRANSACTIONS OK ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

" You think they should attend the lectures of the agricultural 
professor and also lectures in chemistry ? " " And botany and 
natural history." — " What rate of fees would they pay, say for a 
course uf lectures on agriculture 1 " " Tliat I am not able to say." 
— "Three guineas a course 1" "I do not know how much it is ; 
it is not much. It cannot be much from the very poor class who 
sometimes attend." — "Probably it would be about three guineas a 
course 1 " " Probably." — " You think that would be preferable to 
starting schools of forestry 1 " " Much preferable." 

On the general question of Forest Schools, Sir Joseph Dalton 
Hooker, ex-Director of the Royal Gardens, Kew, gave some valu- 
able evidence as follows : — 

" Have you formed any opinion which you would communicate 
to the Committee as to the present condition of woodlands in this 
country?" " I have observed that they are very much neglected, 
but then it must be remembered that it is very difficult to judge 
between what are planted as mere shelter and what are planted for 
woodland purposes. As a rule, those which are planted chiefly for 
shelter are entirely neglected, and are not looked upon as a source 
of profit ; whereas woodland and copse woods, if grown for profit, 
are in quite a different position." 

" Do you consider that the establishment of a school of forestry 
in some form or other would be advantageous to the owners of 
woodlands in this country 1" "I think that an establishment 
teaching forestry would be exceedingly useful, but I am not pre- 
pared to say that I should advocate the establishment at once of a 
school of forestry proper in addition to that at Cooper's Hill." — 
" Would you favour the Committee with your views as to what 
would be the best mode of developing the teaching of forestry 1 " 
" I can hardly say that I have considered the matter, except with 
reference to India and the Colonies, which I have been consulted 
about ; but my impression is that the best plan would be to take 
advantage of the existing institutions as far as possible. At 
Cooper's Hill there is an amount of first-class teaching of forestry 
for certain purposes, and it is a great pity that that first-class 
teaching should not be utilised as far as it goes more for general 
purposes. Nor do I see why the agricultural colleges should not be 
taken advantage of. It is a great pity that the teaching of 
agriculture and sylviculture should be entirely dissociated." — " You 
would rather introduce the study of forestry at the existing 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 145 

institutions than found an independent school of forestry ? " " Yes ; 
I would do this as a tentative process, and if it succeeded it would 
then be the time to consider the expediency of forming a school 
of forestry proper." 

" Has your attention been directed to the evidence given by 
Colonel Pearson before this Committee last year ? " " Only to 
those portions which you pointed out to me to-day." — " You have 
not, perhaps, had time to form an opinion upon his evidence ? " 
" I was already familiar with what you had pointed out to me as 
regards Colonel Pearson's recommendations, because I was consulted 
about the formation of the teaching establishment at Cooper's 
Hill." — " Will you tell us how far you concur with the evidence of 
Colonel Pearson 1 " " Generally, I may say I entirely concur. 1 
think that Cooper's Hill might be taken advantage of with very 
great benefit." 

" Are you acquainted with the system which is pursued at the 
Agricultural College at Cirencester?" "I am not." — "I gather 
from your previous answers that, without expressing a distinct 
opinion upon that subject, you would rather lean to the idea that 
instruction in forestry might be introduced with advantage at 
Cirencester also V " Yes ; I think that would be very useful in 
many ways. Many of the agricultural students would very probably 
have to act more or less as foresters, and it would be a great pity 
that they should have to go to another special forestry school 
to learn much of what they might have learned during their stay at 
an agricultural college like Cirencester." 

"Would you endeavour, at first at aU events, to localise the 
study of forestry so as to bring together all those who desire to take 
up the study of forestry ? " "I think there are certain institutions 
to which forestry students would naturally like to go. For in- 
stance, such places as the Scottish universities, and Cirencester, and 
Downton, because of the other information which they might 
obtain there, and which information would bear upon forestry." 
— " My question was rather, do you think that there would 
be so many students of forestry, at first at all events, that it 
would be desirable to introduce special instruction in forestry at 
several centres ; or do you think it would be better to begin by 
selecting some one institution for that purpose ? " " I am not quite 
prepared to answer that question ; but my impression is that there 
would be difficulty in getting Scottish students to come all the way 
up to London, or to Cirencester, or to Cooper's Hill ; but that is a 

VOL. XIL, PART I. K 



14G TRANSACTIONS OF ROVAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

question of expediency upon which I could hardly give an answer. 
As regards England, I think there would be no material difficulty 
in students proceeding to Cirencester." — " Then I may take it that 
as regards England you think it would be better to try to select 
some one institution, not necessarily a new one, for the purpose of 
teaching forestry?" "I think so. But there is a reason why 
Scottish students might prefer the teaching in Scotland, and that is 
because the forests of Scotland are in so many respects different 
from those of England," — '* But as regards England you think it 
would be better to endeavour to keep all the students of forestry at 
some one institution, in the first instance at any rate 1" "I think 
so," — " Would you recommend the Committee, on the whole,' to 
adopt the suggestion which was thrown out by Colonel Pearson 1 " 
" Yes, I think so, having regard to the provisions he makes for 
land agents, and bailiffs, and so forth." 

" What you have said has reference to the training of managers 
and land agents'? " " Yes ; but I would even throw all the teach- 
ing open to persons of a lower grade, because you often have ex- 
ceedingly able young men who are not laud agents, but who would rise 
to be laud agents if they had the facilities and encouragement which 
such a training would give." — "You imagine that they would try 
to get the diplomas 1 " " Yes." — " But they would not necessarily 
go in for the wider training which such a college would give 1 " 
" Not necessarily ; but I think that very likely young men of ability 
would go in for the wider training after commencing the other, and 
that is the reason why I think that advantage should be taken of a 
place which has the best means of teaching, which I assume would 
be Cooper's Hill for a long time to come." — " Rather than Downton 
and Cirencester ? " " Yes. One reason why I should recommend 
some teaching of forestry at Downton and Cirencester is because I 
think agriculture and forestry should not be dissociated." — " Do 
you think that there is sufficient opportunity of practical instruction 
in forestry at Cooper's Hill 1" " I do not think there is now, but 
I think there might be. Under any circumstances that is a 
necessity." — " Do you think that we ought to ask the Government 
to endow a professor, or to contribute to the establishment of a 
class of forestry at Cooper's Hill?" "There is one there already." 
— " That is only for India, is it not ? " " Yes, primarily, but the 
instruction given for India would be very useful for land agents 
generally ; and, as was recommended in Colonel Pearson's Report, 
and which I approve of, shorter courses might be given at the same 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE OX FORESTRY. 147 

place for such land agents and bailiffs as would not go through the 
whole course of study." — " Do you think that anything could be 
done at Kew in connection with such classes V "I think that the 
elementary training in botany and also instruction on all such 
matters as diseases of timber and so on, could be arranged for there. 
Furthermore, I believe that there is forming at Kew a large collec- 
tion of instructive specimens illustrating injuries to timber produced 
by fungi, insects, etc. ; and a study of such is essential to a sound 
forestry education." — " Would it be possible to combine that train- 
ing with the Cooper's Hill classes ? " "So far as botany is con- 
cerned 1 believe that it is already arranged that the students at 
Cooper's Hill will have some instruction in botany in the museums 
and gardens at Kew, and this would be supplemented by the good 
timber collection which has been got up at Kew." 

" Your view is, that the existing institutions should be profitably 
utilised for the study of forestry 1 " " That is the first step. If 
there was thereafter found to be a great demand for the study of 
forestry, it would then be a question whether a forestry school other 
than Cooper's Hill should not be established." — " Is it not rather a 
cumbrous plan for a land agent first to have to go to the Agricultural 
College at Cirencester to get his agricultural training, and then to 
come up to London to get his forestry training in another place 1 " 
" Yes." — " Would it not be more convenient to have the two things 
taught in the same institution?" "Yes."- — "Is much theoretical 
instruction necessary to a student in forestry 1" "I think that a 
sound elementary acquaintance with five or six branches of science 
would be very useful, but not more than a young man could pick 
up at such a course of instruction as I should contemplate, and as 
is, I believe, to be obtained at the Agricultural Colleges." — " What 
branches of science would you suggest he should be acquainted 
with 1 " "I should say meteorology especially ; and the organs 
and tissues of plants, physiological botany, geology, and elementary 
chemistry." — " You would recommend that only for a man of good 
emoluments who was going to take a good position 1" " It would 
be necessary for him, but it would be useful for all. I should be 
inclined to have the instruction so arranged that all classes might 
have an opportunity of obtaining some acquaintance with the 
different branches of science concerned in forestry, so that if a 
gentleman wished to send a young lad of ability, however poor he 
might be, to study forestry, he might go through the elementary 
courses first, and then, if he proved competent, he might go up for 



148 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

the higher and fuller curriculum." — "Would it be necessary to have 
a regular curriculum 1 " " There is a regular curriculum for India 
and the Colonies, and 1 think such a one should answer for land 
agents." — " Would it not be enough to have merely an Examining 
Board ? " " An Examining Board is one thing, and a curriculum is 
quite another. The curriculum provides for a regular and con- 
tinuous course of study. As to the Examining Board, I am not 
prepared to say what would be the best composition for such a 
board." 

" The difficulty connected with this matter in Scotland is that 
our foresters are quite small men, who are paid £1 or 30s. a week, 
and the great desideratum in their case is to get some kind of 
training which they can get through in some three or four months'?" 
" Yes, I am aware of that difficulty, and that is the reason why I 
have suggested that there should be elementary courses at Edin- 
burgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen, and St Andrews, or in perhaps two out 
of the four Scottish universities." — " What is the shortest course 
from which such a man could really get advantage V "I should 
say three months. Of course, six months would be better." — 
" Would a course of three months' training be long enough to give 
a man sufficient theoretical instruction to enable him to usefully 
apply his knowledge in the management of woodland"? " "Yes, and 
to enable him to go on afterwards with books. It would put him 
in training for future progress on his own part. It would give him 
scientific methods of study, and then he could go on by himself 
afterwards." — " That might be quite a cheap course 1 " " Yes, the 
great expense would be having to live in Edinburgh or in Glasgow, 
or wherever it might be ; but that is what as poor students of other 
subjects are doing now in Scotland." — " And Scottish students, as 
a rule, are very frugal, are they not 1 " " Certainly." 

" Are there any trees which are not usually grown in England 
now, but which could be grown at a profit in this country 1" "I 
have thought over that matter a great deal, and I cannot say for 
certain that I know of any that could be. The growth of such 
trees is so different in this country from what it is in their native 
country. Taking, for example, the larch disease which has been 
spoken of here this morning : I remember the larch disease forty 
years ago as exi.sting then, though not to the same extent. We are 
growing the larch now in a climate which is totally different from 
its native climate. It is an eastern tree; it begins in the Tyrol, and 
extends eastward into Eastern Siberia ; it is not really a western 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 149 

tree at all. We are now growing it here in a climate which is not 
the true climate of the larch." — " Do you think that we could grow 
the Corsican pine, the Pimis Laricio, at a profit in this country 1 " 
" I do not see why we should not ; it is a very good wood ; but it 
grows much more rapidly here than it does in Corsica. It does not, 
however, follow that because the wood is good in Corsica it will be 
so in Britain. If you take a section of the Pinus Laricio grown 
here, and a section of it as grown in Corsica, and compare the two, 
you will find that there is a considerable difference in the wood." — 
" Have you any experience of the Douglas pine grown in masses in 
this country ? " "I have seen a great deal of the Douglas pine ; it 
has been in this country for about sixty years. I have taken 
sections of the Douglas pine grown in this country, and compared 
it with others grown in America, and the difi"erence is so enormous 
that I cannot suppose that the wood of the Douglas pine of this 
country will ever be equal to that grown in Vancouver. If my 
memory serves me, I have found five annual rings in Vancouver- 
grown specimens to one of trees grown in this country. The same 
may be said with regard to the growth of the cedar of Lebanon ; in 
its native country, where it only grows four or five months of the 
year, its timber is close-grained, hard, and durable ; whereas the 
wood of English-grown trees is valueless." — " May I take it that 
in your opinion many trees grow too quickly in this country 1 " 
" Yes, the northern ones and those from drier climates." 

" You spoke just now about the larch growing in this country 
in quite a different climate to that to which it is accustomed ? " 
" Yes." — " Do you think that has anything to do with the develop- 
ment of larch disease, of which we have heard so much ? " "I 
think that is quite probable. That disease might have a much 
more rapid development in a moist climate like Great Britain than 
in Eastern Europe or Siberia." — " That does not hold out a very 
encouraging prospect for the future of the larch in this country 1 " 
" It does not." — " Do you think that the disease has anything to 
do with the seed 1 " " No, it is outside it altogether." 

" Of course the education of foresters who are intended for the 
Indian service, or for the Colonies, would be carried much further 
than that for woodreeves or land agents ? " " Certainly." — " But 
there would be a great deal that is common to the two courses, 
would there not ? " " Yes, all the elementary principles would be 
common to the two." — " Therefore, the Government having already 
established a course of instruction for the higher order, that esta- 



150 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH AKBOHICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

blishment might be utilised for the instruction of men who did 
not intend to carry the matter so far?" "That is my view." — 
" Among some of those who have come here to give evidence, par- 
ticularly those representing land agents, and the landed profession 
generally, there is an opinion that it would not be so absolutely 
necessary for woodreeves and bailiffs to go to a school of forestry if 
there was a school where the land agents could be instructed, be- 
cause the land agents would then be able to communicate the infor- 
mation they had received to the woodreeves and bailiffs under 
them ; would you agree with that opinion 1" "I should doubt 
whether they could communicate it sufficiently scientifically. It 
wonld be a great advantage, no doubt, that they should have the 
knowledge, but still I think it is the training in scientific methods 
that the men get in a college or a school that would be specially 
important to them." — " Landowners in these days would hardly be 
likely to pay the exj)ense of a man going away from the land for 
three months, or six months, or twelve months, as the case might 
be?" "No, it is a money question throughout, no doubt." — 
" Whereas a land agent would willingly go for instruction to a 
school which would probably enable him to get a higher position ? " 
" Yes, and also for the certificate which he might thus obtain." — 
" Probably a man who has had a three months' course would have 
a better chance of getting a place than one who has not had that 
advantage?" " Yes, it would give an opportunity to a man who 
had not intended to go into the higher branches of proceeding 
onward to these. He might show ability at the lectures which he 
would be obliged to attend, and that might lead to his being en- 
couraged and helped to go on to the higher branches." — " You 
consider that although a land agent himself might give a certain 
amount of instruction to the woodreeves under him in scientific 
subjects, which would be better than nothing, that would not be 
nearly so good as the instruction which the men would get from 
three or six months' residence at a college ? " " It would not com- 
pare with it." 

Upon the general question also, Dr John Croumbie Brown, 
LL.D., Haddington, gave farther evidence, as follows : — - 

" You have had considerable experience in schools of forestry on 
the Continent ? " " Yes ; I have visited most of the schools of 
forestry, and have had correspondence with* the managers of all 
those which I have not visited personally." — "Which of the foreign 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 151 

forestry schools with which you are acquainted would you consider 
the best model for one in Great Britain 1 " — " The question was 
]iut to me last year, and on the spur of the moment I answered 
' Spain ; ' and continued consideration of the subject satisfies me that 
Spain is decidedly the best model for a school."—" Is the school in 
Spain an independent school of forestry ? " " It is an independent 
school of forestry, supported by the State, at the Escurial." — " Not 
connected with agriculture ? " " Not connected with agriculture." 

" What does the staff consist of ? " " In round numbers I should 
say a principal, ten professors, and ten assistants." — "Of what 
class of men are the students principally ? " " They are equal to 
those who go to the university. They have gone through a pre- 
liminary training in the schools, which would have fitted them for a 
university course if they had chosen to go there." — "And do they 
go out afterwards as forest managers 1 " " They can at once have 
an appointment by the Government, or they may be employed by 
private proprietors. They prefer the Government appointments." 
— " Have you any idea of what the expense of the course of instruc- 
tion there is 1 " " There is this difficulty in taking the cost of 
instruction at the schools on the Continent, that in many cases the 
school-house which may be a palace is given free. In almost all 
cases the teachers hold Government appointments as foresters, and 
have a gratuity in addition to their regular pay ; in Spain the 
addition runs from 60 to 100 guineas over and above their pay. 
It is only the superior officers of the forest engineers who get the 
higher appointments. It is not in that respect, however, that I re- 
commend Spain as a model; it is more the perfect freedom and 
liberal course of study that is followed there that I recommend it 
for." 

" Are there forests in the immediate neighbourhood of the school 
in Spain?" "There are in the Guadarrama ; but they do not 
attach great importance to having forests in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of the school. In common with all the advanced foresters 
on the Continent, they say that is a matter of very little importance. 
They take the students to the forests that they may see what is 
being done, and that there the professors may explain what has 
been said in the lectures, illustrating this by what the students see 
going on in the woods." — " Have they any nursery 1 " " They have 
a small nursery, but the different students are not required to 
engage in nursery .operations ; the nursery is very limited." — 
"Have they a museum?" "They have a museum." — "Where 



152 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

they have collections of various specimens 1 " *' Yes, collections of 
everything connected with forestry, forest products, and the produce 
of forest industry, the implements that are employed in forest 
management, and mechanical, hydrostatic, hydraulic, and other 
illustrations of physical science." 

" Besides the students of the class you describe, are there any of 
a subordinate class corresponding to our woodreeves ? " " Not 
there. They attempted an inferior school elsewhere, but it was 
found not to be successful. It was found better to entrust the 
training of workmen employed to the highly educated and trained 
students who had left the school." — " In your opinion, after well 
considering the subject, do you think that the very best principle to 
adopt in the event of any school being established, is to endeavour 
to instruct, as far as possible, scientifically the land agents who 
have charge of the woods, and leave it to them to instruct, so far as 
they can, their subordinates, namely, the woodreeves, bailiffs, and 
working men under their charge V "I am not prepared to say 
that. What I admire in Spain is, that instead of just going on in 
the rut they have adapted the training to the requirements of the 
country, and we too should adapt our training to the requirements 
of Britain and our Colonies." 

" Your views, as already given in evidence, were rather in favour 
of having a school in each country 1" "I should be in favour of 
one national school." — " You said that in Scotland it would be 
better to have one at Edinburgh." *' Yes." — " When you speak of 
having one national school, do you mean for the whole of Great 
Britain V "I believe that in Edinburgh we have facilities for the 
establishment of a school of forestry that would meet the require- 
ments of the whole of the Empire, India, the Colonies, and home." 
" You would propose to make Edinburgh the nucleus for the whole 
of Great Britain, would you?" "I have no objection to the 
national school being situated elsewhere, but I know of no situation 
in which so many advantages could be combined as in Edinburgh. 
In Edinburgh, with the existing arrangements, we can at a com- 
paratively small expense establish a school of forestry equal to the 
most celebrated schools on the continent of Europe." 

" Is it the fact that there is a very great difference between the 
circumstances of forest management and forest growth in Scotland 
and England ? " " Yes." — " Would it not therefore be desirable to 
have a school in England as well as one in Scotland V "I believe 
that no disadvantage would result from having a national school in 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 153 

England, a national school in Ireland, and a national school in 
Scotland ; but my belief is that it would be the better course in 
every way, not only pecuniarily, but in other ways, to concentrate 
the whole of our energy upon the establishment of one central school, 
wherever the situation may be." — " Where would it be desirable to 
establish the school in Ireland, if one were established there T' 
" In Dublin." — "Do you know anything of the Agricultural College 
at Glasnevin 1" "I know little or nothing of it. I know more of 
the College or School of Science similar to the School of Mines in 
London. It appears to me that whatever advantages may be 
derived from the students going to Glasnevin, it would be better 
that they should go from Dublin to Glasnevin than that they should 
start at Glasnevin and come into the School of Science, or whatever 
the designation of it may be, in Dublin." 

" You are rather in favour of adapting the existing institutions, 
than of founding quite a new school of forestry 1 " " To some ex- 
tent I am. I believe that the best plan would be to have a school 
of forestry in Edinburgh under the Department of Education, so 
that that would be to a certain extent a new institution, and yet 
it is at the same time combining it with an established institution." 
— " In addition to that would you have another school in Dublin 
and one in London 1" "I think that it would be preferable to 
concentrate the whole of our energies upon the development of a 
school in Edinburgh." — " Your view is, that the principles of 
forestry are the same everywhere, and that the variations adapted 
to the different conditions in different districts would be better 
treated practically afterwards 1 " " Yes, they could be acquired 
on the spot. In short I would treat the study of forestry as the 
study of medicine is treated. The students of medicine are made 
thoroughly acquainted with the theory of disease, the phenomena 
of disease, the remedial applications, and remedial treatment, and 
then they are sent out to apply the information they have 
obtained to whatever patients come under their notice." — " It 
would not be safe, would it, to send out a doctor to practice who 
has only been trained theoretically ; he has to go to the hospitals 
fii'st 1 " " Yes, he goes to the hospital to see what is done there, 
which is met by the student in forestry going either alone or with 
a professor to forests in the immediate neighbourhood or at a 
greater distance from the school ; it is not required to have the 
students personally treat the patients in the hospital. They hear 
why this or that is done, and what the effect of the treatment has 



154 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

been, and what the condition of the patient was a fortnight or 
three weeks before." — " Of course the only reason why a student 
is not allowed to do the work in an hospital, is that it is not safe 
for patients to be treated by an unskilled person, but he would 
learn his profession quicker and better if he did the work him- 
self ; would it not be better that a young foi'ester should have the 
opportunity of doing these things himself instead of merely look- 
ing on 1 " " It might be, but the knowledge might be too dearly 
purchased. The opinion of all the advanced students of forestry 
on the Continent is that it is better when studying to study, and 
when practising to practise, than to attempt to combine study and 
practice, and so divert the attention of the student." — " Would 
not the practice be much more likely to sink into the student's 
mind if it is taken at the same time as the theoretical instruc- 
tion ? " " He might lose much of the scientific instruction. I 
prefer the word ' scientific ' to ' theoretical,' because we maintain 
that it is a positive science and not mere speculation. It is desir- 
able that the student's whole time should be devoted to his obtain- 
ing this knowledge." 

The result of the deliberations of the Committee appeared in 
a Report, dated 4th August 1887, in which they summarise their 
labours, and arrive at the following conclusion : — 

The Committee recommend the establishment of a Forest 
Board. They are also satisfied by the evidence that the establish- 
ment of Forest Schools, or at any rate of a course of instruction 
and examination in forestry, would be desirable, and they think 
that the consideration of the best mode of can-ying this into 
effect might be one of the functions entrusted to such a Forest 
Board. 

As regards the Board of Forestry, the Committee submit the 
following suggestions : — 

1. That the Board should be presided over by a responsible 

official (an expert by preference) appointed by the 
Government, and reporting annually to some depart- 
ment of the Government. 

2. That the Board should be so constituted as to compi'ise 

the principal agencies interested in the promotion of a 
sounder knowledge of forestry, especially the various 
teaching and examining bodies, as well as the pro- 
fessional societies. 



REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 155 

3. That the following Bodies should be invited to send 

delegates to the Board : — 

The Royal Agricultural Society of England ; 

The Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland ; 

The Royal Dublin Society ; 

The Office of Woods and Forests j 

The Linnean Society ; 

The Surveyors' Institution ; 

Tlie English Arboricultural Society ; 

The Royal Scottish Arboricultural Society ; 
and, that the Director of Kew Gardens should be a member ex 
officio. 

That the Boai'd should also comprise three Members of each 
House of Parliament, and a certain number of owners or managers 
of large woodlands, a preference in the latter case being given to 
those who are in a position to aflford facilities for study in their 
woods. 

4. That the functions of the Board should be — 

{a.) To organise Eorest Schools, or, at any rate, a 

course of instruction in forestry. 
(b.) To make provision for examinations, 
(c.) To prepare an official syllabus and text-book. 

5. That the examiners should be required to examine in the 

following subjects, namely : — 
(a.) Practical forestry. 
(h.) Botany. 

(c.) Vegetable Physiology and Entomology, especially 
in connection with diseases and insects aftect- 
ing the growth of trees. 
id.) Geology, with special i-eference to soils, 
(e.) Subjects connected with land agency, such as 
land drainage, sui'veyiug, timber measui'ing, 
etc. 
The expense of secretarial staff and examiners need not, in the 
opinion of the Committee, exceed £500 a year, and the cost might 
be considerably reduced by fees for diplomas. 



15G TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



VI. The Plantations on the Estate of Wentworth, Yorkshire. 
By George Dodds, Forester, "Wentworth, Eotherham, 
Yorkshire. 

In this Report I propose giving some details of the nature, 
extent, and management of the woodlands upon the estate of the 
Right Hon. the Earl Fitzwilliam, K.G., at Wentworth, York- 
shire. The estate is situate in the southern part of the West 
Riding, and extends to close upon 60,000 acres ; the woods and 
plantations occupying about 5640 acres of that area. 

The estate lies at a comparatively low altitude in the midst of 
the South Yorkshire coal and iron districts. The soil as a general 
rule is not of first-rate quality, and the subsoil is of a cold clayey 
nature, yet, in some instances, trees have grown in it to a great 
age and an immense size. 

The difficulty now to contend with in growing ti'ees in this 
district is the amount of smoke in the atmosphere, and any one 
not accustomed to ii-on and coal mining districts can scarcely con- 
ceive the damage done to vegetation by the smoke and fumes 
from the mines, and also from the coke ovens which are in constant 
operation in the locality. In making new plantations or in 
renovating the old woods upon the estate, much care has to be 
taken to use the species of trees upon which the smoke seems to 
have least efiect. These are principally trees having a smoothish 
bark, such as ash, beech, birch, Spanish chestnut, horse chestnut, 
lime, wych elm, and sycamore. 

A considerable quantity of larch has been planted of late years, 
but after reaching a height of ten to twelve feet the trees ai-e gradu- 
ally dying ofi", chiefly on account of the unsuitability of the soil for 
the growth of larch, but also in some measure from the surround- 
ing atmosphere being impregnated with noxious vapours, which are 
injurious to plant life. I notice the only trees of the pine tribe 
that seem to thrive here are the Scots fir, Pinus sylvestris, the 
Austrian pine, P. Austriaca, and the Corsican pine, P. Laricio. 

Many of the newer conifers, especially Cedrus Deodara and 
Wellingtonia gigantea, have been planted in the Home woods 
and Park, but after lingering for a few years they have mostly all 
died out, and those that are alive pi-esent a very sickly appearance. 

I purpose to give in detail the system of management of the 
woods on this estate which has been followed for a number 



PLANTATIONS ON THE ESTATE OF WENTWORTH, YORKSHIRE. 157 

of years, and I think a report upon the woodlands will be better 
understood from the following tabulated list, giving the names of 
the various woods and plantations, their extent, crop, age as far 
as known, soil and situation. 



Names of Woods. 


Ext. in 
Acres. 


Crop. 


Age as far as 
kuown. 


Soil and Situation. 


Wentworth Park \ 
and Woods, J 


1000 


Mixed. 


3 to 300 years. 


Clay. Sheltered. 


Raiubro' Park, . 


200 


Oak. 


6 to 150 ,, 


,, ,, 


Hood Hill, 


220 


Mixed. 


80 ,, 


Various. Ex- 
i posed. 
Clay. Sheltered. 


Low Woods, 


180 


Oak and ash. 


160 ,, 


Tankersley Woods, 


600 


Mixed. 


10 to 70 ,, 


i Various. Ex- 
/ posed. 


Swinton Woods, 


300 


Oak. 


60 ,, 


/ Yellow Clay, 
t Slieltered. 


Eccleshall, 


450 


Oak. 


Unknown. 


\ Light Loam. 
/ Sheltered. 


Tinsley Park, . 


380 


Oak. 


)> »j 


i Yellow Clay. 
; Moder. Shelt. 


Edlington, 


510 


Oak. 


M 


Loam, Sheltered. 


Bradfield, 


1800 


Firandlarch. 


40 to 70 years. 


Sandy. Expo.sed. 




5640 









By this table it is seen that there are about 5640 acres under 
a crop of wood, among which oak predominates, the ages of the 
trees ranging from a few years to at least three centuries. 



1. The Home Park. 

Beginning with the Home Park, which extends to about 2000 
acres, we estimate the area under wood, including some planta- 
tions that lie contiguous to the Park, at 1000 acres, of various 
ages. The altitude, at the highest point, is about 300 feet above 
sea-level ; the surface of the ground is of an undulating character, 
so that the district is moderately sheltered. The soil is mostly 
inclined to clay, with a cold clay subsoil, resting ujjon freestone. 
Some of the trees in the Park have attained to large dimensions, 
chiefly oak, and it is currently reported here that some of the 
older and larger specimens are the remnants of the ancient natural 
forest, which I have no doubt once stretched across from Sher- 
wood Forest in Nottinghamshire to this part of the country. 

I regret to say that many of the largest of the old trees are 
dead, and more dying every year, some of them containing from 
400 to 500 cubic feet of timber. In fact, we felled some last 



158 Tll.\\S.\CTIOXS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

season which contained 430 feet of timber when measured. It is 
a pity to see so many hoary-lieaded monarchs of the forest 
standing dead or dying side by side. They well exemplify 
Dryden's beautiful lines : — 

" The Monarch Oak, the Patriarch of trees, 
Slioots rising up, and spreads by low degrees ; 
Three centuries he grows, and three he stays 
Supreme in State, and in tliree more decays." 

The earliest planting here of any note was done by the tirst 
Marquis of Rockingham, who lived about 180 years ago. It is 
rather a curious fact that even the trees that appear to be about 
100 years' growth, have not the least appearance of attaining to 
anything like the size and dimensions of the older trees, as they 
ai"e now showing symptoms of premature decay, by the stunted 
and sickly appearance of the foliage that they put on every 
season. This I attribute in a large degree to the prevalence of 
smoke and noxious fumes, which have arisen in this locality 
within the last hundred years or so. 

There are some very fine rows of lime-tree and elm in the 
Park, planted in the same form as the Duke of Marlborough 
drew up his troops at the battle of Blenheim. The lime-trees are 
all intact, and are admired by every one, but a great many of the 
elms have been blown down from time to time, and not having 
been replaced, the gaps spoil the general effect. These trees ai'e 
now about 170 years old. 

There are a great many clumps scattered up and down the 
Park and the adjoining fields, planted with different varieties of 
trees, but as stated before, they are not likely to attain to any- 
thing like valuable dimensions. Consequently I maintain that 
the Austrian, Corsican, and Scots firs are the most useful and 
most likely trees to succeed in a district such as this. For 
underwood and game cover we find Rhododendron ponticum the 
most useful, although we plant several other sorts, such as black- 
thorn, privet, and hazel, but none take so freely to the soil as 
the Rhododendron. 

2. Rainbro' Park. 

This wood may be said to be one of the Home plantations, as i t 
lies immediately outside of the Park, and extends to 200 acres, 
varying in age from 6 to 150 years. It slopes to the north, and 
has a more exposed aspect than some of the neighbouring woods. 



PLANTATIONS ON THE ESTATE OF WENTWORTH, YORKSHIRE. 159 

It has an altitude of about 250 feet above sea-level. The soil 
and subsoil are a strong yellow clay. 

The original crop has been oak, but as it was showing symp- 
toms of decay, the greater poi'tion of the old trees were cut down 
a few years ago, leaving only a few of the healthiest and best 
for the sake of appearance in the landscape. The ground has 
all been replanted with such kinds as elm, birch, mountain 
ash, Austrian and Corsican pines. As a general rule the young 
trees have done well, and promise to make a valuable crop, but in 
some instances they are overshadowed by the old trees that 
were left standing. A gi'eat many of the old ti'ees are dying off 
and should be removed, which process will now require extra care, 
to avoid much damage to the healthy growing young trees. 

3. Hood Hill. 

This wood consists of beech, Spanish chestnut, elm, Scots fir, 
and a few larch. It is about 80 years old, extends to about 220 
acres, and is situated at an altitude of about 350 feet above the 
level of the sea. The soil is of a light sandy loam, resting upon 
open disintegrated freestone. The trees are generally healthy, 
with the exception of the larch. Some very promising specimens 
of beech and Spanish chestnut are growing here. The situation 
is sheltered. A number of very fine drives were formed through 
this wood about thirty years ago. 

4. Low Woods. 

This plantation extends to 180 acres, and is about 150 years 
old. It is in a sheltered situation. The crop is chiefly oak and 
ash. The soil is a clayey loam. This wood has suffered severely 
from being in the neighbourhood of iron-works, which, however, 
are now done away with. I have advised to clear the greater 
portion of the present crop away and replant the ground with 
the most suitable kinds of trees. 

5 Tankersley Woods. 

This district comprises a parish and township lying at a high 
elevation, and is consequently much exposed. The highest part 
is about 600 feet above sea-level, and lies very exposed to the 
west wind. The woodlands extend to about 600 acres, and the 
trees vary in age from 10 to 70 years. A large portion of the 



160 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

crop is oak, but the younger woods are mixed oak, elm, sycamore, 
ash, and other trees. The younger woods have been planted 
in narrow belts, and mostly on land which has been occupied by 
old pit workings, consequently the soil is of various kinds, but 
clay is the prevailing one. This is also a smoke infested district, 
one of the largest iron-works in Yorkshire being upon the land, 
and also an extensive colliery. We are kept continually felling 
dead trees, and I am of opinion that, if the smoke continues, 
very few live trees will be found in the course of a few years. 

6. SwiNTON Woods. 

The woodlands in this district extend to about 300 acres. 
The trees grown are chiefly oak. The situation is rather sheltered, 
lying close upon the banks of the river Don, and the altitude is 
about 150 feet above sea-level. The soil is yellow clay. 

The woods in the district have all the appearance of having 
been well attended to, and thinning has been judiciously practised. 
The great majority of the trees are well grown and healthy, 
and exhibit all the signs of attaining to valuable dimensions. 

7. ECCLESHALL WoOD. 

This is a large wood extending to somewhere about 450 acres, 
and lies to the south-east of the town of Sheflield. Portions of it 
have already been taken up for building sites, and in a few years 
hence, I have no doubt it will be extensively used for that pur- 
pose, lying as it does within easy reach of such an important 
and progressive town. 

The soil is light loam, in some places inclined to sand, and 
rests upon the Millstone-Grit formation. The altitude is about 
300 feet above sea-level, and rises with a gentle slope to the 
west, forming the boundary line between Derbyshire and York- 
shire. It is moderately sheltered, and I believe is also an out- 
lying part of the ancient Nottinghamshire Forests. The crop is 
oak, and must be of great age, as all the trees have the appear- 
ance of being grown from old stools. 

The oak is not healthy, and shows symptoms of dying oflP in 
the course of a few years. Some planting has been done in a few 
of the openest parts, and consists of larch, Scots fir, sycamore, 
Spanish chestnut, ash, elm, mountain ash, birch, and beech, 
aud all promise to grow well. The ages of the recent jjlantings 



PLAXTATIOXS ON THE ESTATE OF WENTWORTH, YORKSHIRE. 161 

are from 12 to 4 years. The great difficulty to contend against is 
the brackens and other rank herbage that grow upon this land, 
which entail a great amount of labour and expense in keeping 
the young plants clear. It has been found advantageous to cut 
the brackens in their early growth, as the constant bleeding 
weakens them very much. 

8. TiNSLEY Park Wood. 

This wood lies intermediate between the towns of Rotherham 
and Sheffield, and receives the full effect of the smoke, sulphur, 
and other fumes, no matter from which direction the wind may 
blow. 

The district is flat, and about 150 feet above sea-level. The 
soil is clay. The extent is 380 acres, age unknown, but to all 
appearance the wood is natural. The crop is oak, with a few 
birch that have grown up natur'ally. The greater portion of this 
wood is, consequently, a matter of some consideration for the 
owner, as to whether to keep it up as a wood or not 1 It is com- 
pletely surrounded by public works, which entail great difficul- 
ties in the matter of planting. If replanting is undertaken here, 
I have recommended to plant sycamore, ash, birch, beech, and 
wych elm, as the trees most likely to grow to anything approach- 
ing timber size in such a locality. 

9. Edlixgton Wood. 

This wood extends to 510 acres, at an altitude of about 150 
feet above sea-level, and the situation is well sheltered. The soil 
is clayey loam, resting upon a limestone subsoil. This is one of 
the most valuable woods upon the estate, and is no doubt a part 
of the remains of the Nottinghamshire Forests, as it is situate 
close to the borders of the counties of York and Nottingham. 
Some yews in the centre of the wood are of immense size and 
great age. They are still growing, and very healthy, and may 
have at one time supplied Robin Hood and his men-y men with 
bows and arrows. 

The crop is principally natural oak, having a few ash, beech, 
and larch mixed through it which were planted about 66 years 
ago. The trees are generally healthy, but in some instances 
the older oaks show symptoms of decay, chiefly in the top 
branches, which may be attributed to the repeated cutting over, 

VOL. XII., PART I. L 



IGli TRANSACTION'S OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

and spi'inging up again from the old stools. The old oaks con- 
tain on an average from 40 to 70 cubic feet. This wood has been 
^vorked ui:)on the copi)ice principle. There are several miles of 
fine drives through it in various directions. 

10. Bradfield Plantation. 

An extensive tract of moorland extending to about 1800 acres. 
This district lies at an altitude of about 900 feet above sea-level, 
and part of it is exposed to the blast from all directions. The 
soil is chiefly of a sandy nature, but in an extensive area like 
this the soil varies greatly. A ravine traverses a great portion 
of the wood, and upon the slopes, on both of its sides, the trees 
have done well. 

The first planting was begun here in 1817 with 45 acres, and 
the whole extent was finished in 1830. The crop is principally 
larch and Scots fir, with a few spruce. The earliest planted parts 
ai-e fast coming to maturity, hundreds of trees dying off every 
year. We are now contemplating clearing it off in sections, and 
replanting. 

An experiment was tried here in a part where the soil is 
deepest and best. Aboiit 40 acres were sown with oak acorns ; 
these have grown, but never attained to any size or value. The 
largest trees after 60 years' growth may contain from three to 
four cubic feet, whilst many of the larch grown beside them^ 
contain 25 feet of wood. This has been a very profitable invest- 
ment for the owner, as the land is chiefly moor, and of very little 
value for any other purpose. The larch grown here has the 
reputation of being very tough and durable. It has been mostly 
sold at one shilling per foot, at a distance of nine miles from a 
railway station or the nearest market. The whole of this wood 
is enclosed with a substantial stone wall. 

Management. 

I cannot say that the woods upon this estate have been 
managed upon the most scientific principles, still they will com- 
pare favoiirably with most other extensive woodlands in the 
district. 

The woods No. 7, 8, and 9, mentioned in this report, have been 
treated as coppice woods, or, as they are termed in the district, 
" spring woods." The routine of management of these woods is 



PLANTATIONS OX THE ESTATE OF WENTWORTIT, YORKSHIRE. 163 

to have a fall every year, so that all the ground may be gone over 
in twenty-one years. 

The timber is sold standing, by public auction, in early spring. 
The trees are all previously marked, measured, and valued by the 
woodman. The purchaser pays all the expenses for felling, 
peeling, cutting, and clearing the underwood, etc. In a book 
for the purpose, the reserved trees, and trees for sale, are all 
noted. No tree is measured that does not contain ten cubic 
feet of timber. Under that size they are classed as poles. 
The system of measuring is as follows. The men are supplied 
with six rods, each six feet long, with ferrules to slip the rods 
into as they are passed up the tree. One man uses the rods, 
another the tape for the girth, and a thii-d enters the number 
of tree, the length, and the girth into the book. It is surpris- 
ing how near, by this simple method, they can go to the contents 
of each tree. 

It is the custom to peel the ti-ees standing, which is certainly 
an advantage in getting the bark earlier cured, as no time is lost 
in felling. I am of opinion that it is also better for the timber, 
as the longer it stands after being barked, it is always becoming 
more seasoned. 

Many would perhaps object to the purchaser cutting down the 
wood, but in this case it is no objection, as the woodmen are the 
proprietor's servants ; the purchaser agreeing to pay for the work- 
ing of the wood at prices stated in the Rules of Sale. 

The usual contract prices for working the wood are as follows : — 
for felling, per ton of 40 feet, 3s. ; barking, per ton, 30s. ; cutting 
and ranking of cordwood, 4s. per cord; stakes per score, 3d.; 
and so on, the woodmen providing their own tools. 

In the Home plantations and Park much the same system of 
piece-work is carried out, especially in felling, barking, and similar 
operations, the same price being paid as in the "spring woods," 
but in all cases the wood is felled before it is sold, which is mostly 
done by private bargain. 

The younger plantations have been partially thinned, but no 
system of pruning has been adopted. The consequence is, that 
most of them are found full of straggling lob-sided trees, which 
might have been straight and well-grown if proper attention had 
been paid in due time to the pruning of them. 

Planting was formerly done by contract ; letting it to some of 
the working men, at so much per 1000 for making the pits and 



ir.4 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

putting in the plants. This is a system ^vlnch I do not approve, 
and consequently it has been put a stop to. 

There are two nurseries, of about three acres each, upon different 
parts of the estate, for keeping up a supply of young trees, and 
plants for underwood. Seedlings are generally bought and kept 
a year or two, as the case may be, and in this way the young 
plants become to a certain extent acclimatised before being 
planted out permanently. Plants gi-own in these nurseries lift 
with abundance of roots, and when planted out they soon lay 
hold of the ground, and begin to grow with vigour at an early 
period. In this and other ways, they are an important advantage 
iipon an estate. 



THE PLANTATIONS ON THE PENRHYN ESTATE, NORTH WALES. 165 

VII. The Plantations on the Penrhyn Estate, North Wales. By 
Angus D. Webster, Forester, Penrhyn Castle, North Wales. 

The estate, containing the plantations which form the subject 
of this report, occupies the almost entire northern part of the 
County of Carnarvon. 

Lying for the greater part of its length along the shores of the 
Irish Sea, and being well backed up by a range of mountains 
which are among the loftiest in Britain, the climate, as might be 
expected, is on the whole mild and humid, and well suited for 
the cultivation of timber trees. 

The soil is, generally speaking, a sandy loam, of fair quality, 
but stiff though fertile clays, as well as peat and alluvial deposit, 
occur in considerable quantities in various places over the estate. 
Although the low ground from the seashore to the base of the 
mountains is rich, well sheltered, and the climate extremely mild, 
thus fitting it for the growth of most of the trees and shrubs that 
can be grown out of doors in Britain, still amongst the hills the 
weather is usually wild and stormy, the winds from the south- 
west telling severely on most trees growing at high altitudes. 
Useful timber is, however, grown to fully 1000 feet above sea- 
level ; and with care and judgment in planting suitable trees, 
especially around the margins of the woods, good timber might 
be produced at even a greater altitude. f 

As we purpose describing the geological formation in conjunc- 
tion with each plantation or plantations, as the case may be, it is 
here unnecessary to offer further remark, than that along the 
coast there is a narrow strip of carboniferous limestone and within 
this the Old Red Sandstone ; while inwards to the foot of the 
mountains the flat ground is occupied by argillaceous schists. 
The rocks which form the mountain range are composed of 
schistose hornblende, granite, and porphyry. 

For convenience sake, and as many of the plantations are of 
small acreage and lying in close proximity to each other, we 
have found it better, so as to be as concise as possible, to include 
several in one, the natural conditions of soil, altitude, and aspect 
wan-anting such a course of procedure. 

No. 1 is a mixed plantation, 98 acres in extent, situated on the 
northern flank of an abruptly rising hill, and at elevations ranging 
from 750 feet to 1020 feet above sea-level. The soil throughout 
is a free, sandy, rich loam, save in one corner where it is wholly 



166 TRAKSACTIONS OF KOVAL SCOTTISH ARlilUtlCULTUllAL SOCIETY. 

composed of peat, and resting at no great depth on slate rock. In 
several places throughout the plantation the rock crops above the 
ground, in some instances to a height of 20 feet, so that timber 
growth on such places is stunted when comi>ared with that of the 
wood generally. The main crop consists of larch and Scots fir, 
with a free sprinkling of Ahies Lotujlusii in the lower-lying half of 
the "wood, and a few beech and spruce at the highest elevation. 

Generally speaking, the trees have done well, for although only 
twenty-two years planted, the average height, up to 9UU feet 
altitude, is fully 27 feet. Ahies Douglasii grows very rapidly; 
but on overtopping the surrounding trees the leader usually gets 
broken over, so that at present, although thicker in the stems, they 
are no taller than the general crop. The plantation has been 
thiixned twice, but the trees are thick on the gi'ound, and the stems 
of the larch in particular are remarkably clean, straight, and with 
a gradual taper, rendering them of great value for fencing pur- 
poses. At present the average distance between the trees is 
about 6 feet. Towards the top the crop becomes gradually lighter, 
but had a belt of the Austrian and Corsican pines taken the 
place of the larch now existing, the trees would have been, we 
have no doubt, of little less stature than those at lower levels. 

The natural vegetation of the woodland consists of Empetrum 
itigrum, Erica vulgaris, Vaccinium Myrtillus, Oxycoccus palustrin, 
the latter on ^amp ground, Pteris aquilina, Polypodium vulgare, 
Allosorus crispus, Athyrium Filix-fijtmina, Lastrea Filix-nias, 
Lycopodium Selago, and various species of grasses, these generally 
occurring in the more open parts of the wood and amongst the 
rocks which crop out here and there over its surface. 

No. 2 was planted ten years ago, contains 31 acres, and is at 
altitudes varying from 500 feet to 750 feet. The soil is of ex- 
cellent quality, being a rich sandy loam, although about 5 acres 
at the exti-eme top consist of peat, the whole resting on the 
debris of slate rock. 

As an experiment the wood was planted with the Corsican pine 
and Cornish elm at 16 feet apart, the intervening spaces being 
filled up with larch, Scots fir, and various kinds of hardwoods. 
Around the margin on the exjiosed side a number of the Austrian 
j)ine were planted, while spruce and alder were largely used in the 
damp, peaty ground at the top of the wood. The Corsican pine has, 
perhaps, done best of any, and will form the standing crop with a 
few specimens of the Cornish elm for variety and distant effect. 



THE PLANTATIONS ON THE PENRHYN ESTATE, NORTH WALES. 167 

At the highest altitude, and where fully exposed to the strong 
south-western blasts, the Corsican pine stands boldly out, even 
where the Scots fir is bending from the blast. 

The average height of the trees is about 6 feet, although many 
of the Corsican pine are from 8 feet to 10 feet, well branched, 
and with plenty of healthy foliage. A low narrow ridge of soil 
was thrown up alongside the fence that surrounds this wood, and 
seeds of gorse were sown rather thickly on the top of it. This is 
now a capital fence as well as shelter, the latter more particularly 
on the exposed side. 

No. 3 is a plantation of 73 acres, at an altitude of 250 feet to 
450 feet, planted thirty-three years ago, and contains a mixture 
of larch, Scots fir, Douglas fir, oak, elm, and ash. The soil is 
loam of fair quality, and the trees vary in height from 30 feet at 
the higher level to fully 50 feet at the lower level. 

Abies Douylasii has here done remarkably well, the soil and 
partially sheltered situation being all that could be desired for 
the successful cultivation of the tree. Thinning and pruning has 
been well attended to, and the trees are in consequence equally 
distributed over the ground and in a healthy thriving condition. 
In addition to the above trees there are a few specimens growing 
here of Araucaria imbricata, Cedrus Beodara, and Pinus Cemhra, 
but they are not of large size. 

No. 4 is an old oak wood, 35 acres in extent, and growing on 
a free sandy loam with an alluvial deposit, on the banks of the 
Ogwen River. 

The oak trees, which are fully a century old, and contain on an 
average 60 cubic feet of wood each, stand thin on the ground, the 
intervening spaces being occupied by Pinus strobus and Abies 
Douglasii, these having been planted twenty-three years ago. At 
irregular distances alongside a road that runs through the wood, 
are some fine examples of Ai'aucaria imbricata, Cedrus Libani 
and G. Deodara, Pinus Cembra, Thuia gigantea, and Cryptomeria 
jajjonica. Where they have had plenty of room they have done 
well, and look the picture of health, the free alluvial soil being 
particularly suitable for their growth. The ground being Avell 
sheltered and with an easy slope down to the river's edge, and the 
soil of excellent quality, Abies Douglasii has done remai'kably 
well, many of the trees being 70 feet in height, and containing 
fully 50 cubic feet of wood. Pinus strobus is also quite at home, 
the free soil resting on shale rock seeming to suit this valuable 



168 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

tree. Some of it measure about 50 feet in height, and with 
straight, clean stems girthing 5 feet at a yard from the ground. 

Last autumn, the branches of the oaks were pruned hard back, 
so as to give ample room for the Abies Donglasii, which, with 
Pinus strohus, is intended to form the succeeding crop. 

Blackthorn, bramble, rough grasses, bracken, lady fern, and 
Blechnum, boreale carpet the ground. 

No. 5 is 110 acres in extent, and of thirty-five years' growth. 
It is situated on a gently north-sloping hill, at elevations vai-ying 
from 200 feet to 400 feet, and about a mile distant from the sea- 
shore. Over the whole wood the soil may be said to be a fertile 
sandy loam, except in one or two places where it is stiffish and 
inclined to clay. With the exception of about 5 acres of scrubby 
oak, the croj) is larch and Scots fir, with a few Pinus Laricio and 
P. Austriaca. Having been attended to in the way of thinning 
and pruning, the trees have thriven well, the average height of 
the larches being 45 feet, and containing nearly 10 cubic feet of 
timber each. 

The Scots fir is of about the same size, while Pinus Laricio is 
towering 10 feet above any of the others, and with stems propor- 
tionately thick. Thinning is at present required, but as prices for 
timber are unusually low, and the individual trees not actually 
suffering from overcrowding, this operation has been defei-red for 
a time The oaks, which form what was the original wood, are 
small and of but little value, and are being gradually removed 
and their places filled by other and more valuable trees. In 
addition to the trees already mentioned there are a few specimens 
of ash, beech, elm, and sycamore which are thriving in a fairly 
satisfactory manner. Gorse and broom grow in several of the 
open rocky parts, while of other natural underwood the blackthorn, 
bramble, raspberry, elder, and bilberry, form a large proportion. 

No. 6 is 25 acres in extent, and may best be described as 
a worthless plantation to the forester, but an invaluable one for 
the sportsman. It is situated on a rocky hill side, with a north 
aspect, and within half-a-mile of the sea. The soil, which is thin 
over the wood generally, is rock debris with a small admixture 
of loam and peat. Dwarf and stunted oaks form the main crop, 
while hazels, also of diminutive growth, and a few blackthorns, 
are interspersed in open places, especially around the margin. 
Save a small sura realised on one or two occasions from the sale 
of rods for mending the near-lying fishing weirs, no revenue is 



THE PLANTATIONS ON THE PENRHYN ESTATE, NORTH WALES. 1G9 

obtained from this wood, except, perhaps, the sum realised from the 
great quantities of game which are fostered beneath its shade. 

On an average the trees are about 12 feet in height, but 
remarkably spreading and bushy, and therefore well suited for 
acting as a game preserve. 

No. 7 contains about 53 acres, and in contradistinction to the 
last, is a profitable wood, although situated at from 600 feet to 
fully 1000 feet above sea-level, and exposed at times to terrific 
storms. It clothes the southern slope of a hill, near the entrance 
to the Pass of Nant Francon, and was planted thirty-five years 
ago. Except in one place where peat is present, the soil is a 
kindly loam, not too stiff", resting on slate rock, which crops above 
the ground in several places. 

The crop is principally larch, but a few Scots and spruce firs 
are likewise present, as are also oak, sycamore, and alder. 

As thinning has been carefully attended to, the trees, especially 
the larches, ai'e well grown, clean, and destitute of branches for 
half their height. They average 30 feet in height, and, being 
straight and clean, sell readily either for fencing purposes or 
telegraph poles. On the outskirts of the wood the trees are not 
so tall as stated, more particularly those on the southern and 
south-western sides. Plenty of natural underwood occurs through- 
out the plantation, especially along the rocky margins of a fast- 
tumbling mountain stream that traverses its entire length. The 
bilberry, cranberry, crowberry, heath, and St John's wort occur 
in plenty, while, as might be expected in a mountain woodland, 
other smaller growing plants are tolerably abundant. 

No. 8. — Thi-ee woods are here included, for as they lie adjacent 
to each other, are of nearly similar soils, and were planted at the 
same time, they may well be treated as one. The total extent 
is 35 acres, the soil a stiff" but fertile loam, the aspect north, 
and the underlying rock a valuable slate. 

One of these plantations, however, diff"ers considerably from the 
others in the soil being damp and retentive, and the crop hardwoods 
instead of conifers. In it alder and birch form the main crop, 
with a few sycamores and ashes on the drier grounds. They are 
fully 20 feet in height, and having been allowed plenty of room, 
are well furnished with branches down to within a yard of the 
ground. Larch forms the main crop of the other two, and is well 
grown, clean, and valuable. These woods were planted thirty- 
two years ago, and from their rapid growth at so high an alti- 



1 70 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

tilde — 750 feet — they show that vast tracts of similar ground in 
the same valley might profitably be put under timber. 

No. 9 contains 62 acres, varies in altitude from sea-level up to 
350 feet, and is composed in part of loam, decayed vegetable 
matter, and stiff clay, the underlying rock being principally 
argillaceous schist, and in a portion the Old Red Sandstone. 

This wood is forty years planted. Larch and Scots fir are the 
chief trees, with ash, elm, oak, beech, birch, and alder in smaller 
numbers. Throughout the wood the trees have done well, the 
hardwoods in particular, and are now fully 50 feet in height ; 
and, from having been allowed plenty of room, are stout and 
bushy, and with stems girthing 4 feet to 5 feet at a yard from the 
ground. The situation is, on the whole, well sheltered from the 
south and west, from which points our most dreaded winds blow. 
In certain parts the trees have been thinned out excessively, in 
order to admit light and air for the production of brambles and 
other game-covert plants. Indeed in some places the trees might, 
so far as the pi-oduction of timber is concerned, stand twice as 
thick as they are at present, and with this desirable result, that 
the wood produced would be straight and clean, and consequently 
of much greater value in the market. 

No. 10 extends to about 18 acres, and the soil is of fair quality, 
being of a stiff loamy texture, resting on a retentive gravel subsoil, 
well drained. Abies Douglasii, A. Smithiana, A. canadensis, Finns 
strobus, the Norway maple, and oak, together with a few speci- 
mens of birch, beech, and the winged elm ( Ulmus alata), constitute 
the main crop of this plantation, which is situated on a sheltered 
and level tract of ground, about a mile inland from the seashore. 

Although planted only twenty-nine years ago, Abies Douglasii has 
attained to large dimensions, many of the specimens being almost 
70 feet in height, and well branched to near the ground; this latter, 
the result of careful and timely thinning. Several of the stems of 
the larger trees girth fully 7 feet at a yard from the ground, and 
some even exceed that measurement. Abies Smithiana has also 
thriven in a remarkable manner, and formed fine bushy specimens, 
with beautiful dark-green pendulous branches. The timber is of a 
firm texture, with a decidedly pretty grain. Growing, as these 
trees are, principally along the margin of the plantation, and 
Ijeing visible from the adjoining road and railway, they have a 
very pleasing appearance, their drooping spray and shapely out- 
line imparting a character peculiarly their own. Pinus strobus, 
although of large size, has not done so well as might have been 



THE PLANTATIONS ON THE PENUHYN ESTATE, NORTH WALES. 171 

expected, several of those that were cut down when thinning the 
plantation seven years ago being " pumped " or rotten at the 
heart, the soil evidently being unsuitable for their growth. The 
finest trees of this pine that we know of are growing amongst 
broken slaty rock, with a small admixture of decayed vegetable 
matter, and where the soil is naturally well drained. 

Of Abies canadensis there are some healthy and vigorous 
growing specimens, the mild situation and dampish ground being 
well suited for producing good examples of this distinct and 
highly ornamental conifer. The hardwoods have, likewise, 
thriven in a very satisfactory manner, and having at all times 
been allowed plenty of room for perfect development, the spread 
of branches in some instances almost equals the height of the 
trees. In consequence, the Norway maples show ofi" to perfection 
their large, five-lobed leaves, and contribute in a very mai-ked 
degree to the ornamental appearance of the wood. 

Underwood, principally privet, laurel, and barberry, has been 
planted for game-covert in open portions, which, with the natural 
vegetation — bramble, bracken, stinking hellebore {Hellehorus 
fcetidus), broom, gorse, and rough growing grasses — help to 
impart warmth and verdure that would be otherwise wanting. 
The covert-plants are formed into irregulai'-shaped patches of 
one species, this being decidedly better both for the plants 
themselves, and for their management in the way of pruning, 
layering, etc., than had they been indiscriminately planted. 

No. 11 is 18 acres in extent, composed principally of larch ; but 
these have not done well, owing to the light gravelly nature of 
the soil. When thinned six yeai-s ago, neai-ly one-half of the trees 
were rotten at the core ; this extending from the base to about 
half-way up each stem, and consequently the trees are of little 
value except for tlie shelter they afford. The plantation is situated 
on the crest of a gently sloping, sandy hill, at an altitude of hardly 
200 feet, and with a north-western aspect. Pinus Laricio thrives 
exceedingly well here, the sandy soil suiting its wants admii-ably, 
at least if rapid growth and healthy appearance are anything to 
judge by. Seeing how well this tree grows here, we have removed 
a number of the larch and planted it instead, along with the 
Austrian pine and several kinds of hai'dwood trees, so that 
ultimately a crop of these will take the place of the dying larch. 

The plantation was formed thirty-two years ago. The original 
crop is now fully 35 feet in height, and the stems girth on an 
average 2 feet at a yard from the ground. 



172 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The disease does not show itself until the ti-ees are about 1 6 feet 
in height, but after that its progress is rapid, the rot penetrating 
in a very few years to half the height of the tree. Cutting down 
the plantation would, of course, be the most practicable way to 
set matters right ; but as it is visible from the mansion-house 
windows and the grounds, and helps to hide some imsightly build- 
ings, its removal would mar the landscape to such an extent that 
it has been allowed to remain as it is. 

No. 12 is 45 acres in extent, and the greater part of it is oak 
coppice, with some spruces and silver firs along the side of the 
public road for shelter and ornament. There are likewise a few 
specimen conifers, including Finns Pinaster and F. strobus, Abies 
canadensis and A. Douglasii. 

As the ground is poor and rocky, and exposed to the south- 
west, from which point the worst winds blow, the oaks are not 
of great size, nor will they ever be of much value, and although 
planted over thirty years, they have not attained to a greater 
height than about 16 feet. Five years ago the plantation was 
thinned, the best oaks being carefully pruned and left as standards. 
As a game-preserve this wood is of much value ; the trees, being 
deciduous and standing wide apart, allow of the free growth of 
natural underwood, 

No. 13 is 31 acres, facing the north, 200 feet above sea-level, 
and consists of oak and spruce, planted twenty-seven years ago. 
The soil is of two kinds — a free rich loam where the oaks are 
planted, and a damp, boggy loam carrying the spruce. 

The oak and spruce have both done well. The plantation has 
been well attended to, the oaks having been thinned and pruned 
with care and discrimination ; while the spruce portion, by timely 
draining and the filling up of gaps caused by uprooted trees 
during storms, is all that could be desired. 

A few larch were planted with the oaks as nurses, but these have 
nearly all been removed in the course of thinning. The average 
height of the oaks is 22 feet, that of the spruce neai'ly 30 feet. 

No. 14 extends to 33 acres, is at 400 feet altitude, and has 
a north-western aspect. The soil is a free peaty loam, resting at 
no great depth on broken slate-rock. This is a mixed wood, con- 
sisting chiefly of oak and larch, with a small admixture of elm, 
beech, birch, ald(3r, Scots fir, lime, and sycamore. About 4 acres 
at one end of the plantation are })lanted entirely with alder, the 
ground being boggy and unfitted for bearing a better crop. The 
soil, though rocky, is fertile, and produces excellent timber, especially 



THE PLANTATIONS ON THE PENRIIYN ESTATE, NORTH AYALES. 173 

larch, oak, and birch. Tliinning has been regularly attended to, 
and in consequence the trees are clean and valuable, many of the 
larches, although only thirty-four years planted, containing about 
10 cubic feet of timber. 

No. 15 contains 29 acres, is situated on rocky ground at 500 
feet altitude, the soil being a light, sandy loam. This plantation 
is composed entirely of oak, but owing to the elevated site, the 
open exposure to the south and west, and the poverty of the soil, 
the trees are not of great size, although planted neai-ly half-a- 
century ago. They stand thin on the ground, about 1 8 feet apart, 
and are short of stem, with flat, bushy heads. 

Although the timber is of small size, it is hard and of excellent 
quality, and sells readily in the immediate neighbourhood for boat 
building. 

No. 16, about 16 acres in extent, is composed principally of 
Scots fir and larch of nearly one hundred years' growth, and is 
situated in a sheltered valley at 700 feet altitude. The soil 
throughout is of excellent quality, being decayed vegetable matter 
and loam resting on slate-rock. Many of the Scots firs are 75 
feet in height, with stems girthing 8 feet at a yard from the 
ground, and contain about 100 cubic feet of excellent timber. 
The larches are fewer in number and of less size ; but a few 
specimens are nearly as tall, and contain as much wood as the 
Scots firs. The trees standing thin on the ground, rhododendrons 
and laurels have been planted for effect in irregular-shaped clumps 
throughout the wood. In one corner ai'e a few sycamores and 
beeches of large size, the former in particular containing some 
clean and very valuable timber. 

No. 17, containing 12 acres, is a young oak plantation of 
twenty-seven years' growth, and situated on ground gently sloping 
to the north, at 250 feet altitude. The soil is a stiff loam, border- 
ing on clay, the underlying rock being the Aher fault. A stream 
runs through, the entire length of the plantation, and into which 
the drainage of the ground has been carried ; but owing to the 
stiff, retentive nature of the soil, water lodges for a considerable 
length of time on the surface. The oaks have done fairly well, 
considering the unkindly soil, and that they are fully exposed to 
winds blowing both from the south and west. They are now 
about 20 feet in height, well branched, and standing at 10 feet 
apart. A few spruces have, likewise, been planted in the dampest 
corner of the wood, and these have grown and thriven in a very 
satisfactory manner, being now fully 30 feet in height. 



.174 TRAN'SAC'TIOXS OF KOYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

No. 18 is almcst wholly composed of sycamore scattered thinly 
over an extent of fully 100 acres. 

The trees have, in the majority of cases, attained to full 
maturity, many being about 80 feet in height, and containing 
120 feet of wood. In nearly all the trees the timber is of 
excellent quality, the stems being large, straight, and unusually 
clean. The ground on which these fine trees are growing is a 
deep yellow loam, the aspect northern, and the altitude 350 
feet. Many of the largest trees have been felled, but generally 
speaking there is yet a fair crop of averaged size and clean speci- 
mens. They have been planted about 150 yeai-s. 

No. 19 consists of a series of small plantations that lie contigu- 
ous to each other, were all planted about the same time, and 
contain the same class of trees — larch, Scots fir, and a few 
hardwoods, principally oak and ash. These plantations are on 
the top and sides of an abruptly rising hill, which runs inland 
from the sea for several mUes. Throughout the whole the soil is 
of almost uniform quality, being a rich, though shallow, red loam, 
resting on greenstone and felspathic rock, which in many instances 
crops above the ground, and renders timber growing quite out of 
the question. Wherever a little soil is present the trees have, 
however, done well, and are now, on an average, 30 feet in 
height, although planted only thirty-one years ago. 

It should be stated that there are many trees of less size than 
the dimensions given, but in all cases this may be attributed to 
the scanty amount of soil occasioned by the rocks cropping up to 
within a few inches of the surface. 

Thinning has been well attended to, indeed in many of the 
individual woods this operation has been carried to excess, so as 
to allow of the free gi'owth of brambles and other natural under- 
cover. The bare rocky peaks of the hill being visible from the 
mansion and the surrounding grounds, were formerly an eyesore, 
but the well laid-out plantations have given it quite a picturesque 
appearance in the landscape. 

No. 20 is 12 acres in extent, at an altitude of 250 feet, and was 
planted eighteen years ago. The crop is larch, Scots fir, and 
birch, this latter ti-ee being well suited for the dampish loamy soil 
of which the ground is mainly composed. There are many gaps 
in the plantation, owing to patches of the larch having died out 
through excessive damp, but these have been filled up from time 
to time by moi-e suitable trees, particularly birch and alder. 
The Scots fir and birches first planted look well, and are from 15 



THE PLANTATIONS ON THE PENRHYN ESTATE, NORTH WALES. 175 

feet to 20 feet in height, bushy, and with stems which are thick 
in proportion to their length. Those trees which were planted to 
fill up the gaps are growing raj^idly, and will, from the shelter 
they receive, soon be as tall as the original wood. 

No. 21 is about 25 acres in extent, situated on a hill side, and 
at 100 feet above sea-level. Sycamore, beech, elm, larch, and 
Scots fir compose the crop, which was planted forty-seven years 
ago. The soil throughout the wood is of excellent quality, being 
a free loamy peat, well drained, and resting on greenstone rock 
principally. Most of the trees have done well, the sycamore in 
particular. They are nearly 60 feet in height, and with stems 
avei'aging 6 feet in circumference at 3 feet from the ground. The 
trees have plenty of room owing to repeated thinnings, and at 
present stand about 18 feet apart. 

No. 22 is 30 aci-es in extent, and the soil stiffish loam, resting 
on rough gravel. It was planted twenty-four years ago. The crop 
consists of larch, Scots fir, birch, elm, ash, oak, and a few syca- 
mores. The trees are about 40 feet in height, and having been 
grown thickly are straight and free from branches for nearly one- 
half their height. For fencing purposes and pit props the produce 
of this wood sells well, the poles being long, clean, and with a 
nice gradual taper. 

No. 23 is situated at 700 feet altitude, contains 75 acres, 
and is on tolerably flat gi'ound near the mountain base. The crop 
consists of larch and Scots fir, -with a small number of hardwoods 
around the border. The soil in most parts is a stiff" loam, border- 
ing on clay, but is well suited for timber growing, the crop 
thriving well and averaging about 40 feet in height. It was 
planted about half-a-century ago. Most of the hardwoods have 
died or been cut, leaving the larch and Scots fir. From being 
grown thickly the timber is clean and free from knots, and finds 
a ready market in the neighbourhood for crane poles used in the 
various quarries. The soil being naturally damp and retentive 
was drained in a very efficient manner when the plantation was 
formed, and has required nothing further in that way since, 
except a scouring out of the ditches when thinning takes place. 

No. 24 is almost similar to the last in every respect, only it is 
situated at 500 feet instead of 700 feet altitude. The crop is 
larch, Scots and spruce firs, oak, elm, ash, beech, birch, and 
sycamore, as well as a few alders, which latter line the banks of a 
rapid stream which divides the wood into two nearly equal parts. 
As regards size and age the trees are similar to those described in 



ITfi TRANSACTION'S OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

No. 23. Tliey have, however, received a greater number of 
thinnings, and are consequently better furnished with branches, 
though the timber is not so clean and straight as if they had been 
allowed to stand thicker on the ground. Natural vegetation is, 
likewise, abundant, and consists of the bilberry, crowberry, gorse, 
heath, ferns, and grasses common to such situations. 

No. 25. — This consists of a number of small and recently- 
formed plantations and screen belts containing in all about 40 
acres. The soil is of two distinct kinds — sandy loam and peaty 
loam ; the situations sheltered, and the distance inland from two 
to three miles. The Corsican pine has been largely planted 
in all these woods, but there is also a fair quantity of larch, Scots 
and spruce firs, as well as various kinds of hardwoods. All these 
plantations have been formed within the past ten years, but the 
greater number seven years ago. They are thriving well, but have 
as yet received no thinning, although one of the patches, which is 
composed principally of the Corsican pine, will require attention in 
this way during the present year. 

No. 26 is a seaside plantation of nearly 20 acres in extent, and 
was formed eighteen years ago. Next to the shore the soil, as 
might be expected, is barren and sandy, but inwards it improves 
wonderfully, being of a loamy nature, intermixed with veins of 
clay and sand. The trees first planted were the Corsican and 
Austrian pines, sycamore, elm, white beam (Pyrus aria), and 
willow ; while of shrubs the sea buckthorn, blackthorn, spindle- 
tree, tamarisk, barberry, and laurel occupied the more prominent 
places. Owing to the unfavourable surroundings many of the trees, 
particularly the hai'dwoods, have died out, and their places, next 
to the shore at least, have been filled by planting strong bushy 
plants of Pinus Pinaster and also more of the Corsican pine, this 
latter doing best of any down even to high water mark. 

Gorse and broom seeds germinated freely, and a great portion of 
the sea barrier is now thickly covered by the former. Amongst 
the shrubs that have done best, particular mention may be made of 
the tamarisk, sea buckthorn, and Darwin's barberry, all these 
being invaluable plants for using along the sea coast. 

No. 27 is 15 acres in extent; soil, an unkindly clayey loam, resting 
on rough gravel ; situation, exposed to the south and west. The 
ground was originally planted with Scots fir, larch, birch, and 
alder, but owing to the unkindly nature of the soil and exposure 
to the strong south-western gales, many of them have died oiit, 
and the ground has been replanted with Corsican, Austrian, 



THE PLANTATIONS ON THE PENRHYN ESTATE, NORTH WALES. 177 

Scots and spruce firs, along with a few birch, oak, and alder. 
The drainage not being satisfactory, renewed efforts to drain the 
ground are now beginning to have effect, and the greater portion 
of it is now in a passable condition, and fairly suited for the 
successful cultivation of a crop of timber. In one corner of the 
wood where the soil was a nice kindly loam and not too damp, 
the first planted trees have thriven in a satisfactory manner, the 
average height being about 15 feet, bushy in proportion, and the 
Scots fir with fine glaucous green foliage. Pinus Laricio has 
also done well, and is of equal height with the Scots firs. 

No. 28 was planted so as to afford shelter to a mountain village 
at nearly 1000 feet altitude. It is a long narrow strip, running 
parallel to the main road of the village, and consists of larch, 
Scots and spruce firs, as also a very considerable number of birch, 
sycamore, elm, and oak. Being fully exposed to the south-west, 
and the soil a poor, thin gravel, with a thin surface coating of peat, 
the trees have not grown fast, and although nearly thirty years 
planted, have not attained to a greater height than 18 feet. 
Thinning of the wood has taken place only twice, but the trees 
are by no means di-awn up or weak, and are generally bushy and 
well-formed, especially the Scots fir. When thinned eight years 
ago many of the wind-shoi-n larches were removed, so that when 
viewed from a distance the plantation has the appearance of being 
composed wholly of pines. 

No. 29 consists principally of ornamental plantations within 
the park, and extends to fully 300 acres. The soil in most parts 
is a free kindly loam, which is remarkably well suited for the 
growth of trees, the newer conifers in particular ; and is at vary- 
ing altitudes from sea-level up to about 100 feet. 

The trees are, generally, of large size and well grown, and have 
been planted within the last sixty years, although many of the 
older trees, particularly the fine oaks around the mansion, must be 
fully two hundred years of age. The newer conifers have all been 
planted during the past forty-five years, and many of these, 
especially the Douglas firs, Coi'sican pines, Araucarias, and Cedars, 
have attained to large dimensions. The Douglas fir, which is 
more abundant than any of the other conifers, and numbers 
several hundreds, has been planted in a great variety of soils ; but 
that in which it succeeds best is a well-drained alluvial deposit 
resting on gravel, and where partial shelter is afforded. 

Many of these are from 60 feet to 70 feet in height, and with 
stems girthing at 3 feet up from 10 feet to 16 feet. The timber 

VOL. XII., PART I. M 



176 TrvANSACTIONS OF KOYAL SCOTTISH AIIBOUICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 

is of excellent quality, and has been used with satisfaction for 
general estate purposes. Pimis Laricio is also in great numbers, 
and thrives well on almost pure gravel, with a slight surface coat- 
ing of decayed vegetable matter. The average size is from 50 
feet to 70 feet, and the stems girthing from 5 feet to 9 feet at 3 
feet up. Pinus strohis, P. Cenibra, P. halepensis, P. insignis, 
P. Austriaca, P. Phiaater, and P. 2)i/i'enaica, all do remarkably well, 
and have formed, in many instances, fine bushy specimens of 50 
feet in height. P. Austriaca in particular has been planted in 
(juantity for the sake of the valuable shelter it affords, and hun- 
dreds of the trees measure from 4 feet to 7 feet in girth of stem. 

Abies Nordmanniana, A. grandis, A. nobilis, A. Webbiana, A. 
Pinsapo, A. magnifica, and A. Pindrow are all well represented 
in healthy free-growing specimens. A. grandis on well-drained 
loam is 60 feet in height, A. nobilis and A. Nordmanniana fully 
70 feet high ; while of the others, well-grown trees of .30 feet and 
upwards are not uncommon. Of the Cedars, Cedrus Libani and 
C Deodara have attained to large sizes, many of the foi'mer 
being from 12 feet to 14 feet in girth ; while of the latter, 
specimens of GO feet in height may be seen. Amongst the spruces 
that haA^e done well and grown to be of large size, paiiiicular note 
may be made of Abies Menziesii, 68 feet in height; A. orientalis, 
fully 50 feet; A. Sinitliiana, 63 feet; A. canadensis, 30 feet; A. 
nigra, 50 feet. The former in particular is a lovely tree that 
thrives well in a dampish soil, and where partial shelter is secured. 
On gravelly soil it is apt to become rusty in appearance, and 
frequently dies out altogether. Wellingtonia gigantea and 
Sequoia sempervirens do well in several of the plantations, 
there being in one belt about a score of the former, each upwards 
of 60 feet in height. A good dampish loam suits this tree, but it 
must have plenty of room for the development of its long branches. 
Throughout most of the })ark woods Tlaija gigantea has been 
planted, principally in the more open situations and around the 
margins for effect, it being one of the most valuable conifers we 
know of for planting indiscriminately. Even during the most 
severe storms, we have never known this tree to be uprooted, or to 
lose its leading shoot. It is very impartial as regards the quality 
of soil in which it is planted, for here it may be seen doing well 
in pure peat, gr-avelly loam, stiff loam, and decayed vegetable 
matter. The average height of this Thuja, planted twenty-three 
years ago, is 40 feet. 

Crypiomeria japcytiica has, likewise, received a creat amount of 



THE PLANTATIONS ON THE PENRHYN ESTATE, NORTH WALES. 179 

attention, being a fairly good sea-side tree, where partial shelter 
from direct cold cutting winds is afforded. In dampish but well- 
drained alluvial soil, it grows rapidly, and several specimens of 
fully 70 feet in height are to be seen. Scattered throughout most 
of these park woods are numerous large trees of Ai-aucaria 
imhricata, ranging from 20 feet in height to upwards of 50 feet. 
This is a tree, more, perhap.s, than any other, that dislikes codling, 
although, at the same time, it is by no means suitable for planting in 
wind-swept districts. To gi'ow it in a satisfactory manner it must 
have plenty of room for perfect development of both root and branch. 
Amongst the Cypress tribe those that do best are Cupressus Lam- 
bertiana, a valuable tree whether for effect, shelter, planting in 
maritime situations, or for the finely-grained and lasting timber it 
produces ; C. Lawsoniana, another elegant and easily-accom- 
modated species; C. Nutkcensis, and C. sempervirens. 

Junvparus chinensis, J. recurva, and J. communis thiive 
well on various kinds of soil, and being highly ornamental 
are well worthy of attention in parks and plantations. In 
peaty loam incumbent on blue slate, J. remrva thrives well, 
several specimens being fully IG feet in height, and with a spread 
of branches covering a diameter of 14 feet, Larix, or rather 
Pseudo-Larix KcRmpferi, Fitzroya patagonica, Salisburia adianti- 
folia, Taxodiuvi distichum, Betinosjwra, various species, Cunning- 
hamia lanceolata, Taxus adpressa, T. baccata, and its yellow 
berried form, Cephalotaxus Fortunei, C . pedunculatafastigiata, and 
Cryptomeria elegans, all find suitable positions either on the lawn, 
in the parks, or woods, and grow in a satisfactory manner. 

Many of the above-named conifers are planted in the natural 
soil, but in dealing with rare and valuable species, a quantity of 
thoroughly decomposed vegetable matter has been added to the 
soil in which they are planted. In all cases pits of large size 
were opened for the I'eception of the trees, and the soil well 
broken up and allowed to remain exposed to the atmosphere for 
as long as possible previous to the insertion of the plants. 

Neither are hardwood trees neglected in these ornamental wood- 
lands, for the copper beech, cut-leaved alder, finest varieties of 
thorn, scarlet horse chestnut, weeping birch, service tree, snake- 
barked maple, golden and silver elders, liquidamber, and many 
others, are planted in quantity, and are now of a good size. 

Amongst the more ornamental flowered shrubs, Weigelia rosea, 
Fuchsia Riccartoni, Hydrangea hortensis, Chimonanthus frag- 
rans, Berberis Darwinii, B. Wallachii, Catalpa syringoifolia, 



180 TRAXSACTION'S OF UOYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIKTY. 

Cornun sanguinea, Dcij)hne Mezcveon^ D. laureoln, Deutzia 
creiuUa, D. scahra, Euony)>ius europaivs, Fursi/thia viridisshna, 
Viburnum opulus, Syringa, of sorts, Spiraa Douglasii, Rhanimis 
frangula, Philadelphus coronarius, and Leycesteria formosa find 
prominent places alongside the walks and drives, or in large 
irregular masses within the woods and along their margins. 

The old oak trees ai'ound the mansion, and over the park 
generally, are in a good state of preservation, and of goodly 
proportions. Most of them contain from 60 feet to 100 cubic 
feet of timber, but one patch growing on shallow peat contains 
fully 100 trees of 130 cubic feet each. Along with these latter 
are a few larch trees of fully 90 feet in height, and girthing on 
an average 11 feet at a yard from the ground. 

Ulmus Cornubiensis, a form of the English elm, has been 
})lanted largely, and many of the trees now stand 75 feet in 
height, and girth 8 feet at breast high. The sycamore, birch, 
beech, Spanish chestnut, and ash likewise do well, and from 
having been allowed plenty of room, and carefully looked to as 
regards pruning, are of large size and shapely in form. 

Most of the park woods are what may be styled ornamental 
game preserves. Throiighout the majority of them large clumps 
of rhododendron, laurel, privet, aucuba, laui'estinus, and many 
other shrubs suitable for covert purposes have been planted. 

In addition to the plantations described, there are several acres 
of newly formed woods, principally shelter belts, and exiDcrimental 
woods oi Abies Douglasii, Thuja gigantea, and Pinus Laricio; but 
as the trees are of small size and only planted within the last few 
years, we do not consider they require any special remarks at the 
present time. 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, EDINBURGH, 188G. 181 

INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, EDINBURGH, 1886. 

The Scottish Arboricultural Society's Exhibits. 

Award : — Diploma of Honour. 

The Council of the Scottish Arboricultural Society resolved to 
contribute a selection of the valuable and interesting articles which 
it had acquired from time to time, especially at the close of the 
Forestry Exhibition, 1884, to the International Exhibition of 
Industry, Science, and Art, held at Edinburgh in 1886. Applica- 
tion was made for the necessary space, which the Executive Council 
of the International Exhibition freely granted in the interests of 
Forest Science. An eligible site, in a very convenient position in 
Court 13, was set apart for the purpose. There the Society made 
an attractive and highly interesting display of the many rare, 
curious, and valuable specimens, of which it had become possessed 
during a series of years, and from a great variety of sources at 
home and abroad, chiefly with a view of forming a Forestry 
Museum. The space was laid out in the form of a small Court, 
No. 394 ; and the various articles were eflfectively arranged on 
Stands, or displayed on the walls of the Court, where they were 
seen and examined with much interest by the numerous visitors to 
the Exhibition. 

The Secretary of the Society, Mr John M'Laren, jun., or his 
Assistant, was daily in attendance, and furnished to the Members 
visiting the Exhibition, and to all other inquirers, the fullest par- 
ticulars regarding the articles exhibited, as well as giving informa- 
tion upon all topics connected with the aims and objects of the 
Society. The great interest taken in the exhibits by the general 
public, and the numerous questions they asked about the nature, 
properties, and uses of the different articles, clearly showed that 
the subject of Forestry in all its bearings has got a firm hold on 
the mind of the public, and that the Society's efforts are being 
appreciated by a rapidly widening circle of intelligent observers. 

So highly was the work of the Society esteemed by the Jurors, 
that after fully examining the remarkably interesting and useful 
display of specimens of Forest products, and articles of scientific 
and practical interest in Forestry, they considered it worthy 
of the highest award made at the Exhibition — a " Diploma of 
Honour." 



182 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH AHBORICUT.TURAL SOCIKTY. 

The fi)llo\Yiiig list gives a few details t)f the leading features 
in the display made by the Society : 

A numerous assortment of the Tools used by Foresters in Britain, 
with ]\Iodels of Implements and other appliances for the 
working of Forests and the conversion of timber. 

An interesting collection of the Tools used in Forestry in the 
several Presidencies of India and British Burmah. 

A complete set of the Tools used in the culture and manufac- 
ture of Willows in Bavaria, from J. H. Krahe. 

Set of Peat-Cutting Tools, of a rather primitive pattern, from 
County Tipperary, Ireland. 

Set of Tree-Planting Tools, of excellent design and workmanship, 
from Denmark. 

Set of Tools used in the Forests of Sweden and Norway. 

Improved Dendrometer, on Tripod, from D. F. Mackenzie, 
Morton Hall. 

A New Calliper Tree Measurer, from Denmark. 

An instructive Collection of the commercial products of the 
Forests of Ceylon : including medicinal and economic barks, 
seeds, gums, oils, fibres, and woods ; cinchona bark in 
various stages of manufacture, and many other articles of 
interest, from John Alexander, Kirklees Estate, Ceylon. 

A Collection of Specimens of the Woods of the Canadian Forests, 
from W. Little, Quebec. 

A very interesting Collection of Woods from Natal, from D. ]\I. 
Smythe, yr. of Methven, Perth. 

A neatly arranged Collection of 117 varieties of Woods grown 
in Scotland, from D. F. Mackenzie, Morton Hall. 

Several large Specimens of beautiful oak panelling from the old 
oaks growing in the existing remnant of the ancient Cale- 
donian Forest in Dalkeith Park, from Robert Baxter, 
Dalkeith. 

A fine Collection of GO specimens of Woods, from the State of 
Perak, Straits Settlements. 

Samples of Barks for tanning purposes ; and a fine Specimen 
illustrating the remarkably quick growth of Eucaly2>his 
globulus, from Algeria. 
A large and fine Collection of Specimens of Timber and Bark, 

chiefly oak, grown in the Royal Forests of England. 
Section of an old Yew Tree, 3 feet 1 inches in diameter, grown 
at Roseneath, Argyleshire, from the Duke of Argyle. 



IXTERX.VTIOXAL KXHIBITIOX, EDINBURGH, 1880. 183 

Section of an oak, 4 feet in diameter and G inches thick, from a 
tree still standing and growing on the Estate of Sands, 
Perthshire, from Laurence Johnstone of Sands. 

A fine Collection of Woods grown on the Scone Estates, Perth- 
shire, including wood of Douglas fir used for several pur- 
poses, and a Railway Sleeper of Silver fir which had been 
in use over seven years and is still quite sound and service- 
able, from William M'Corquodale, Scone, Perth. 

A very interesting Collection of 115 kinds of Wood, all grown 
on the Hopetoun Estates in West Lothian, from John 
M'Laren, Hopetoun. 

An interesting Collection of Specimens of the Wood of the 
Eucaliji-)t%, from Australia. 

A splendid Collection of the Woods used for Ordnance, and 
for other purposes by the War Department, from H.IM. 
Secretary of State for War. This valuable and interesting 
Collection afforded a capital illustration of the great variety 
of Woods and other articles of Forest Produce which are 
used, and the purposes to which they are applied, in the 
science and art of war. Among others it included beautiful 
Specimens of the following Woods, each having the descrip- 
tion here given attached to it. 

1. Oak (Quebec), used for barrels, kegs, rouuds of lacUlors, fittings of 
ammunition boxes, and operating tables. 

2. Oak (Riga), used for operating tables and internal tittings of ammuni- 
tion boxes. 

3. Lime-Tree (Great Britain), used for cutting boards for collar makers. 

4. Beech (Great Britain), used for bars and arches for saddles, and for 
fittings of ammunition boxes. 

5. Oak (Odessa), used for barrels, kegs, rounds of ladders, fittings of 
ammunition boxes, and opei'ating tables. 

6. Oak (Dantzig), used for barrels, kegs, roimds of ladders, and 
operating tables. 

7. Lancewood ("West In<lies), used for tripods for range finders. 

8. Hornbeam (Great Britain), used for teeth of wheels, for heavj' 
machinery. 

9. Mahogany (Tobasco), used for levers, fittings of ammunition boxes, 
cradles for pack saddles, tackle blocks, and patterns. 

10. Saul (Burmah), used for windlasses, gim carriages, bollards, rollers, 
i[Uoins, and mortar beds. 

11. Walnut (American), used for felloes of wheels for tropical service, 
pack saddles, and for barrack furniture. 

12. Cedar (Cuba), used for panels of office waggons, linings of fuse 
boxes, model and pattern work. 



184 TKAN'SACTIOXS OF KOYAL Sf'OTTISII AKHORICULTURAL SOCIKTY. 

1:J. .Mahogany (Hoiuliiras), iisfd for levers, littini^s lor anunuiiitioii 
boxes, cratlles lor }'aek saddles, tackle Mocks, and patterns. 

14. Elm (Great Britain), used for gnn carriaffes, windlasses, railwaj^ 
trucks, naves of wheels, and tackle blocks. 

15. Oak (African, Sierra Leone), used for windlasses, gun carriages, 
bollards, rollers, (juoins, and mortar beds. 

16. Cedar (Mexico), used for panels of ofiice waggons, linings of fuse 

boxes, models, and pattern work. 

17. Oak (Jlemel), used for barrels, kegs, and rounds of ladders. 

18. Hickory (North America), used for waggons, forage and maltese 
carts, levers, sponge and rammer staffs, and ribs of jiontoon 
boats. 

19. Poplar (Great Britain), used for cutting boards for collar makers. 

20. Ash (Great Britain), used for felloes of wheels, sponge and rammer 
staffs, handspikes, barrows, and hoops for casks. 

21. Oak (Riga), used for barrels, kegs, and rounds of ladders. 

22. Oak (Great Britain), used for frames of waggons, carts, and barrows, 
spokes of wheels, and gun carriages. 

23. Elm, Wych (Great Britain), used for barge and boat work. 

24. Sycamore (Great Britain), used for cutting boards. 

25. Pine, Yellow (Quebec), used for pattern work, pontoon boats, sides 
of waggons, and medical boxes. 

26. Pine, Kauri (New Zealand), used for pontoon equipment, tressel 
bridging, and saddle beams. 

27. Pine, Oregon (Oregon), used for superstructure for bridging purposes. 

28. Deal, Yellow (Petersburg), used for coal trucks, stretchers, and 
ammunition boxes. 

29. Deal, Yellow (Gefle), used for signal rocket sticks, tool chests, poles, 
buckets, and ammunition boxes. 

30. Boxwood (West Indies), used for mallets and measuring rods. 

31. Abele (Great Britain), used for provision boxes and cutting boards. 

32. Birch (Canada), used for barrack furniture. 

33. Teak, Moulmein (Burmah), used for gun carriages and platforms. 

34. Ebony, Black (Ceylon), used for turnery work. 

35. Padouk (Burmah), used for bollards, windlasses, gun carriages, 
rollers, quoins, and mortar beds. 

36. Walnut (Italy), used for felloes of wheels for tropical climates, and 
pack saddles for mountain service. 

37. Greenheart (South America), used for gun carriages, mortar beds, 
windlasses, quoins, bollards, and rollers. 

38. Lignum Vita; (West Indies), used for sheaves of tackle blocks, for 
rollers, and for stretchers. 

39. Iron Bark (Australia), used for gun carriages, mortar beds, wind- 
lasses, bollards, rollers, and quoins. 

40. Sabieu (Cuba), used for gun carriages, mortar beds, bollards, rollers, 
and quoins. 

41. Fir (Russia), used for pontoon equipment, gun platforms, and mortnr 
beds. 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, EUINBUROII, 1880. 185 

42. Boxwood (Turkey), used for inallet beads. 

43. Alder (Great Britain), used for sabots. 

44. Elm (North America), used for forage and water carts, sponge and 
rammer staffs, and railway trucks. 

45. Deal, White (Petersburg), used for packing cases. 

46. Deal, S]3ruce (Quebec), used for life-saving rocket sticks. 

47. Deal, Yellow (Archangel), used for signal rocket sticks, and chests 

for tools and small arms. 

48. Pine, Pitch (North America), used for picket posts, and sleighs for 
moving 80 and 100 ton guns. 

This Collection from the War Department included also ex- 
amples of Gun Stocks in different stages of manufacture, 
from the raw block of Walnut to the finished article, for 
both the long Snider and the Martini-Henry Kifles ; 
samples of peeled Willow and Alder woods, with Charcoal 
made therefrom, used in the manufacture of Gunpowder ; 
Specimens of "Jack-Wood" from Ceylon, said to withstand 
the ravages of White Ants owing to its intense bitterness ; 
Specimen of Elm used for a Chopping Block, at Colombo, 
Ceylon, eaten out by White Ants, and ilhistrating their 
destructive nature to wood ai-ticles ; and a complete 
Mounted set of Cavalry Lances, Avith shafts of Ash,^Bamboo, 
and Lance-wood. 

A large and interesting Collection of Cones and Seeds in cases, 

bottles, and bags, all accurately labelled, from Vilmorin, 

Andrieux, &, Co., Paris. 
A great variety of seeds, barks, fibres, gums, resins, oils, woods, 

and other Forest Products, from the various Presidencies of 

India and Burmah. 
A valuable Collection of fibres produced from indigenous plants ; 

many Specimens of Woods, and Samples of Forest Produce, 

from the Island of Mauritius. 
A Collection of Samples, in clear glass tubes arranged in cases, 

of about 500 kinds of Arboricultural, Agricultural, and 

Horticultural Seeds, with the Weeds and Adulterations 

commonly found among thein, from Germany. 
A fine Collection of Tree and Shrub Seeds, and of Cones, grown 

on the Stevenstone Estate, Devonshire, from James Barrie, 

Stevenstone. 
Several fine Samples, in clear glass jars, of Scots fir and Common 

Spruce Fir Seeds, from Norway. 



ISO TR.VNSAf'TIONR OF UOYAL SCOTTISH A UnORICULTUHAL SOCIRTY. 

A largo immbor of Samples of valuable fibres, gums, oils, seeds, 
barks, and other Forest Products, from tlie Islands of St 
Vincent and Tobago, West Indies. 

A numerous and varied Collection of Ropes and Cordage, and of 
the materials for their manufacture, from India, Burmah, 
Ceylon, Cyprus, Mauritius, South Africa, Sierra Leone, and 
British Guiana. 

A valuable Collection of Articles illustrating the manufacture of 
Paper from Wood, showing the diflerent kinds of wood in 
their raw state ; dressed and prepared for pulping ; the 
various stages of maceration and the processes of pulping ; 
and also many kinds of paper and cardboard of various 
qualities made therefrom, from British, Danish, German, 
and Scandinavian Manufacturers. 

Samples of Wood Paper, from Japan ; and of the leaves of the 
Palmyra Palm (Borassus Jiahelliformis) and the Talipot 
Palm (Coryplm iimhramdifera), used by the natives in the 
East for writing upon. 

Section showing the point of union of Abies morinda grafted on 
Abies excelsa. The tree grew in the Grounds at Hopetoun 
I^use, Linlithgowshire ; and after attaining a diameter of 
15 inches at the graft in about sixty years, it began to 
show evident signs of decay, although other similarly grafted 
trees are thriving well; from John M'Laren, Hopetoun. 

A fine Collection of Specimens of various descrijjtions illustrat- 
ing the Art of Tree Pruning, and also the evil results of 
injudicious pruning, from D. M'Corquodale, Dunrobin, 
Sutherland, and the Comte des Cars, Paris. 

Section of Stem of a Coffee Tree, showing the destructive work 
of the White Borer, Xyhtrechus quadrupes, from Ceylon. 

Section of a Pile, showing the ravages of the Sea Worm, 

Xyhpliaga Teredo, from Pont-de-Galle, Ceylon, 
Section of Cedar of Lebanon, showing the ravages of the Giant 

Sirex ; from Alexander Christie, Warwick Castle. 
Several fine Specimens of the Nests of the Arboreal Tormes 
(White Ants), which can be utilised in the manufacture of 
Papier Mache ; from Dr Cleghorn of Stravithie, Fife. 

A very interesting Collection of beautiful Japanese Models of 
charcoal kilns, timber slides, dams, and other appliances 
for the transport and conversion of timber in Japan. 



INTERNATIOXAL EXHIBITION, EDINBURGH, 188G. 187 

Models of houses, huts, implements, household utensils, and 
other articles of domestic use, in India, Japan, Ceylon, 
South and West Africa, West Indies, and British Guiana. 

Model of Wooden Bridge over the Almond River, Perthshire, 
from William M'Corquodale, Scone, Perth. 

Some very curiously trained and dwarfed Specimens of Abies 
firma, Larix leptolepis, Finns densijlora, and other trees, 
from Japan. 

A fine Collection of Bamboo Stems, of different lengths and 
sizes, showing the numerous modes in which the Bamboo 
is utilised in Tropical Countries. 

Specimens of Ornamental Wood Fencing and Lattice W^ork, from 
Denmark. 

Specimens of Slate Fencing and Slate Labels, from A. D. 
Webster, Penrhyn, North Wales. 

A Collection of beautiful Photographs of old and remarkable 
Trees, from Magnus Jackson, Perth. 

Several fine Photographs and Illustrations of Forestry objects, 
from Dr Cieghorn of Stravithie, Fife. 

A number of neatly framed Coloured Plates of Lawson's Pinetum 
Britannicum; from The Lawson Seed and Nursery Company, 
Limited, Edinburgh. 

The Album of the Scottish Arboricultural Society, with the 
Photographs of Members. 

The Collections of valuable Forestry Books and Periodicals 
which have been presented to the Scottish Arboricultural 
Society, with complete sets of the Transactions, Proceed- 
ings, and other publications, and the Minute Book of the 
Society since it w\is instituted in the year 1854. 



18« 



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Scot.Artor Soc. Trans. Vol. XII. Fl I 




MAP OF COUONEL BAILEY'S TOUR IN HUNGARY. 1886 



Scot Arbor Soc Trans. Vol M. PI I 




ADVERTISEMENTS. 




^^:^^^^p^ 



N URSERIE S, 

150 
ACRES. 




NUESERYMEN & SEEDSMEN BY EOYAL WARRANTS TO H.M. THE aUEEN, 

AND H.R.H. THE PRINCE OF WALES. 

LITTLE & BALLAITTNE re,pcctfull>, invite 
inspection of their iminense stock of Forest Trees, 
comprising MA N Y MIL LIO NS of Seedliwj and 
Trcinsplanted, hardy, well-rooted Forest Trees of every 
descriiHion, age, height, etc., in splendid condition for 
removal to any part of the United Kingdom, and which 
may he depended upon to give the utmost satisfaction. 

GAME COVERT PLANTS— all the leading sorts in 
(jiiantity, bushy, well furnished. 

RHODODENDRONS — Seedling and named Hybrids, Ponti- 
cums, etc., etc., of various sizes. 

ORNAMENTAL TREES AND SHRUBS in great health. 

A VENUE TREES— straight, tvell-grown, good heads, etc. 

FRUrr TREES, ROSES, ALPINE S^ HERBACEOUS 

PLANTS, etc. 



Catalogues Free. Special prices to large buyers. Samples sent on application, 
and all communications promptly attended to. 



LITTLE & BALLANTYNE, 

Nurserymen and Wood Foresters to 
Her Majesty's Government, 

KNOWEFIELD NURSERIES, CARLISLE. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



"CEIITIFICATE OF MERIT," Highcd Aicanl at Lnteknational 
Exhibition, Caiilisle, 1880. 

' SILVER MEDAL," Highest Award for Hot-Houses, at the International 
FoKEsTiiY Exhibition, Edinburgh, 1884. 

"GOLD MEDAL," Highest Aivard at International Industrial 
Exhibition, Edinburgh, 1886. 



MACKENZIE & MONCUR, 

HORTICULTURAL BUILDERS 

AND 

HEATING AND VENTILATING ENGINEERS, 

UPPER GROVE PLACE, EDINBURGH, 

AND 

ST ANDREW'S CROSS, GLASGOW. 



Conservatories, Greenhouses, Vineries, Forcing 
Houses, and all kinds of Horticultural Buildings 
erected in wood or iron in the most approved 
manner in any part of Great Britain or Ireland, 
at strictly Moderate Rates. 



Illustrated Sheets on Application. Splendid Illustrated 
Catalogues, Price 316. 



PLANS AND SPECIAL DESIGNS. 



Heating with Hot-Water, Low and High Pressure, 
Steam heating on the return gravity and expansion 

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Ventilating Apparatus, Atmospheric and Mechanical. 

Satisfactory Results in all Cases Guaranteed. 



ADVERTISEMEKTS. 



THOMAS METHVEN I SONS 

Beg to request the attention of those about to plant to their Stoek of 

SEEDLING AND TRANSPLANTED FOREST TREES, 

WHICH IS VERY EXTENSIVE, AND IN A HEALTHY, 
VIGOROUS CONDITION. 



Samples and Prices on Applicaiion. 



LEITH WALK & WARRISTON NURSERIES, 

EDINBURGH. 




AHLBOTTN'S 




CELEBRATED 



TREE -m^m^^ PROTECTIVE 

OOMPOSITIOlSr 

The only Award for Tree Protective Composition at the Forestry Exhibition, 
Edinburgh, 1884. 

NATHANL. AHLBOTTN, 

Sole Manufacturer, cmd iioiv the only survivitvj discoverer of tlie above 
For protecting young Forest and other Trees against the ravages of Hares and 
Rabbits, It is free from any poisonous substance, encourages the growth, is 
easily apj)lied by the hand or a small brush, and is strongly recommended by all 
parties who have used it. 

To be had in 561b. Casks at 18s. One cwt. and upwards at 36s. per cwt.— 
Casks free. 

From the Rt. Hon. Lord Wynford. 

12 Grosvenor Square, Lonildii, 15th Nov. 1S87. 
This summer I have been moviii>f about in Scotland, and found wherever the Protective 
Composition was known it w-as hiirhly ai)provcd of, and certainly I have found it so. 

WYNFORl). 

The above is from numerous Testimonials, which may he hful on application ti> 

NATHANL AHLBOTTN, 50 SHORE, LEITH. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



Established 1801. 

SEEDLING AND TRANSPLANTED FOREST TREES. 

Ornamental Trees and Shrubs, Roses and Fruit Trees. 



JAMES DICKSON $c SONS, 

32 HANOVER STREET and INVERLEITH ROW, 

EDINBURGH. 

CATALOGUES FREE ON APPLICATION. 

FOREST TREES. 



CARDNO & DARLING, 

NURSERYMEN, 
ABERDEEN. 

FOREST AND ORNAMENTAL TREES AND SHRUBS. 

Fruii Trees, Roses, Herbaceous Plants, Etc. 

FOREST AND GARDEN IMPLEMENTS OF ALL SORTS. 



Priced Catalogues Free on application. 

IRELAND & THOMSON, 

Craig leith Nursery, Comely Banfi, Edinburg/i. 

New Golden Acre and Windlestrawlee Nurseries, 

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Seed Warehouse, 81 Princes Street. 

M^FARLANE & ERSRINE, 

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Having an efficient Staff of first-class Artists and Printers, execute every description of 

ARTISTIC & COMMERCIAL WORK, AND BOOK, LAW & GENERAL PRINTING, 

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Printers to the Royal Scottish Arhoricultural Society, Royal Physical Society, etc. 



ADVERTISEME.TTS. 



DOUGLAS & FOULIS' 

ENGLISH AND FOREIGN LIBRARY 

9 Castle Street 

ED rNJJJJl G H 

1^^ Books sent to any part of the Country and Changed 
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Subscriptions, from One Guinea per annum, may commence at any date 

clear.^nceTatalogue of 
Books at Greatly Reduced Prices 

BEING SURPLUS COPIES WITHDRAWN FROM 

DOUGLAS & FOULIS' LIBRARY 

Including also many other Works of Interest, now offered at the 

affixed cash prices 

ALSO 

Catalogue of Books 

RELATING PRINCIPALLY TO SCOTLAND 

Containing upwards of 600 Works on SCOTTISH HISTORY 

TOPOGRAPHY, POETRY and BALLADS, BIOGRAPHY 

LANGUAGE, and ANTIQUITIES 

The above are se7it Gratis and Post free to ajiy address 

The Farming World. 

ONE PENNY. [FRIDAY.] ONE PENNY. 

Largest and Best 

PENNY AGRICULTURAL PAPER. 

Entirely Non-Political. 

In accordance with an arrangement with the Council of the Royal 
Scottish Arboricultural Society, a Forestry Department 
has been added to the Farming World, which is thus oliicially 
recognised as a practical 

JOURNAL OF FORESTRY. 

The Farming World should be read by all Owners of Woods and 
Forests, Foresters, and all others interested in Forestry. 

May be had at the Bookstalls, and of all Newsagents, at the published price of Que 
Penny. The terms of Subscription, free by post, and remittance with order, are: — 

3 Months, Is. 8d. 6 Months, 3s. 3d. 12 Months, 6s. 6d. 
FOUR WEEKS (Post Free) FOR SIXPENCE. 

63 Princes Stkekt, Edinburgh. JAMES MACDONALD, Proprietor. 



WORKS ON FORESTRY AN D GARDENING. 

Neio aiul Greatly Enlarged Edition. 

THE FORESTER : A Practical Treatise on the Planting, Rearing, 
AND General Management of Forest Trees. By James Brown, LL.D., Inspector of 
Woods and Forests, Ontario ; Assisted by his Son, Georoe E. Brown, Forester, Cumloden, 
Newton-Stewart. Fifth Edition, Enlarged and Improved. Royal 8vo, with nearly 200 
Engravings on Wood, 36s. 
" It is an authoritative guide, and a reference book which no forester should be without." — 
Laiid and Water. 

Cheaper Edition, with Chapter on " The Larch Disease." 

THE LARCH: A Practical Treatise on its Culture and General 
Management. By Christopher Young Michie. With an Introductory Chapter on the 
Larch Disease. Crown 8vo, 5s. 
"Within its pages the planter will find more information upon the best modes of treatment 

and culture of the larch-tree, whether in the nursery or plantation, than in any other book 

extant in the English language." — Journal of Forestry. 

Neiv and Cheaper Edition. 
HANDY BOOK OF THE FLOWER GARDEN; Being Practical 

Directions for the Propagation, Culture, and Arrangement of Plants in Flower Gardens. 

With Engraved Plans. By David Thomson, Gardener to His Grace the Duke of 

Buccleuch, K.T., at Drumlanrig. Fourth and Cheaper Edition, crown 8vo, 5s. 

" We are acquainted with the results produced by the able author, as well as with his book, 

and therefore can pronounce the book the best on the subject yet written or likely to be written 

for a long time to come." — The Field. 

"We have seldom perused a book on Gardening which has left so complete an impression of 
reliability and thoroughness." — Liverpool Mercury. 
" This is a most comprehensive guide to garden work." — Dundee Advertiser. 

HANDY BOOK OF FRUIT CULTURE UNDER GLASS. By tlie 

Same. New Edition, Revised and Enlarged. With Engravings. Crown 8vo, 7s. 6d. 
"No work of the kind of which we have any knowledge is at all to be compared with this. 
It is the result of ripe experience, close thought, and ample acquaintance with the subject in 
all its xiaxls."— Scotsman. 

New and Cheaper Edition. 

A BOOK ABOUT ROSES. How to Grow and Show Them. By 

the Rev. Dean Hole. Tenth Edition, Revised, fcap. 8vo, 3s. 6d. 

"His work may now be considered the most complete guide to this interesting branch of 
floricultural art." — Saturday RevieuK 

"At once charming and instructive. . . . The practical questions of position, soil, 
manure, and selection are carefully and exhaustively treated." — Standard. 

CULTIVATED PLANTS: THEIR PROPAGATION AND IM- 

provement. By F. W. Burbidge, Author of " The Narcissus ; its History and Culture," <fcc. 
With Engi-avings, and Index. Crown Svo, 12s. 6d. 

DOMESTIC FLORICULTURE, WINDOW GARDENING, AND 

Floral Decorations. Being Directions for the Propagation, Culture, and Arrangement 
of Plants and Flowers as Domestic Ornaments. By the Same. Crown Svo, with upwards 
of 200 Illustrations on Wood. New Edition, Revised and Enlarged, 7s. 6d. 

HANDBOOK OF HARDY, HERBACEOUS, AND ALPINE 

Flowers for General Garden Decoration. Containing Descriptions of 1000 Species 
of Ornamental Hardy Perennial and Alpine Plants, adapted to all Classes of Flower-Gardens, 
Rockwork, and Waters ; along with Concise and Plain Instructions for their Propagation 
and Culture. By William Sutherland, Landscape Gardener, and formerly Manager 
of the Herbaceous Department at Kew. Crown Svo, 7s. 6d. 
"The best book of its class available for English Readers." — Gardeners' Magazine. 



Revised Edition, brought up to date and Eyilarged, with 

Numerous New Illustrations. 

STEPHEN'S BOOK OF THE FARM. Detailing the Labours of the 
Farmer, Farm-Steward, Ploughman, Shepherd, Hedger, Farm-Labourer, Field-Worker, 
and Cattleman. Illustrated with Portraits of Animals, and Engravings. 
New Edition, Revised and in great part rewritten, by Jasies ilACooNALD. [In preparation.] 



Fourth Edition, Enlarged. 
THE HANDY BOOK OF BEES, AND THEIR PROFITABLE 

Management. By A. Pettigrew. Fourth Edition, Enlarged. Crown Svo, 3s. 6d. 
"The author of this volume is evidently a practical man, and knows a great deal more about 
bees and their habits than most of the bee-keepers in England ; indeed, he may be said to be a 
very master in the art of bee mysteries." — Bell's Life in London. 



WILLIAM BLACKWOOD & SONS, Edinburgh and London. 




Sceilsmeu and Nurserymen to 
H.H. H. the Prince of Wales. 



MILLIONS OF 

FOREST TEEES! 
FOREST TREES!! 
FOREST TREES!!! 




WE hold very extensive Stocks of Forests Trees, grown on our much 
exposed Fellside Nurseries, which produce magnificent Fibrous 
Roots, and well-hardened plants. Her Majesty's Commissioners of 

Woods and ForestS, during the past season, visited our extensive Nurseries, 
and expressed the gi'eatest satisfaction, and subsequently placed with us an 
order for over 300,000 Forest Trees, to be planted on the exposed 
mountains and crown lands in the Isle of Man, 

Planting done by Contract or otherwise in any part of the 
United Kingdom. 

Up to the time of going to press we have this season been favoured with 
instructions to plant seven forests and plantations. 

{Samples, with special quotations for large quantities, on application. 

Catalogues j^ost free.) 

CONIFER.^. — Many choice and recently introduced varieties. Handsome 

specimens of various sizes. Recently transplanted. 
HARDY EVERGREEN SHRUBS.— For Fox and Game coverts, in great 

variety. Special offers to large buyers. 

EVERGREEN, and DECIDUOUS FLOWERING SHRUBS.— Thou- 
sands of the finest varieties to select from. Prices very moderate. 

ORNAMENTAL TREES.— For Street, Park, or Avenue Planting. List 
of sorts and sizes on application. 

ROSES, and FRUIT TREES.— A Speciality with us.— During the 

present season we have sold over 85,000 Bushes of "Whinham's Industry 
Gooseberries," many thousands being exported to the United States, 
France, Germany, Belgium, Holland, Switzerland, Austria, Nova Scotia, 
Canada, the Channel Islands, etc., etc. 

ALPINE, HERBACEOUS, STOVE, and GREENHOUSE PLANTS.— 

In great vai'iety. S])ecial offers for collections. 
LANDSCAPE GARDENING.— Having in our employment a thorough 
practical Landscape Artist, we are prepared to furnish plans for approval 
on the shortest notice. Our Plans, recently furnished for Parks, Lakes, 
Villas, etc., have been highly approved of. 
Silver Medal awarded at tlie llovAL Mining and Engineering Exhibition, Newcastle- 
on-Tyne, 1887. — No higlier award being made in the Agricultural, Horticultural, 
and Arboricultural sections. 
Several Medals awarded for the geixeral excellency of our Trees, Conifers, and Seeds. 
(Descriptive Catalogues, post free.) 



WILLIAM FELL & CO., 

Seed Merchants, Nurserymen, Florists, Landscape Gardeners, 

and Government Foresters, 

HEXHAM, NORTHUMBERLAND. 



t^di 




TRANSACTIONS 

OF THE 

EOTAL 
SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 




VOL. XII.— PART II. 



SECRETARY AND TREASURER, 

WILLIAM J. MOFFAT, 

FELLOW OF THE BOTANICAL SOCIETY, EDINBURGH. 





EDINBUKGH: 
PEINTED FOR THE SOCIETY. 
SOLD BY DOUGLAS & FOULIS, CASTLE STREET. 
MDCCCLXXXIX. 







ESTABLISHED 1809. 

NORTH BRITISH AND MERCANTILE 

INSURANCE COMPANY. 

Incorporated by Jioyal Charter and Special Acts of Parliament. 

F I R E-L I F E-A N N U I T I E S. 

TOTAL FUNDS £7,315,541 

TOTAL CLAIMS PAID exceed . . £21,000,000 

TOTAL INCOME for 1888, above £2,000,000 

The Accumulated Funds of the Life Department are entirely free from liability 
for the Fire Department, and in like manner the Funds of the Fire Department are 
free from liability for the Life Department. The Investments of the Life and 
Annuity Branches are therefore kept absolutely distinct from those of the Fire 
Department, and the Investments for each will be found separately set forth in the 
Balance Sheets. 

President.— HIS GRACE THE DUKE OF KOXBURGHE. 
Vice-President.— HIS GRACE THE DUKE OF SUTHERLAND, K.G. 

EXTRAORDINARY DIRECTORS. 
Right Hon. LORD NORTHBOURNE. | Sir MATTHEW WHITE RIDLEY, Bart., M.P. 

RioHT Hon. The EARL OF STRATHMORE. Right Hon. LORD W OLVERTON. 

RiouT Hon. The EARL OF ABERDEEN. | The Hon. LORD WELLWOOD. 

Chairman of General Court of Directors— DAVID DAVIDSON, Esq. 

EDINBURGH BOARD OF DIRECTORS. 
J. F. WALKER-DRUMMOND, Esq. i CHARLES GAIRDNER, Esq., LL.D. 



DAVID B. WAUCHOPE, Esq. 

Sir JAMES GARDINER BAIRD, Hxkt 

GEORGE AULDJO J.VMIESON, Esq. 

FREDERICK PITMAN, Esq. 

EVAN ALLAN HUNTER, Esq. 



RALPH DUNDAS, Esq. 

JOHN WHARTON TOD, Etq. 

Sir JAMES H. GIBSON-CRAIG, Bart. 

Right Ho.v. Thk EARL OF ELGIN. 

Sir THOMAS CLARK, Bart. 



CHARLES B. LOGAN, Esq. 
Manager, A. GILLIES-SMITH, F.R.S.E. | Secretary, PHILIP R. D. MACLAGAN. 

Actuary, THOMAS WALLACE. 
Medical Officer, JOHN MOIR, M.D., F.R.C.P. 
Solicitors, J. & F. ANDERSON, W'.S. | Auditor, JAMES HALDANE, C.A. 



LIFE DEPARTMENT. 

Net Life Premiums for 1888 £359,440 

SPECIAL FEATURES. 

Claims paid on proof of death and title. 

Premiums adjusted to each half-year of age. 

Minimum Surrender Values fixed and held at credit of Insured for five years. 

Paid up Policy of Liberal Amount granted in place of Lapsed Policy, if desired within 

Six Months. 
Inaccurate Statements in Proposal Papers do not involve Forfeiture of Policy unless 

accompanied by Fraud. 
Policies in most cases free from all Restrictions as to Occupation, Residence, and Travel. 



ANNUITY BBANCH. 
Consideration received for Annuities in 1888, .... £166,688 



FIRE DEPARTMENT. 
Net Fire Premiums for 1888, £1,282,255 

I'roperty at Home or Aliroad Insured .at tliu Lowe.st Rate.s. 
rrospectuteii and every information niay be had at the Chief Offices, Branches, or Agencies, 

CHIEF OFFICP^ ' LONDON, ... 61 THREADNEEDLE ST., E.G. 
^^^~( EDINBURGH, . G4 PRINCES STREET. 



CONTENTS. 



Titc Society, as a body, is not to be considered responsible for any statements or 
opinions advanced in the several pajKrs, ichich must rest entirely on the authority 
of the respective authors. 



VIII. Address delivered at the Thirty-fifth Annual Meeting, 7th August 

1888. By Malcolm Dunn, Dalkeith, . . . .189 

Pkesentation to Hugh Cleghorn of Stravithie, M.D., 
LL.D., F.KS.E., 198 

IX. On tlie Comparative Value of Exotic Coniferte as Ornamental or 
Timber Trees in Britain. With Table of Measurements. By 
Thomas Wilkie, Forester, Tyninghame, East Lothian, . 206 

X. The Douglas Fir {Abies Doucjlasii) in Scotland. By Dr W. 
ScHLiCH, Professor of Forestry, Cooper's Hill Engineering 
College, Staines, Surrey, ...... 226 

XI. Old and Remarkable Trees on the EoUe Estate, Stevenstone, Tor- 
ringtou, Devon. By J.\MES Barrie, Forester, Stevenstone. 
[Plates II. to v.], ...... 242 

XII. The Comparative Value of E.Kotic Coniferai as Ornamental or 
Timber Trees in Britain. By A. D. Webster, Holwood Estate, 
Kent, ........ 246 

XIII. Plan and Specification for the Erection of a Forester's Cottage. 

By R. B. Keay, Forester, Redcastle, Ross-shire. [Plate VI.], . 288 

XIV. Old and Remarkable Trees on Holwood Estate, Kent. By A. D. 

Web.ster, Holwood, Kent, ..... 301 

XV. Landscape and Economic Planting. By Charles S. France, 

Bridge of Dee, Aberdeen, ..... 322 

XVI. On tlie Advantnges of forming Belts of Plantations on Hill Pasture 
Land. By Thomas Wilkie, Forester, Tyninghame, East 
Lothian, ........ 337 

XVII. The Giant Arbor-Vita> {Thuja gigantca). By A. D. Web.ster, 

Holwood, Kent, ....... 341 

XVIII. Tables for the Conversion of Measurements from one Denomination 

to another. By Colonel F. Bailey, R.E., . . . 351 

XIX. The Ligneous Plants of Hampshire. By .John Smith, Romsey, 

Hants, ........ 356 

XX. Report upon the rearing of Underwood for Game Coverts in High 
Forest. By Thomas Wilkie, Forester, Tyninghame, East 
Lothian, ........ 371 

Abstract of the Accounts of the Royal Scottish Arbori- 
cultural Society for Year 1888, .... 374 



TRANSACTIONS 

OF THE 

TWYAL SCOTTISH AEBOEICULTURAL SOCIETY. 
!0gHl (^ccttislj ^rIr0riniItHnil ^0cii^tj|. 



EXCURSION 1889. 

The Annual Excursion will take place on Wednesday and 
Tliursday, 7th and 8th August, to SHERWOOD FOREST, 
Nottinghamshire, when the Estates of Clumber, Thoresby, 
PtUFFORD, Welbeck, and Worksop will be visited. Due in- 
timation will be made to the Members of the Route, Charges, etc. 
Members who intend to join the Excursion will oblige by- 
intimating the same to me as soon as possible, so that the 
necessary arrangements may be completed. 

W. J. MOFFAT, 

Secretary. 
5 St Andrew Square, 

Edinburgh, May 1889. 

treated to an excellent discourse upon subjects of importance to 
Forestiy, and upon many matters having a beneficial influence 
upon the welfare and prosperity of the Society. Therefore, 
I regret the more that I am not gifted with the eloquence 
necessary to address you in the same effective style ; nor am I 
possessed of the practical knowledge and training to enter with 
success upon a technical discussion of any special branch of the 
wide subjects of Arboriculture and Sylviculture, or what we 
know by the simple and comprehensive term of Forestry ; but, 
if you will kindly bear with me for a short time, I will endeavour 

VOL. XII., PART II. N 



TRANSACTIONS 



TJOYAL SCOTTISH AltBOfilCULTURAL SOCIETY. 



VIII. Address delivered at the Thirty-Jijth Annual Meeting, 1th 
August, 1888. By Malcolm Dunn, Dalkeith. 

Gentlemen, — In the absence of the President, Sir Herbert 
Eustace Maxwell, Bart., whose Parliamentary duties make it 
impossible for him to be with us to-day to give the usual Address, 
it has fallen to my lot, as a Vice-President, to undertake the duty 
of presiding at this Meeting, and to do the best I can, at short 
notice, to deliver the " Opening Remarks by the Chairman," as 
intimated in the Billet. 

For many years it has been customary for the President to 
open the Annual Meeting with an Address on some topic of a 
special or general interest to foresters, and designed to promote 
the advancement of Arboriculture. From the able and learned 
gentlemen who have previously filled this chair on thirty-four 
similar occasions, the members present have always been 
treated to an excellent discourse upon subjects of importance to 
Forestry, and upon many matters having a beneficial influence 
upon the welfare and prosperity of the Society. Therefore, 
I regret the more that I am not gifted with the eloquence 
necessary to address you in the same effective style ; nor am I 
possessed of the practical knowledge and training to enter with 
success upon a technical discussion of any special branch of the 
wide subjects of Arboriculture and Sylviculture, or what we 
know by the simple and comprehensive term of Forestry ; but, 
if you will kindly bear with me for a short time, I will endeavour 
vol. xil, part II. N 



190 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

to glance at sotnc of the more prominent topics of the day in con- 
nection with Forestry, and particularly those likely to interest 
the members of this Society, 

Looking back to the year 1854, when our Society first saw 
the light, we may say that systematic Forestry, as now undoi-- 
stood, was then in its infancy. Our esteemed ex-President, Dr 
Cleghorn, was, at the same period, engaged in evolving, in the 
midst of his official avocations, that great scheme of Forest 
Conservancy, wliich he began to put into execution in 1856 
in the Madras Presidency. A few years later, Dr Cleghorn took 
an active pai't, in association with Sir Dietrich Brandis, in estab- 
lishing in the various Presidencies that system of forest manage- 
ment which is now an important feature of the rural economy 
of the Government of India, and full of ])romise in the future 
development of that magnificent countiy. Forestry, in a 
practical form, was then unheard of in any of the nume- 
rous Colonies and Dependencies of the British Empire, in 
all of which it is now receiving more or less attention, and 
furnishes a subject for much speculation and discussion by 
those who are interested in the prosperity of our Colonies, 
as to the best methods for afforesting the extensive treeless 
wastes and arid tracts, which are too common a feature in 
many of them. At the same date, comparatively little had been 
done in Britain to improve the methods of Forestry adopted by 
our forefathers a couple of centuries ago, when first they began to 
utilise waste lands, by covering them with forest trees. The systems 
they practised in forming their woodlands, and in sheltering their 
fields and ornamenting their domains with plantations of trees 
and shrubs, were still, to a great extent, slavishly followed. 
Several generations of tree-planters had succeeded each othei-, 
working on almost identical lines ; and although, judged by more 
modern experience, their ideas might be somewhat crude, they were 
fairly successful in rearing beautiful plantations for the adornment 
of the landscape, and thrifty woods for sheltering many a bleak 
hillside. Is there much wonder then, that, before the advent of 
I'ailways arid the numerous appliances of modern civilisation with 
which we are now so familial", there was little disposition to strike 
out into new and imj)roved methods, or that the ordinary forester 
did not care to trouble himself about aught but what his father 
liad practised before him 1 However, the time came when a few 
ardent and intelligent foresters clearly saw, that if their profession 



ADDRESS BY THE VICE-PRESIDENT, AUGUST 7, 1888. 191 

was to hold its own in the straggle foi' life, something farther 
must be done, so that knowledge might be acquired with greater 
facility by their brethren, and the means afforded to raise them- 
selves and their profession to the higher standard demanded by 
the necessities of modern times. 

The Scottish Arboricultural Society was therefore instituted, 
in 1854, by a few able and enthusiastic foresters, with a view to 
promote a better knowledge of the science and art of forestry, 
and the adoption of the best methods for the management of our 
woods and forests. Following vip the scheme so judiciously laid 
down by the original pioneers, the Society has diligently perse- 
vered on the path so skilfully traced, and has striven, by every 
legitimate means, to foster a love of the profession among its 
members, to promote a correct knowledge of the various systems 
and details of modern forestry, and especially to institute a 
suitable education for young men, and the best possible method 
of training, to qiialify them for carrying out with credit and 
success the manifold functions of a forester-. 

As an instance of the enterprise and zeal of the Society, we may 
point to the announcement made by the Marquis of Lothian, 
then President, at the Annual Meeting in 1882, that the Council 
had resolved to promote an International Forestry Exhibition 
(the idea having originated with some members of the Council in 
the spring of that year) to be held at Edinburgh as soon as the 
necessary ai-rangements could be completed. This marked a great 
step in advance ; and when that unique and remarkable Exhibition 
Avas carried to a successful issue in 1884, the members of this Society 
had good reason to congi'atulate themselves on the wonderful amount 
of public interest and enthusiasm it had drawn towards the subject 
of Forestry, and the warm and liberal support which the Exhibition 
received from all parts of the world whei-e forests exist, and where 
national and commercial interests depend largely upon them. 

Aroused in a great measure by the deep public interest excited 
by the Forestry Exhibition, this Society, along with others, took 
steps to press upon the Government, by petition and otherwise, 
the gi-eat want experienced in this country of a regular system 
of education and training for foresters, similar to that so long 
employed, and with such excellent results, in most European 
countries, especially in France and Germany. The subject was 
ultimately brought before Parliament, and chiefly at the instiga- 
tion of Sir John Lubbock, Bart., a Select Committee of the House 



192 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

of Commons was appointed in 1 885, " to consider whether, by the 
establishment of a Forest School or otherwise, our Woodlands 
could be made more remunerative." 

This Select Committee on Forestry sat in 1885, 188G, and 
1887, and had full power to send for persons, papers, and 
records, so that the investigation might be as complete and 
exhaustive as possible. After due deliberation, the Committee 
proceeded to collect evidence by the examination of educa- 
tional experts, and of a selected number of other witnesses 
possessed of a more or less practical knowledge of the suV)ject of 
inquiry. Thirty-one witnesses were examined, most of them at 
considerable length, during the eight days on which evidence 
was taken. They fairly represented the various interests involved 
in the question in each of the three kingdoms, and among 
them were the following ten distingi;ished members of this 
Society : — Sir James Campbell, Bart. ; Sir Richard Temple, Bart.; 
Sir Joseph D. Hooker ; Dr Cleghorn of Stravithie ; Mr Robert 
Dundas of Arniston ; General Michael ; Mr Alexander Mackenzie; 
Mr John M'Gregor; Mr William M'Corquodale ; and Mr John 
Grant Thomson ; so that the Society was amply represented before 
the Committee, It is, however, to Dr Cleghorn that the credit is 
due of pointing out to the Committee, in the course of his evidence 
in 1885, the aims and objects of the Society, and the good work 
which it has done in promoting the better training of foresters, 
in spreading a knowledge of improved methods of forestry, and 
in stimulating an interest among landowners and others con- 
cerned, in the proper treatment of our woodlands, and of the 
importance of forest teaching as a great national desideratum. 
Mr John M'Gregor also gave information as to the work of the 
Society when examined in 1887; and much useful and practical 
evidence, bearing dii-ectly on the question of inquiiy, was fur- 
nished to the Committee by the other members of this Society. 

Having received all the evidence which they considered neces- 
sary, and matured their deliberations, the Forestry Committee 
agreed to a Report, which was issued by Parliament on the 
3d of August 1887, in which they declared themselves satisfied 
by the evidence, " that the establishment of Schools of Forestry, 
or some similar method of instruction and examination in 
Forestry, would be desirable." With the view of carrying this 
into elTect, the Committee recommended the creation by the 
Government of a Forest Board ; and we are led to believe that 



ADDRESS BY THE VICE-PRESIDENT, AUGUST 7, 1888. 193 

tliis Board will be formed in connection with the new Department 
of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, which it is intended to establish 
during this session of Parliament. Let us hope that when the 
Forest Board is created, such an able chief as our ex-President, 
the Marquis of Lothian, may be placed at the head of it. His 
great knowledge of and keen interest in Forestry, and Ms 
practical experience as President of the International Forestry 
Exhibition, and of this Society from 1879 to 1882, pre-eminently 
qualify him for the office. 

In accordance with the recommendation of the Forestry Com- 
mittee, the Royal Scottish Arboricultural Society will be entitled 
to a representative on the proposed Forest Boai'd. Seven other 
societies and institutions connected with rural affairs are to have 
the same privilege of sending a representative to the said Board, 
which will also comprise the Director of Kew Gardens, three 
Members of each House of Parliament, and a certain number of 
owners or managers of large woodlands. Great care has evidently 
been taken to have all institutions and interests, in any way con- 
cerned in our woodlands and their management, duly represented 
on the Board ; and if the various public bodies who possess the 
privilege are careful to elect thoroughly efficient members to 
represent them, we may look forward with confidence to the estab- 
lishment of proper institutions for the training of all grades of 
foresters that the necessities of the Empire may require either at 
home or abroad. 

We would no doubt have greatly preferred an independent 
Department of Forestry, the head of which would be in direct 
communication with the Government of the day, and respon- 
sible to it for all that concerned his Depaiiment. The Forestry 
Board may have considerable difficulty in obtaining full considera- 
tion from the Department of Agi'iculture, of many important 
questions with which it will be called upon to deal. The multi- 
farious duties and affairs connected with Agriculture must absorb 
most of the time and the principal attention of the Depai-tment, 
and leave but a small margin for either Forestry or Horticulture, 
both of which are to be included in its scope. In any case, foresters 
should earnestly make the best of the circumstances, and the 
result may be more satisfactory than present appearances lead 
us to anticipate. 

Assuming that our foresters will soon be enabled to acquire that 
complete and systematic training of which they have long felt 



194 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

the want, it may be asked, and with reason. What are tlie 
prospects of foresters receiving remunerative employment, after 
they have fully qualified themselves for their profession ] This 
is a question which I have looked into with care, examining it 
in vai'ious asjjects, and I trust that my hearers will not con- 
sider that I take an over sanguine view, Avhen I say that it 
appears probable there will be no hick of employment for duly 
qualified men, and that the remuneration will be at least equal 
to that received by any other profession, in qualifying for 
which the same amount of time and money has been exjiended. 
The owners of large estates are eveiy day becoming more alive to 
the fact that their woods and waste lands must be managed with 
the best skill and intelligence that it is possible to command, so 
as to make them a jiermanent source of income, instead of the 
almost worthless burden which, they have often proved to be in 
the past. 

The area of the United Kingdom is computed to be, in 
round numbers, 121,000 square miles, or about 77 millions 
of acres. Of this area one-half, or thereabout, is held by 
those whom Bateman, in his treatise on the Modern Domesday 
Book, styles "the Great Landowners of Great Britain and 
Ireland." These Owners of large Estates, to the number of about 
2G00, hold from 3000 acres each, up to the enormous area of 
1,358,546 acres owned by the Duke of Sutherland, the greatest 
landowner in the United Kingdom. Generally speaking, it is 
upon these vast estates that the large tracts of waste and treeless 
land is found. The owners of smaller areas cannot aftbrd to allow 
land to remain waste and unprofitable, and as a rule the propor- 
tion of waste or land of small value to arable and woodland is 
much less on small than on large properties. 

Hei-e, then, is scope enough for the employment of at least 
one well-trained forester on each of these large estates, and to 
clothe the bare and profitless wastes on some of them with healthy 
and remunerative forests would furnish work for several skilled 
foresters. From the Parliamentary returns in the Modern Domes- 
day Book, already referred to, it appears there are about 12 
millions of acres in the United Kingdom, nearly all included in 
these large estates, the annual value of which does not exceed an 
average of Is. 3d. per acre. Allow a deduction of one-third for 
high altitudes and land unsuitable for the growth of forest trees, 
there still remains 8 millions of acres of land which mijrht be 



ADDRESS BY THE VICE-PRESIDENT, AUGUST 7, 1888. 195 

covered with forests, to the great advantage of the owners and 
the immense benefit of the countiy. Granting that a third of the 
area is valueless for growing timber trees, and probably of small 
value for any other useful pui'pose, the value of the remaining 
two-thirds will be j:»roportionably increased. Still, at the highest 
estimate, the yearly rental, fi'om all present sources, is consider- 
ably under 2s. per acre ; and at that low rental the land is plainly 
not of much value for grazing purposes. Such land, properly 
planted, would, after the trees had attained a certain size, in 
all probability afford as much grazing for stock, under proper 
regulations, except in Pine woods, as it had furnished before 
being planted. It would also give far better shelter and 
cover for deer and other game, which would still be a 
source of considerable revenue. The greater portion of this 
land, lying at an altitude of 300 to 1500 feet above sea level, is 
well adapted for the growth of forest trees, and only requires to 
be properly laid out, planted, and managed by duly qualified 
foresters to greatly increase the annual income derived from it, 
after paying all expenses and allowing for all contingencies. In 
addition to this, the working of the forests, and the collection and 
manufacture of the various products, would supply well-paid, 
labour to a much more numerous rural population than now, 
inhabits those districts, and would thus help to solve one of the 
great social problems of the day, — How best to retain in rural 
districts a happy and industrious working population 1 

Nor is there the slightest danger of over-stocking the country 
with forests, supposing every acre of these 8 millions was 
planted. The total area at present under woodlands in the 
United Kingdom is calculated to be about 2,788,000 acres, 
the smallest proportion to the total acreage of the country that 
we find in any well-regulated European state. With the 8 
millions added, the woodlands would only cover 14 per cent, 
of the total ai-ea, a proportion which is exceeded by several of the 
northern countries in Europe. 

We thus see that there is no want of room for a great ex- 
tension of the area of timber tree forests in the United Kingdom, 
and a consequent demand for well-educated and trained foresters, 
who can manage with success those important enterprises. It may 
be said that the owners of the land have the will, but some of 
them have not the means to plant extensively. This is a difficulty, 
however, that can be ovei'come in the usual manner, either by 



19G TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Government loans, oi' by forming public companies to supply the 
means. Money is cheap, and the security is good ; and those who 
first begin planting operations on a proper scale, and in a judicious 
manner, are likely to I'eap the greatest reward. 

We now turn for a moment to the events of the year which 
has passed since we last met in this hall. The first event to 
which I will refer was the highly successful Excursion of the 
Society immediately after our last meeting, when, by the gracious 
permission of the Queen, the members enjoyed the privilege 
of inspecting the beautiful woodlands around Balmoral, and the 
famed Scots Pine forest of Ballochbuie, a full account of which 
has been published and sent to every member. 

The issue of the Report of the Forestry Committee of the House 
of Commons took place on the 3d of Axigust, as already stated, and 
caused a considerable amount of discussion in the public journals. 
It was favourably received and criticised by most authorities, 
although it raised but a limited amount of enthi;siasm amongst 
professional foresters, owing chiefly to it failing to recommend a 
definite system of forestry instruction under proper authority, in 
accordance with the strongly felt want of professional men. A 
summaiy of the evidence and rejiort has appeared in the Transac- 
tions for the last three years, and most of the evidence of value to 
foresters has been given in detail. 

In the month of October last the Society had the honour 
to have the desigHation of ""The Royal Scottish Arboricultural 
Society " conferred upon it by Her Most Gracious Majesty the 
Queen, by which title it will henceforth be known. The part of 
the Transactions lately issued comprises some valuable papers, 
and compares favourably with former issues. Towards the end 
of 1887, the Council were able to make a favourable arrange- 
ment with the proprietor of the Farming World, by which 
Forestry articles and correspondence on topics of more or less 
importance have appeared in its pages, and every efibrt of 
the kind deserves the hearty support of all interested in the 
subject. 

In Forest Literature, the most important publications, in English, 
which have appeared during the year are the valuable fleports 
issued by the Forest Department of India, by several of our 
Colonies, and particularly by the Government of the United 
States. Many of these books have been pi-esented to the Society, 
and are added to the library. 



ADDRESS BY THE VICE-PRESIDENT, AUGUST 7, 1888. 197 

It is right that I should allude here to an important 
event which takes place to-day at our Annual Dinner ; I mean 
the presentation of a Testimonial to our highly-esteemed friend, 
Dr Cleghorn of Stravithie, from his numerous friends at home 
and abroad, in recognition of his eminent services to Science and 
Art, and especially to Forestry. In accordance with Dr Cleg- 
horn's well-known generosity and anxiety to benefit others, he has 
resolved to devote a sum equal to the value of the Testimonial, 
over £200, to forming a Library of Forest Literature for the free 
use of Forest students and others. Through the active and kindly 
interest of the Director of the Museum, General Sir R. Murdoch 
Smith, it has been arranged that the Library is to be located in 
the Museum of Science and Art in Edinburgh, where excellent 
facilities exist for its accommodation. When placed there, it 
will be easily accessible to students, foresters, and all who are 
interested in the subject. The Library will be known to all 
future generations as " The Cleghorn Forest Library," in grateful 
remembrance of the esteemed donor. To us, as a Society, this is 
the most important announcement, in connection with Forest 
Literature, which has ever been made at our Meetings. The 
Library will prove an immense boon to future generations of 
young foresters, by placing within their reach, free of all cost, a 
most valuable collection of standard woi'ks on Forestry and its 
cognate subjects. I ti'ust that all will endeavour to reap the 
fullest benefit from this generous and well-timed gift, for which 
foresters of all grades must feel deeply grateful. 

So much, gentlemen, for the past and present ; and, in conclu- 
sion, I sincerely hope that every member of this Society will 
make it a point to do his best to increase its future px'osperity 
and usefulness. 



PRESENTATION 

TO 

HUGH CLEGHOP.N of Stravithie, 
M.D., LL.D., F.E.S.E. 

On Tuesday, 7th August 1S88, the annual dinner of the Eoyal 
Scottish Arboricultural Society was lield in the Waterloo Hotel, 
Edinburgh, when the occasion was taken advantage of to present 
Dr Cleghorn of Stravithie with his Portrait, subscribed for by 
his numerous friends, at home and abroad, as a mark of their 
esteem for his personal qualities, and appreciation of his services 
to science and arboriculture in India and this country. The chair 
was occupied by Professor Bayley Balfour, and Mr M. Dunn, Dal- 
keith, officiated as croupier. Among others present were the guest 
of the evening, Dr Cleghorn of Stravithie; Sir William Muir, 
K. C.S.I. , Principal of Edinburgh University; General Maclagan, 
R.E., Professor Sir Douglas Maclagan, Colonel Dods, Dr Lutidie, 
Messrs J. E. Dovey, C. A., Edinburgh ; James Watt, J.P., Carlisle ; 
William Erskine, Edinburgh; James Kay, Rothesay; James 
Robertson, Panmure; John M'Laren, Winchburgh ; John M'Laren, 
junior, Perth ; A. Milne, Edinburgh ; A. A. Green, Edinburgh ; 
R. Baxter, Dalkeith ; and W. J. Moffat, Secretary, Edinburgh. 

The Secretary intimated letters of apology from a wide circle of 
friends who were unable to be present, in which they expressed the 
greatest interest in the object of the Presentation, and conveyed 
their warmest wishes that Dr Cleghorn might be long spared in 
health and happiness. 

The Chairman gave the loyal and patriotic toasts in appropriate 
terms, which were warmly responded to. General Maclagan, for- 
merly of the Indian Service, rei>lied for the Army, and spoke of 
the friendship which he entertained for Dr Cleghorn, with whom, 
in his work in Northern India, he had been intimately associated 
for some years. 

Sir William Mum, in proposing the health of Dr Cleghorn 
and asking him to accept the Portrait, said, — I have received a 



PRESENTATION TO HUGH CLEGHOEN OF STRAVITHIE. 199 

letter from Sir Dietrich Brandis, ex-Inspector-General of Forests 
in India, dated 14tli July, in which he writes: — "It is a great 
source of regret that I shall not be able to be present on 7th 
August, on the occasion of the presentation of a memorial to Dr 
Cleghorn. Would you do me the favour to mention that I am 
extremely sorry I cannot attend, as the duty which I have under- 
taken for the India Office, to conduct the senior students at 
Cooper's Hill on their autumnal tour, will make it impossible for 
me to be present." Proceeding, Sir William Muir said: — -While 
my acquaintance with Dr Cleghorn began only in 18G1, when at 
Cairo on our way to India, Sir Dietrich Brandis has kindly fur- 
nished me with an account of Dr Cleghorn's earlier Indian career, to 
Avhich I will take the opportunity of referring on one or two points. 
After marching about with his regiment for a year or two in the 
Madras Presidency, Dr Cleghorn was enabled to lead a more settled, 
life, when he at once applied himself to scientific work. He early 
perceived the immense importance of the tropical forests. He 
saw that as the population spread out, the people were tempted to 
invade the forests and cultivate within them. He was one of 
the first of those who were at the bottom of the grand Forestry 
work now being carried on in India. Early impressed with the 
devastating results of what was known as "Koomri" cultivation, 
as far back as thirty years ago he was instrumental in getting orders 
issued by the Government to stop that wasteful system. It 
was just such a man as our friend who could best carry out 
Forestry measures amongst the people of India without appearing 
tyrannical or overbearing. As Sir D. Brandis writes : — " Dr 
Cleghorn was able to carry his point in regard to Koomri cultiva- 
tion, because he was known to be a true friend of the natives ; 
he entertained feelings of warm sympathy towards them, and 
had made himself familiar with their modes of life and systems 
of husbandry. As a medical man his name was widely known, 
and he had acquired much influence among the native population. 
When urging the discontinuance of Koomri cultivation in Madras, 
as he had previously urged it in Mysore, he knew that he was pro- 
posing measures which in the end would be highly beneficial for the 
people themselves. Dr Cleghorn's single-minded desire to promote 
the welfare of the people was evident to those who at that time 
were in influential positions in Madras, and the confidence which 
they placed in him was the secret of his success in this important 
matter." In 1850, when the British Association was v\ Edinburgh, 



200 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

our esteemed guest was appointed, along with some other eminent 
men, to report upon tropical forests and the influence which they 
exerted on the climate and the resources of the country. That 
report has had an important effect on the movement in India for 
the conservation of the vast and rich forests there. In 185G, he 
was appointed Conservator of Forests in Madras; and in 18G1 he 
brought out a book on tlie "Forests and Gardens of South India," 
which was extremely useful in letting people see the value of the 
forests, and what ought to be done to assist their cultivation. In 
18G4; he made an important investigation into the vast forests of 
the Punjab, and in acknowledging his report the Government 
of India gave him the proud title of " the Founder of Forest 
Conservancy." He was afterwards appointed a Commissioner 
to report on what measures should be taken for the systematic 
cultivation of the forests of India. It was then at Calcutta and 
Barrackpore that I saw much of our friend in the bright domestic 
life over which a cloud of bereavement has recently so sadly 
come. In 1867, when Dr Brandis came home, Dr Cleghorn 
was appointed to ofiiciate as Inspector-General of the Forests 
of India. In 18G9 he returned to this country, and since then 
he has taken an active part in the work of the India Office. Many 
a young man must have a pleasant recollection of the kindly 
way in which he was introduced to the service by our friend. 
When he retired, the Government of India said of him :- — " His long 
services from the first organisation of Forest Management in Madras 
have without question greatly conduced to the public good in this 
branch of the administration ; and in the Punjab also Dr Cleghorn's 
labours have prepared the way for the establishment of an efficient 
system of Conservancy and working of the Forests of that province." 
Since our friend became a resident in Edinburgh, he has been 
an ardent member of the Botanical Society, of which he has 
been President. Of recent years he has been an Examiner in 
Botany for the University of Edinburgh ; and for eighteen years 
has been Chief Examiner in Forestry for the Highland and Agri- 
cultural Society, an office which he continues to hold with great 
satisfaction to all concerned. He was elected a member of the 
Scottish Arboricultural Society in 18G5, while still in India. 
Soon after his return to this country he was duly elected to the 
Council of the Society, and in 1872 he was appointed President, 
being re-elected in 1873, and again in 1883, 1884, and 1885. 
During his second term of office the International Forestry Exhibi- 



PRESENTATION TO HUGH CLEGHORN OF STRAVITUIE. 201 

tion was held in Edinburgh, in 1884. Dr Cleghorn took the lead 
in carrying out that great undertaking, the first of its kind lield in 
the British Empire, and the success of that unique and interesting 
Exhibition was largely due to his untiring industry and enthusi- 
astic labours. As a witness before the Forestry Committee of the 
House of Commons he gave, along with others, valuable evidence, 
which has induced the Government to propose the formation 
of a Forest Board to inquire into and promote the proper 
education and practical training of young men for Forest service ; 
and which has also led in part to the establishment of a Forest 
Branch in the Engineering College at Cooper's Hill, Surrey. In 
all Forestry matters, and especially those connected with the 
welfare and prosperity of the Arboricultural Society, our guest 
has always taken a keen and intelligent interest, and has never 
spared time nor trouble in carrying out anything that would be 
for the good of foresters or the advancement of Forestry. His 
services at the time of the Forestry Exhibition and since have 
been of extreme value, and I hope that as the result we shall 
have a School of Forestry here, and that Scotland will have 
a large share in the future administration of Foi'estry in the 
Kingdom. At home in Fife, and in Edinburgh, our esteemed 
friend is known for his interest in the welfare of all around him, 
and warm sympathy with every philanthropic movement having 
for its object the good of the people. He weeps with those who 
weep, and rejoices with those who rejoice. May he long be spared 
to be of use to us all, and may we long see his genial face among us. 

In asking Dr Cleghorn to accept his Portrait, Sir William Muir 
said that they were met to tender an expression of their affectionate 
regard for him, and he added, the fund was subscribed to by all 
classes — peers, Indian judges, members of Parliament, principals 
and professors of Universities, generals and colonels of the Army, 
foresters, and horticulturists. He asked Dr Cleghorn to accept 
it as a small token of their regard. The Testimonial also comprised 
£200, which, in accordance with Dr Cleghorn's suggestion and 
approval, was to be applied to forming the nucleus of a library of 
suitable books, to be called " The Cleghorn Forest Library," to be 
placed in the Museum of Science and Art, Edinburgh. 

The proposal was received by the Company with the warmest 
enthusiasm ; and, in replying, 

Dr Cleghorn said, — Dear friends, in returning thanks on this 
to me very interesting occasion, I fear that I cannot adequately 



202 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

express my feeling of gratification at this unexpected presenta- 
tion, and especially the pleasure superadded by the kindly words 
of my valued friend, Princij)al Sir William !Muir. It is very 
dangerous for any frail mortal to venture to speak of himself, or 
to refer to his past career ; but after the too generous allusions to 
various incidents of my life which have been made to-night, this 
can scarcely be avoided. 

In early life I was brought up with a tutor in the country, and 
trained to rural pursuits and acquaintance with agricultural routine. 
I had an excellent education— first at the High School of Edin- 
burgh, and afterwards at the University of St Andrews. In 1837, 
I became an apprentice for five years of the eminent surgeon. 
Professor Syme (from whom I learned much, both from his hand 
and his head), and graduated M.D., Edinburgh, in 1841. In the 
following year, at twenty-two years of age, I received an appoint- 
ment in the East India Company's Service, and sailed for Madras 
in the troopship " Wellington." 

After a few years of marching and counter-marching with different 
regiments in Southern India, between Dharwar and Trichinopoly, I 
obtained a civil charge in the Mysore Commission, with the super- 
intendence of a jail, vaccination, and other duties. Here, for the 
first time, I had a considerable amount of leisure, and resolved 
to follow the advice previously given to me by Sir Joseph Hooker, 
viz., to study one plant a day for a quarter of an hour ; and which 
I did after the morning's duty in the jail and hospital was over. 
About this time also, my honoured University teacher, the late Sir 
Robert Christi^on, sent me a list of inquirenda and desiderata 
relating to Indian drugs, which I endeavoured to follow u]). 
Pursuing this plan steadily, I soon acquired a knowledge of the 
Flora of the Provhice of Mysore. As time advanced, official 
references were made to me in regard to the Medical and Economic 
Plants of India, and other duties were added, such as preparing a 
collection of native raw produce for the Local Museum. In 
1848, I was sent home, invalided by Mysore fever, and took 
up residence at Torquay for three winters. In 1851 my papers 
were drawn up for resigning the Service ; but before sending 
them in, I resolved to try another voyage round the Cape of Good 
Hope, and was preparing to start, when Professor Forbes Royle, 
of King's College, London, asked me to assist him in arranging 
the raw produce for the Great Exhibition of 1851. I gave up my 
intended voyage, and was occupied for several months in classifying 



PRESENTATION TO HUGH CLEGHORN OF STRAVITHIE. 203 

the exhibits in the Indian Section. In 1852, finding my health 
improved, I returned to Madras ; and, having resumed military 
duty, Sir Henry Pottinger, then Governor, appointed me to the 
Chair of Botany and Materia Medica in the Madras Medical College. 
To this the duties of Port and Marine Surgeon, and afterwards of 
the District Surgeoncy of St. Thome, were added. I remained in 
Madras till 1856, when I was transferred to the Revenue Department 
by Lord Harris, and called upon to undertake the formation of the 
Forest Department in the Madras Presidency. In 1861, I received 
instructions from the Governor-General of India (Lord Canning) 
to proceed to the Punjab to examine the forests of the Western 
Himalaya, and to institute a systematic plan of Conservancy and 
management. I spent three years in exploring the countries 
adjacent to our north-west frontier, including part of Kashmir and 
the Trans-Indus territory. During this period, I learned much 
from my laborious and experienced friend and coadjutor, Sir D, 
Brandis. 

In 1869, 1 retired from Indian life, and have since lived amongst 
you, endeavouring to discharge such duties, public and private, as 
have devolved upon me. 

After Sir William Muir's kind allusions, I need not refer to the 
part which fell to me in connection with the International 
Forestry Exhibition in 1881, or to such assistance as I was able 
to render in stirring up public interest in the claims of Forest 
Education upon the State, towards which some progress was liiade 
in the recent appointment by the House of Commons of a Select 
Committee to deal with the subject. That Committee has reported 
in favour of a Forest Board, and I venture to hope that in due 
time we shall see one or more Schools of Forestry established. 

I cannot sit down without again acknowledging the great kind- 
ness which has prompted this Presentation. The list of donors to 
the Testimonial, which has been handed to me, has greatly touched 
me, and I notice with special pleasure that it includes not a few of 
the junior officers in the Forest Department of India. To me it 
has been a pleasant duty to aid many young recruits in their train- 
ing for the Indian Service, and I have been much gratified by 
receiving a visit from some of them at my home in Fife when 
they return on furlough. I notice also the names of a large 
number of Scottish foresters, old and young, whose faces are well 
known to me, as I have often had the pleasure of meeting them 
at our annual gatherings. 



204 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The Portrait sliall remain at Stravithie as a memento of this 
occasion, and in considering the best object to which the Testi- 
monial Fund could be devoted, I may be allowed to say that I 
.desired to confer a benefit on foresters in general, and young 
foresters in particular, and I believed that a Forest Library placed 
ill a public institution like the Industrial ]\[useum, where all could 
have access to it under proper regulations, would best conduce to 
that result. It has been a pleasure to me to know that this 
proposal has received the cordial support of Sir R, Murdoch Smith, 
K.C.M.G., the Director of the Museum. 

The Croupier, in proposing " The Royal Scottish Arboricultural 
Society," said it was never in better working order, the member- 
ship was flourishing, and a healthy vigour existed in all its 
branches, which the Members should strive to maintain. 

Colonel DoDS proposed "The University of Edinburgh," and 
expressed the hope that they might be successful at an early date 
in establishing a Chair of Forestry in the University. 

In replying, Sir Wm. Muir said he hoped they might, at some 
not distant time, have a Chair of Forestry in the University ; but, 
as they were aware, they were now in a very constrained position. 
They had been looking to Parliament for a long time to give them 
the liberty they desired, but the much-needed legislation, in the 
shape of the Universities Bill for Scotland, did not come. Members 
went on talking about other things which they had much better 
leave alone. Home Rule was a very good thing in its way, and he 
hoped they would have it in the University to the extent of enabling 
them to make the changes desired. As to the proposed transfer of 
the Botanical Garden, the University did not want it. They would 
much rather that it remained under the management of the Govern- 
ment, and open to the public at large, and he trusted that the repre- 
sentations that had been made would prevent its being handed over 
to the University. 

Mr Kay gave " Kindred Societies," for which Sir Douglas 
Maclagan responded. Mr Dunn proposed "The Landed Pro- 
prietors," to whom the Society was much indebted for privileges it 
received, and the hospitality extended to its members when visiting 
the woodlands on their estates. Dr Cleghorn, in acknowledging 
the toast, said the administration of land was quite as difficult as 
farming now-a-days ; but there was much pleasure to be derived 
from the management of land, apart from the mere question of 
revenue. Mr Rocehtson gave " The Nursery and Seed Trade," for 



PRESENTATION TO HUGH CLEGHORN OF STRAVITHIE, 205 

which Mr Milne replied. The Croupier proposed '•' The Secretary 
of the Testimonial Fund," and Mr John M'Laren, jun., acknow- 
ledged the toast, remarking that no one could know Dr Cleghorn 
without having his heart drawn out in affection to him. Mr 
Milne, in proposing the health of the Chairman, congratulated 
Professor Bayley Balfour on the appointment which he had recently 
received, and expressed his belief that he would worthily maintain 
the traditions of the Chair of Botany in the University of Edin- 
burgh. 

The Chairman, in replying, said it was a peculiar pleasure to 
him to occupy the Chair so long filled by his father, and afterwards 
by Professor Dickson. He hoped that in the future, as in the 
pjist, the Botanic Garden over which he presided would be closely 
linked with the interests of the Royal Scottish Arboricultural 
Society. As to the proposed School of Forestry, he hoped it might 
be possible in some way to utilise the very great resources at the 
Botanic Garden and Arboretum, and to that end he sincerely 
trusted that the efforts of the Arboricultural Society would be 
successful in preventing the transference of the Garden to the 
University. 

The health of the Croupier having been proposed by Mr Ekskine, 
" Auld Lang Syne" was sung, and the company broke up. 



VOL XII., PART II. 



206 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



X. On the Comparative Valtie of Exotic Coniferce as Ornamental 
or Timber Trees in Britain. With Table of Measurements. 
By Thomas Wilkie, Forester, Tyiiinghame, East Lotliian. 

There is nothing which adds more to the attractions and 
amenity of a phxce than the careful selection and distribution of 
hardy, ornamental, and timber ti'ees, the setting and growth of 
which gives shelter and ornament to both estate and mansion. 
Receiving " all things richly to enjoy," we have a diversity of 
leafa^^e and outline in plants which enables us to make a selection 
from almost every part of the known world, such as is calculated 
to produce that appearance and effect which we desire. 

Our experience and knowledge of the hardiness and ornamental 
effect of the more recently introduced species and varieties of 
conifers is being gradually extended, and from numerous reports 
thereon we may now with some accuracy select those best calcu- 
lated to suit the soil, climate, and exposure of particular localities. 
It is not to be expected that one can actually describe the 
peculiar properties of each species, or of any plant in particular, 
from a point or in a manner to be at once just and pleasing to 
every observer, as each individual has his own peculiar tastes, 
fancies, and beliefs as regards both ornament and value. From 
my own experience, I shall endeavour to give a shoi't description 
of those most commonly grown and which are useful for timber 
purposes ; and also make reference thereto as far as their orna- 
mental effect is concerned. 

This being a very numerous family of plants, I have purposely 
omitted a full description of many of the less useful species, so as 
to keep my report within moderate dimensions. The figures in 
the Table are chiefly gleaned from rejDorts by travellers and good 
home authorities, and some have been collected by myself. I 
cannot, however, be held responsible for the statements of others, 
which I have had no opportunity to corroborate. I believe that 
man, animals, and plants are more especially adapted for, and 
will prosper best in, those parts and temperatures where nature 
has placed them ; hence, we cannot rationally expect that exotic 
conifers will succeed in every case. Had travellers given us full 
particulars as to soils, exposures, altitudes, and extremes of tem- 
peratures, our knowledge of the suitability of each variety would 
have been more cheaply gained ; because, when we can set plants 



COMPARATIVE VALUE OF EXOTIC CONIFERS IN BRITAIN. 207 

in soils, exposures, altitudes, and temperatui-es sucli as those in 
which we find them growing naturally, we will then have a more 
uniform success. 

I shall first treat of the Fir tribe, including the Hemlock, 
Spruce, and Silver Firs ; all of which are evergreen. These, 
when growing alone, or promiscuously among deciduous trees 
having attractive outlines, produce a pleasing effect in the land- 
scape, especially during the spring and autumn months, when 
their tints blend more distinctly with that of other trees than 
during the summer season. 

The Hemlock Firs. 

Abies Albertiana (Prince Albert's Fir). — Introduced in 1851. 
Habitat, Oregon and British Columbia, where it grows to 150 feet 
in height, and from 12 to 18 feet circumference. It much re- 
sembles the better known species, A. canadensis ; and is quite 
hardy. A very free growing and useful tree, its graceful drooping 
branches and pyramidal form rendering it always attractive. 

A. canadensis {the Hemlock Spruce). — Habitat, Canada and the 
United States. Introduced about 1736. It has numei'ous slender 
droojDing branches, clothed with short broad leaves of a light 
green colour on the upper and glaucous on the under side. In its 
young state it is a useful ornamental tree, of a branchy habit, and 
suitable for open exposed altitudes. It is of no value as a timber 
tree in this country. In America the bark is much used in 
tanning, but the tree is not grown in sufficient numbers in Britain 
to make the bark an article of commerce. 

A. Douglasii (the Douglas Fir). — Habitat, California, Oregon, 
and British Columbia ; was introduced in 1827. Perhaps more has 
been written about this fir than any other of recent introduction. 
Although of a spreading habit where it has room to grow, it is 
among the fastest timber-producing trees of the Fir tribe ; but 
when too fast grown the wood is of a rough and second-rate quality. 
Possibly, with the exception of the larch, this fir is the most 
valuable, commercially, of all the exotic conifers. Hitherto it has 
been grown in too limited numbers, and under exceptional treat- 
ment, to enable us to put a proper value upon its timber. If 
treated like our common forest trees, my belief is, that it will 
not supersede some other species of fir. From the table at 
the end of this Report, it will be seen that Abies Menziesii 
grows at as high altitudes in its native habitat ; and in some 



208 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

places in this country it is producing as much, if not more, timber 
than the Doughis Fir ; and before we place the latter at the top 
of the list, we must see its value better tested as a common forest 
tree. As yet the larch is the tree " ])ar excellence " for forest 
planting ; and I question very much if the Douglas Fir were once 
tested as well as the larch has been, but that its supposed superi- 
orities will vanish. This dark-gi-een tree, grown as a single 
sjjecimen, is of an open habit of growth, and rather ornamental. 

A. D. Stairi. — This distinct variety, which originated at Castle 
Kennedy, "Wigtownshii-e, is almost white in spring. It assumes 
a colour approaching the type in summer, and a sUvery tint in 
autumn, and generally loses its leaves before the next season's 
growth appears. It is of a dwarfish habit, and is a unique speci- 
men for the lawn. 

A. Pattoniana (Patton's Fir). — Habitat, California and Oregon. 
Introduced in 1851. It grows at altitudes ranging up to 10,000 
feet, and attains heights of 150 and 200 feet, and girths of 16 
and 20 feet ; a very ornamental tree. Its leaves are light-gi'een 
above, and glaucous beneath. 

The Spruce Firs. 

Abies alba (the White Spruce). — Habitat, British North 
America; introduced about 1700. Height, 40 to 50 feet; has 
longer and more glaucous leaves than A. nigra; and is a very 
attractive tree, especially when standing singly, or set amongst 
others of a sombre green colour. 

A. Alcoqxdana ( Alcock's Fii-). — Habitat, Japan ; introduced in 
18G1. A conical growing and distinct tree, and a very free grower 
in this country. It is perfectly hardy, and I think no planter 
should omit this valuable species, either for ornament or profit. 

A. excelsa (the Norway Spruce). — Habitat, middle and north 
of Europe; introduced about 1548. It thrives well, attains to 
a gi-eat height, and is a very useful timber tree, the wood being 
light and elastic, and suitable for a variety of purposes. Its 
durability depends a good deal on the altitude at which it grows, 
the soil it grows in, and the management to which it is sub- 
jected. The colour of the wood is either a reddish or yellowish 
white, and contains much less resin than the Scots pine. It weighs 
G5 lbs. 11 oz. per cubic foot when green, and 35 lbs, 2 oz. when 
quite dry. Its ashes furnish potash, and its trunk resin, from 
which Burgundy pitch is made. The timber takes a high polish, 



COMPARATIVE VALUE OP EXOTIC CONIFERS IN BRITAIN. 209 

is used for gilding upon, and, like the pear, takes a rich black 
stain. This tree is an excellent and cheap nurse, and being dense 
in the foliage, it may be said to be a storehouse of heat. It is of 
a conical form, and being an excellent non-conductor, it protects 
the ground from cold and drought. The tree luxuriates on north 
and east exposures in deep loams or a moist sandy soil, and on 
such it is believed to produce timber in this country equal, or 
almost so, to that grown in Norway. 

A. e. alba (the White Fir of Norway) is of a finer foliage, and 
by far the most ornamental of the varieties, especially in the 
early stage of the season's growth, when the young shoots throw 
a profuse whitish green tint xipon the graceful and pendant twigs 
and older grass-green foliage of the tree. 

A, e. nigra (the Black Fir of Norway). — As a single specimen 
this is a handsome tree till about 15 feet high, if it is allowed 
plenty of room, and the foliage is well retained. When older and 
full of vigour, it assumes a drooping habit,^and then somewhat 
resembles Abies morinda. 

A. e. pendula (the Weeping Fir of Norway). — A most graceful 
tree, especially if grown in a moderately moist soil. Its drooping 
habit and dark glossy green leaves at once arrest the eye, and 
show to great advantage when growing amongst deciduous trees. 

A. e. variegata (the Variegated Norway Fir). — This has its 
leaves blotched with yellow, and is of a dwarfy and rather compact 
habit ; certainly a vmique variety, though I do not consider it 
attractive. 

The dwarf varieties of the Norway Spruce are also worthy of a 
place in all collections, particularly on account of their neat ap- 
pearance and ornamental effect, such as the following : — A. e. 
Clanbrasiliana, dumosa, elegans, Finedonensis, inverta, mutabilis, 
pygmea, and others. 

A. Menziesii (Menzies' Fir). — Introduced in 1831. Habitat, 
North- West America, from latitude 42° to latitude 67° North ; 
attaining its greatest dimensions about the mouth of the Columbia 
River. It does not attain to the size of the Douglas Fir in its 
native country ; but its timber is of excellent quality, and used 
for a great variety of purposes. In suitable sites in Britain, and 
in deep moist loam, it is a rapid growing and very handsome 
tree ; its beautiful silvery foliage and long wavy branches being 
very attractive in ornamental grounds. It is of a wide-spreading 
habit, and the branches require plenty of room to fully develop 



210 TRANSACTIONS OF UOYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 

their graceful proportions. Some of the finest Menzies' Firs in 
Scotland are growing in the policies at Castle Menzies in Perth- 
shire. As a timber tree, it promises to be one of the best of 
recently introduced conifers. 

A. morinda (the Himalayan Spruce). — Introduced from India 
in 1818. It grows at high altitudes, and to a height of 150 
feet, girthing from 12 to 20 feet. The tree is a very sombre figure 
in the landscape. It has a coarse open-grained wood, useful for 
purposes to which fir timber is generally applied ; and contains a 
large amount of resin in its sapwood. 

A. nigra (the Black Spruce). — Introduced about 1700. Habitat, 
Noi-th-East America, and westward as far as "Wisconsin. In its 
native country it attains a height of 60 to 80 feet, with a girth of 
4 to 6 feet. Its timber is strong, light, and tough, and used for 
a great variety of purposes ; being durable for inside work, al- 
though perishing rather quickly when exposed. As an orna- 
mental tree, it is not often used, but when grown in open places 
in a moist retentive soil, it forms an attractive tree, of a dai'k 
spiral habit, the branches often loaded with cones, and having a 
sti'iking effect among other trees of spreading habit and lighter 
foliage. 

A. obovata (the Siberian Spruce).- — Introduced by Ledebour 
from Siberia, where it grows abundantly, and varies in height 
from a tree of 100 feet to a tiny bush on bleak exposures. Con- 
sidered by some authorities to be a variety of A. excelsa, but does 
not closely resemble the latter. 

A. orientalis (the Eastern Spruce). — Introduced in 1839. 
Habitat, Armenia. An elegant and very ornamental tree ; with 
short leaves, about one-half as long as A. excelsa. This species 
is of a pleasing and graceful appearance, of a very hardy nature, 
and much admired in collections. 

A. polita (the " Tiger's Tail " Fir of Japan). — Introduced in 
1861. Habitat, Japan ; largely used by the Japanese for orna- 
mental work. Its leaves are prickly, and of a colour somewhat 
resembling the Gorse when aged. In habit it is muclx like the 
Black Norway Spruce. A pictui-esque and useful tree. 

The Silver Firs. 
I'icea amahilis (the Lovely Silver Fir). — Introduced in 1831. 
Habitat, Oregon and British Columbia, where it grows to a lieight 
of 200 feet, and a girth of 20 feet. It does best in a moderately 



COMPARATIVE VALUE OF EXOTIC CONIFERS IN BRITAIN". 211 

moist soil, and when luxuriating in such in this country, its 
appearance warrants the name it bears, being lovely at all seasons. 

P. halsamea (the Balsam Fir). — Introduced in 1697. Habitat, 
Canada, Nova Scotia, and North-eastern United States. Though 
neither an ornamental nor timber tree of much value, the resin 
which it produces in abundance furnishes the Canada Balsam 
extensively used in medicine and manufactures. 

P. hracteata (the Santa Lucia Silver Fir). — Introduced in 1853. 
Habitat, California. A tree of great height, but proportionally 
rather small in girth. The branches are spreading, the lower 
ones decumbent \ and its exquisite form and beautiful appearance 
make it an acquisition to the lover of ornamental conifers. 

P. cephalonica (the Cephalonian Silver Fir). — Introduced in 
1824. Habitat, Greece. Its prickly-pointed leaves and dilated 
petioles render this a very distinct variety. I find it a very free 
growing ornamental tree, and commercially valuable. 

P. grcmdis (the Tall Silver Fir). — Introduced in 1831. Habitat, 
California and British Columbia. I find this not only a grand 
ornamental tree, but the most rapid grower of all the Silver Firs. 
In its native habitat, in low moist situations, it grows to 280 feet 
in height, and often girths 21 feet. Such enoi'mous growth may 
well tempt us to plant it more frequently. 

P. lasiocarpa (the California Silver Fir). — Introduced in 1851. 
Habitat, California, where it attains a height of 100 to 150 feet. 
It is a general favourite with planters, and, both as regards orna- 
ment and value, is equal to almost any of the Silver Firs. This 
elegant Silver Fir is also known as P. concolor, P. Lowiana, and 
P. Parsonsii. 

P. magnifica (the Stately Silver Fir). — Inti'oduced in 1851 by 
John Jeffrey, collector for the Oregon Association. Habitat, 
Northern California and Oregon. A grand acquisition to any 
collection, and deserves a trial as a timber tree, seeing it reaches 
a height of 250 feet in its native country, 

P. nohilis (the Noble Silver Fir). — Introduced in 1831. Habitat, 
California and Oregon, where it attains a height of 200 to 300 
feet, and a girth of 12 to 18 feet. It is a veiy hardy species, and 
thrives well in this country. When growing on peaty or rich 
alluvial soils, it assumes a peculiar richness of colour, and is a 
favourite with the ornamental planter. 

P. Nordmanniana (Nordmann's Silver Fir). — Introduced in 
1848. Habitat, the Crimea and Caucasus. Being later in starting 



212 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH AEBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

into growth than Picea pectinafa, it is hardier, grows more freely 
when young, and for either use or ornament is certainly the most 
valuable of the two. 

F. 2jcctmata (the Common Silver Fir) was introduced in 1603. 
It is a native of Central Europe, and the north and west of Asia. 
A mountain tree, rising to the zone of the Scots pine, and 
often reaching a height of 150 feet. Its towering height and 
stately figure are too well known to need description. It has been 
found that a cubic foot of the wood of a full-grown tree when 
green weighs 66 lbs. 14 oz., and when dry 37 lbs. 9 oz. In Britain 
it is less hardy than the Norway fir, and requires a lower situation. 

Many interesting varieties of the Common Silver Fir have been 
produced in this country, among which may be named F. p. tor- 
tuosa, the branches of which are characteristically crooked and 
twisted ; F. p. fastigiata, of an upright columnar habit ; F. p. 
pendula, a fine weeping evergi-een tree ; F. p. variegata, and 
P. p. nana, two pretty forms for the ornamentation of lawns. 

F. Pinsapo (the Spanish Silver Fir). — Introduced in 1839. 
Habitat, the mountains in the north and middle of Spain. This 
is a very fine ornamental tree, with beautiful silvery green foliage, 
and, as it has a very dense habit of growth, it is suitable for 
planting to hide any untidy or objectionable sight. 

P. religiosa (the Mexican Sacred Silver Fir). — Introduced in 
1838. Habitat, Mexico, where it grows at altitudes of 8000 to 
12,000 feet, and to a height of 100 to 150 feet, with a girth of 15 
to 18 feet. It is easily distinguishable by the shortness of its 
cones, which vexy much resemble those of the Cedar of Lebanon, 
but are smaller. The hardiness of this tree has so far been doubt- 
ful ; but ornamentally it is pleasing and attractive. 

P. sibirica (the Siberian Silver Fir). — Introduced in 1820. 
Habitat, Siberia and the Altai Moxintains. This species only 
succeeds well in damp stifi" land. The leaves are dark green above, 
and silvery beneath, and, when shaken by the wind, they are very 
attractive. 

Amongst other species worthy of a place in all collections, from 
an ornamental point of view, are P. cilicia, the Cilician Silver 
Fir ; P. Fraseri, Fraser's Silver Fir ; P. Pindrow, the Indian 
Silver Fir ; P. Veitchii, Veitch's Fir ; P. Wehbiana, Captain Webb's 
Silver Fir ; and several varieties of the species already mentioned, 
all being of a highly ornamental character. 

The most of this family are fibrous-rooted, and should therefore 



COMPAEATIVE VALUE OP EXOTIC CONIFER^E IN BRITAIN. 213 

be planted in free open soils, in which they always grow to ad- 
vantage. None of the species are well adapted for growing in 
cold, bleak, open exposures ; but all of them do fairly well when 
moderately sheltered. They show to great advantage till about 
20 or 30 feet in height, and as forest trees are general favourites. 

The Pines. 

The Pine family, of which the Scots Pine, Pinus sylvestris, is 
the type, is a very numerous one, and hence I shall confine my 
description to the larger growing and ornamental species. 

Finns Austriaca (the Austrian Pine). — Introduced in 1835. A 
well-known tree, of a strong robust habit of growth. It is the 
best pine I know for shelter, and for planting in exposed sitiiations 
near the sea-coast. Timber coarse grained and knotty ; not equal 
to that of the Scots Pine. 

P, cevihra (the Swiss Stone Pine). — Introduced about 1746. 
Habitat, Central Europe and Siberia. A well-known pine ; useful 
both from a commercial and ornamental point of view, and 
perfectly hardy. 

P. c. pimiila, from Eastern Siberia and Japan, is a neat dwarf 
ornamental variety, and useful for lawns. 

P. contorta (the Twisted Pine). — Introduced in 1831. Habitat, 
North- West America, as far south as California. Its timber is 
almost valueless ; but the tree is very unique and ornamental, 
having long, slender, and curiously-twisted branches. 

P. excelsa (the Himalayan Pine). — Introduced about 1827. 
Habitat, the Himalaya Mountains. This elegant pine grows from 
90 to 100 feet high in its native country, where the timber is in 
much repute. In this country it is found in most collections, and 
forms a handsome ornamental tree, when growing in a light warm 
soil and sheltered site. It does not thrive in cold or damp soils, 
and bears exposure indifferently. The long slender branches, 
gracefully clothed with bluish-green, glaucous leaves, contrast 
pleasantly with that of other darker foliaged trees. The tree is 
full of clear limpid turpentine, which flows from the slightest 
incision of the bark. 

P. insignis (the Remarkable Pine). — Introduced in 1833. 
Habitat, California. This tree well deserves its name, being 
very ornamental, and a general favourite. Its leaves are a lively 
grass-green colour. The wood has been favourably compared with 
that of other pines ; but unfortunately the tree is not hardy until 



214 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

of a good size, and our severe winters have killed many fine 
specimens. In the south of England, in Ireland, and in the south- 
west coast of Scotland, many grand specimens are growing and 
thriving well. 

P. Jeffreyi (Jeffrey's Pine). — Introduced in 1852. Habitat, 
the Shasta Valley in California. This pine very much resembles 
Finns ponderosa ; and, like the latter, it is perfectly hardy, and 
has leaves about 8 or 9 inches long. Its wood is also valuable, 
and the tx'ee ornamental. 

F. Lamhertiana (the Sugar Pine). — Introduced in 1827. 
Habitat, California and north-west of America. Grown under 
favourable circumstances in its native habitat, a tree which had 
been blown down was found to be 215 feet in length, and girthed 
16 feet. In addition to its value as timber, which is good, and 
its ornamental efiect, its seeds, which have a sugary taste (hence 
the common name), are used as food. 

P. Laricio (the Corsican Pine). — Introduced in 1759. Habitat, 
Corsica, Spain, Italy, Greece, Germany, and the Caucasus, where 
it grows from GO to 150 feet high, with a proportionate girth. 
It is a free growing tree when once established, but difficult to 
transplant when of any size. Its branches grow in regular whorls, 
with leaves of a cheerful green. Its wood is of fair quality, and 
it is a good ornamental tree. 

There are several varieties of P. Laricio, such as P. L. 
CaraTuanica, compacta, contorta, nana, pendula, and others, all 
of which are curious or ornamental, and deserve a place in large 
collections of choice trees. 

P. macrocarpa (the Large-coned, or Coulter's Pine). — Introduced 
in 1832. Habitat, California; gi'owing in 36° of latitude, at an 
elevation of 3000 to 4000 feet. It attains a height of 100 feet, 
and a girth of 9 to 12 feet. Kemarkable for the size of its cones, 
which are sometimes 14 inches long and 6 in diameter. The large 
seeds are edible. If moderately sheltered, and grown on a dry, 
porous soil, it is perfectly hardy in this country, and is a good 
ornamental pine. Also known as P. CouUeri. 

P. initis (the Yellow Pine). — Introduced in 1739. Habitat, 
New England States and Georgia, North America. This is the pine 
which produces the valuable " yellow pine " timber of commerce. 
The tree does not often exceed 80 feet in height. Although 
])0ssessing no special ornamental property, it should be planted 
for the sake of its timber. Its habit of growth very much 



COMPARATIVE VALUE OF EXOTIC CONIFERS IN BRITAIN. 215 

I'esembles that of Pimis sylvestris, and the trunk is almost of 
uniform girth for nearly two-thirds of its length. 

P. monticola (the Mountain Pine). — Introduced in 1831. 
Habitat, California and Oregon. In its native country it is 
frequently seen 100 feet in height and sometimes 6 feet in girth. 
Its leaves have a distinct silvery tint. The timber is said to be 
white, strong, and durable. It is a fine ornamental, free growing 
tree, and perfectly hardy. 

P. Pallasiana (the Crimean Pine). — Introduced in 1790. 
Habitat, the Crimea. This is a much finer ornamental tree than 
the Corsican Pine, which it resembles, but it is more inclined 
to spread its branches; which are numei'ous, large, horizontal, 
and declining ; the lower ones being sometimes nearly as thick as 
the stem. Timber, coarse grained and knotty, but durable. 

P. Pinaster (the Cluster Pine). — Introduced in 1596, Habitat, 
South of Europe. The ornamental effect of this pine is not much 
appreciated ; neither is the quality of its wood. It has often been 
highly recommended for seaside planting, but with ruinous i-esults 
in the following instances. Soon after reading a favourable 
report upon this pine which appeared a number of years ago, a 
landed proprietor on the west coast planted it extensively, with 
the result that scarcely a plant survived the first year. I have 
also tried it, and the failure could not have been greater if I had 
used a tropical plant. There is said to be several varieties of 
the Pinaster, and possibly we may not have the hardiest one, 
which grows so abundantly in the west of France. Unless we 
can import the hardiest variety, I don't think we shall ever grow 
the maritime pine in sufficient numbers on our sea-board to supply 
us with pitch, tar, resin, and other products of the Pinaster. I 
would advise the British landowner rather not to purchase them 
than risk their failure on bleak seaside exposures. 

P. ponderosa (the Western Pitch Pine). — Introduced in 1827. 
Habitat, Western North America. Grows at high altitudes, and 
to large dimensions, in its native habitat. Its timber is of excellent 
quality. In its sturdy habit of growth it somewhat resembles the 
Araucaria. If luxuriating well, its dark-green leaves are from 
8 to 10 inches long, and closely arranged on the branches. It is 
perfectly hardy here. A useful and peculiarly grand species for 
effect. It is also known as P. Beardsleyi, Benthamiana, deflexa, 
Parryana, and Sindcdriana, and is the "Yellow Pine" of California. 

P. rigida (the Pitch Pine). — Introduced in 1759. Habitat, 



216 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ranging from New England to Virginia, and generally found on 
light, friable, and sandy soils. In such it grows to 70 or 80 feet 
in height. This is the well-known " Pitch Pine " of commerce. 
Is quite hardy here, and gi'OAvs at about the same rate as the Scots 
pine ; hence, is worthy of being more freely planted. Its resinous 
shoots and small clusters of cones make it very ornamental and 
attractive. 

P. Sahiniana (Sabine's, or the Nut Pine). — Introduced in 
1832. Habitat, California, where it grows to a moderate height. 
It is veiy hardy, but its wood is not in much repute. It has very 
lai'ge cones, and the leaves are from 11 to 14 inches long. As an 
ornamental tree, the rambling habit of its growth and the long- 
twisted leaves give it a very picturesque appearance. 

P. Strohus (the Weymouth Pine). — Introduced in 1705. A 
native of Canada and the Eastern United States, and a good 
timber tree, often reaching 100 to 150 feet in height. Here it 
is perfectly hardy, and grows very well on dry porous soil, but is 
more useful as an ornamental than a timber tree. 

P. Tceda (the Loblolly Pine). — Introduced in 1713. Habitat, 
Florida, Virginia, Carolina, etc. This is the Virginian " White 
Pine " of commerce, and a valuable forest tree in its native 
country. From this tree the resin is extracted by making in- 
cisions in the bark, fx'om which it flows freely. Frankincense is 
said to be produced from the resin, and to be composed of two 
kinds of resin, mixed with oil of tui'pentine. 

Among less valuable timber ti'ees, but most of which are useful 
ornamentally, are the following Pines : — P. A2nilcensis, P. 
Ayacahuite,P. Balfouriana, P. cembroides, P.Devoniana,P. excelsa, 
P. Jlexilis, P. Gerardiana, P. haleioensis, P. inops, P. koraiensis, 
P. leiophylla, P. longifolia, P. Massoniana, P. montana, P. muri- 
cata, P. oocarpa, P. parviflora, P. patula, P. pinea, P. pungens, 
P. resinosa, P. Russelliana, P. serotina, P. Teocote, P. Torreyana, 
and P. tuherculata. Some are natives of Mexico and Central 
America, while others are from India, China, Japan, and other 
tropical or semi-tropical countries, and consequently less hardy 
than those from temperate latitudes. The chief characteristics of 
some are their form of growth, of others in the size and arrangement 
of their cones, and, in several instances, in the variegated colour 
or peculiar arrangement of their leaves. In the sunny south of 
England and Ireland, and mild south-west coast of Scotland, the 
planter should add most, if not all, of them to his collection, but 



COMPARATIVE VALUE OP EXOTIC CONIFERS IN BRITAIN. 217 

ill leas congenial climates I question the wisdom of experimenting 
with many of them. 

The Pine is pre-eminently the tree of the mountain, and being 
an evergreen is always pleasing to look upon. When massed 
together, or grown as single specimens among deciduous trees, 
pines show to great advantage at all seasons of the year. 

The Araucaria. 
Araucaria imhricata (the Chili Pine). — Introduced in 1796 from 
Chili, where it grows in vast forests to a height of 100 to 150 
feet, producing strong, beautifully-grained and durable wood. It 
is one of the most popular of the ornamental conifers, and may be 
seen on almost every lawn or pleasure ground. Its seeds, which 
are very nutritious, are highly prized as food by the native Indians. 
The Araucaria family are not exclusively Chilian, but grow also 
in Polynesia and Australia. A. imhricata is, however, the only 
hardy species in our climate, and delights in a friable, well-drained 
soil, and open site, as it is found to bear exposure to the wind 
better than most exotic conifers. 

The Ceuar. 

Cedrus atlantica (the Mount Atlas Cedar). — Introduced about 
1841. Habitat, the Atlas Mountains, Algeria. A most useful 
tree both as regards value and ornament, is perfectly hardy, and 
grows luxuriantly in positions where the larch becomes blistered. 

C. Deodar (the Deodar, or Indian Cedar). — Introduced in 1831. 
Habitat, Himalaya Mountains. This is a moderately hardy, 
useful, and well-known ornamental tree, of common occurrence in 
pleasure grounds. A valuable timber tree in India. 

G. Libani (the Cedar of Lebanon). — Introduced in 1676. 
Habitat, Mount Lebanon, Syria. In Scripture and in history, 
both ancient and modern, we find reference made to this tree. 
Its outline is so well and generally known, that, as an object of 
ornament, no description is necessary. Its wood is very valuable, 
and is known to have lasted for centuries. 

The Cypress. 
Cupressus Lawsoniana (Lawson's Cypress). — Introduced in 1855. 
Habitat, California. Height, 100 feet. Unquestionably this is 
the grandest and best known of all the American Cypresses. A 



218 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBOEICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

large and highly ornamental tree, producing useful and valuable 
timber. It should be grown extensively in every collection. 
Several beautiful varieties have been raised, and are now much 
grown in this country, amongst which may be named C. L. alba- 
spica, argentea, argenteo-variegata, aureo-variegata, erecta viridis, 
Jiliformis, gracilis, lutea nana, and j'lygincHa. 

C. lusitanica (the Cedar of Goa). — Introduced in 1G83, and 
.said to be from the East Indies. Height, 50 feet. A remarkably 
handsome low tree, but not very hax'dy in Britain. 

C. 7nacrocarpa (the Large-fruited Cypress). — Introduced in 1838. 
Habitat, Upper California. Height 80 feet. This is a tree of 
very pleasing effect, but only moderately hardy, and impatient of 
cold cutting winds. 

C. m. Lamhertiana (Lambert's Cypress). — Introduced about 
1840. This is generally considered a variety of G. macrocarpa. 
From a parcel of seed received from a well-known collector in 
California upwards of a dozen varieties were raised, amongst them 
the true type of C. Lamhertiana ; and I therefore conclude that 
they are merely seminal varieties. 

G. ^utkaeiuis (the Nootka Sound Cypress). — Habitat, British 
Columbia and Oregon. Introduced about 1850. This is, per- 
haps, better known as Thuiopsis borealis, and has a considerable 
resemblance to G. Latvsoniana, but is a more robust growing tree, 
with a paler green aspect. In its native country it attains a height 
of 80 to 100 feet, and produces yellowish fragrant wood, light, 
easily worked, and durable, and valuable for all open-air purposes. 
It is one of the hardiest, as well as one of the most beautiful, of 
all the cypress tribe, and thrives well in favourable sites. Being 
one of the best and most useful of ornamental conifer's, it should 
be freely introduced by all planters. There are several variegated 
varieties, all of which are valuable as ornamental ti'ees. 

G. sempervirens (the Common Cypress). — Introduced before 
1548. Habitat, South of Europe, Greece, Turkey, Persia, and 
Asia Minor. The tree is of a pyramidal or upright habit of 
growth, and attains a height of 50 to 100 feet. Its wood is hard 
and fragrant, of a remarkably fine close grain, and is very durable, 
having a beautiful reddish hue, and is a most valuable tree in its 
native country. It is used in Britain as an ornamental tree. 

In 1803 a tree of G. s. Jiorizontalis, growing in Chelsea Botanic 
Gai-den, when measured by Lord Aberdeen, Avas found to be 150 
feet in height and 24 feet in circumference at four feet from the 



COMPARATIVE VALUE OF EXOTIC CONIFER.E IN BRITAIN. 219 

ground, certainly the largest cypress in this country at that rtirae. 
One feels curious to know if this fine old tree still lives. 

G. thyoides (the White Cedar). Syn. Chamcecyparis sphceroidea. — 
Introduced in 1736. Habitat, Eastern United States. Height, 70 
to 80 feet ; and grows luxuriantly in low-lying swampy ground. 
Its wood in America is considered superior to that of any other 
tree for making shingles for roofs. Several varieties of the White 
Cedar are found in collections, but none of them are so valuable as 
the type for timber', although they are all hardy and ornamental. 

C. torulosa (the Tufted Cypress). — Introduced in 1824. Habitat, 
the Himalayas. A moderately hardy and very handsome tree. 

Remarks. — The cypresses to which I have referred are what 
may be termed forest trees ; and, in addition, other purely 
ornamental ones might be mentioned, such as C. funehris, C. Gove- 
niana, G. Knigldiana, and G. Macnahiana, all more or less hardy, 
and useful for oi'namenting pleasure gi'ounds. 

The Juniper. 

Juniperus chinensis (the Chinese Juniper). — Introduced in 1804. 
Habitat, China and Thibet. One of the best of the family, and 
along with several of its pretty varieties is a very useful orna- 
mental tree. 

J. excelsa (the Greek Juniper). — Introduced in 1806. Habitat, 
Greece and Asia Minor. This, and especially the variety J. e. 
stricta, are very beautiful lawn shrubs or small trees, and worthy 
of a place in all collections. 

J. virginiana (the Red Cedar). — Introduced in 1664. Habitat, 
North America. This is a well-known and useful tree, and the 
timber furnishes the " cedar " wood used for pencils. The true 
" pencil cedar," however, is the wood of J. hermudiana, the 
Bermuda Juniper, but the tree is too tender to stand our winters. 

There are several other species and many varieties of Juniper 
that are very interesting, and all deserve a place in ornamental 
grounds, although few or none of them pi-oduce timber in this 
country of any commercial value. 

The Larch. 

Larix europcea (the Common Larch). — Introduced about 1629. 

Habitat, Central Europe and Siberia. The most valuable of all 

our conifei'ous trees. The wood is applicable for almost any 

purpose, and weighs when green 68 lbs. 13 oz. ; and when dry 



220 TRANSACTIONS OF KOYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICQLTURAL SOCIETY, 

36 lbs. G oz. per cubic foot. The wood makes a first-class charcoal ; 
the sap furnishes the Venice turpentine of commerce ; the bi-anches 
exude the manna of Briancon ; and the bark supplies excellent 
tannin. The tree being thus useful in all its parts, we may well 
ask — Where is its equal or substitute to be found ] 

Loudon mentions the following ten varieties of the common 
larch, and describes them as being distinct, namely — L. e. compacta, 
L. e. Dahurica, L. e. flore albo, L. e. flore ruhro, L. e. Fraseri, 
L. e. intermedia, L. e. laxa, L. e. pendula, L. e. repens, and L. e. 
sibirica ; but none of them are equal to the normal form. 

L. Kcumpferi (the Golden Larch). — Introduced in 1846. 
Habitat, China, Height at high elevations, 50 feet, and in more 
congenial positions, 120. Not only a highly ornamental and very 
effective tree, but as timber its value is indisputable. It is quite 
hardy, but too slow growing for a timber tree in our climate, and 
unless it succeeds better in the milder climate of Devon or Corn- 
wall, it is not of much use in Britain. 

L, microcarpa (the Tamarac, or Hackmatac). — Introduced in 
1739. Habitat, Canada and the United States east of the 
Mississippi. The American larch is a most distinct, hardy, useful, 
and ornamental species, and now cultivated with profit. The 
weeping variety of the American larch, L. m. pendula, is of a 
robust character in its youth, but more graceful when aged. 

The Incense Cedar, 

Lihocedi'us chilensis (the Chilian Arbor- Vitse). — Introduced in 
1847. Habitat, the Andes, Chili. Height, 60 to 80 feet. Its 
wood is very useful and valuable, and emits a strong odour whilst 
burning. It is moderately hardy, distinct, and ornamental, and 
succeeds best in sheltered valleys, 

L. decurrens (the Californian White Cedar). — Introduced in 
1853. Habitat, California and Oregon. Height, 120 to 140 feet, 
and a girth of about 20 feet in its native country. It is possibly 
the best known and ornamental of Jeff"rey's introductions through 
the Oregon Association, and it is tolerably hardy in Britain. 

The Chinese Arbor- Vit^. 

Biota orientalis (the Chinese Arbor- Vitse). — Introduced in 1752. 

Habitat, China and Japan. This genus, once associated with, is 

now separated from, the Thuias. The largest is the typical 

variety, attaining to a height of 30 feet ; but there are numerous 



COMPARATIVE VALUE OF EXOTIC CONIFER.E IX BRITAIN. 221 

other varieties, all very ornamental, especially B. o. atirea, and 
B. o. elegantissima, which are favourites with all planters. 

The American Arbor-Vit^. 

Thuia gigantea (the Giant Arbor- Yitse). — Habitat, North- 
West America. Introduced in 1853. In its native habitat it 
reaches a height of 150 feet, its tall slender foi'm being a striking 
feature in the landscape along the Columbia River, where the ti'ee 
attains its gi-eatest dimensions. It is a fast-gi'owing and elegant 
tree, and perfectly hardy in this country. Both as a timber and 
ornamental tree, it is worthy of extensive use. It thrives best in 
a deep rich moist loam, but will grow in most vai'ieties of soil, if 
not water-logged, and the site is sheltered. This useful tree is, 
perhaps, best known as Thuia Lobbi, and sometimes as T, 
Menziesii. 

Thuia occidentalis (the Common American Arbor- Vitse). — 
Habitat, Canada, and the New England States. Introduced before 
1597. It grows to a height of 40 to 50 feet, and supplies a useful 
timber in its native habitat, which is much used for fencing and 
other out-door purposes, being light and very durable. It is well 
known and much used as an ornamental tree or large shrub in 
this country, and is one of the best coniferous hedge plants. It 
prefers a moist soil, on a cool bottom, on which it thrives admir- 
ably. There are several fine ornamental varieties of this Arbor- 
Vitse, all of which should be planted in suitable places by collectors 
of choice plants. 

The Japanese Arbor-Vit^. 
Thuiopsis dolabrata (the Hatchet-leaved Thuia). — Introduced 
in 1853. Habitat, Japan, where it forms, when young, a sj^eci- 
ally handsome pyramidal tree, and attains a height of 50 to 60 
feet. As an oi-namental tree in this country it is equalled by few 
of the exotic conifers, and should be freely introduced, as it is 
quite hardy, and thrives well in any sheltered position, but prefers 
a deep moist loamy soil. There are two beautiful varieties, T. d. 
Icetevirens and T. d. variegata, both of which merit a place among 
all collections of conifers. 

The Cryptomeria, 

Crypiomeria elegans (the'Elegant Cryptomeria). — Introduced in 
1861. Habitat, Japan. Height, 30 feet. It is generally too 
VOL. XII., part II. p 



222 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

tender for otir climate, but in rich soils, and where sheltered, it 
succeeds fairly well. The dark bronzy tint of its foliage in winter 
makes it a great acquisition wherever it thrives. 

C.japonica (the Japan Cedar). — Introduced in 1844. Habitat, 
Japan and China. Produces timber of an excellent quality, as 
was shown in the exhibits from Japan at the Edinburgh Forestry 
Exhibition, and attains a height of 100 to 150 feet. C. j. Lohbi 
is an effective vai'iety, forms a very pretty tree, and is moder- 
ately hardy. There are scvei-al other fine varieties, which, though 
generally rather tender, ai-e worthy a trial by the collector. 

The Japanese Cypress. 

Retinospora Jilifera (the Thread-like Retinospora). — Habitat, 
Japan ; where it grows to a height of 50 feet in sheltered hollows. 

R. obtusa (the Japan Cypress). — Introduced in 1861. Habitat, 
Japan; growing to a height of 60 to 100 feet, with a girth of 
15 feet near the base. It is a most useful timber tree in Japan, 
and furnishes a light, white, and smooth-grained wood in general 
demand for a great variety of j^urposes. It is quite hardy in 
this country, and should be extensively planted as an ornamental 
tree ; but its timber has still to be tested, and is not likely to 
supei'sede any of our forest trees. 

R. pisifera (the Pea- fruited Retinospora). — Introduced in 1861. 
Habitat, Japan ; where it attains a height of 50 to 80 feet. 
Its timber is of great value, and much used in Japan. It is per- 
fectly hardy, and thrives well in this country, and forms a very 
attractive small tree. 

All of the Retinospoi'as ai-e of a hardy nature, and to me appear 
the most lovely of conifers. There are numerous distinct 
varieties of several of the species, but they are of less value com- 
mercially, though more so ornamentally, than the normal types. 

The Ginkgo. 

SalishuHa adiantifolia (the Maiden-Hair Tree, or Ginkgo).- — - 
This remarkable conifer seems to unite the pine and oak tribes 
in the singular form of its leaves. It was introduced in 1754. 
Habitat, Northern China. Height, 70 to 100 feet. Its timber is 
very close grained, receives a fine polish, and resembles citron-wood. 
A valuable timber tree; quite hardy in Britain, and rather unique 
as a coniferous tree, and should be in all collections. 



comparative value of exotic coxifer.e ix britain. 223 

The Sequoia Tribe. 

Sciadojntys verticillata (the Umbrella Pine). — Tntroduced in 
1861. Habitat, Japan. Height, 70 to 100 feet. Exceptionally 
peculiar in the arrangement of its leaves, 20 to 30 being set in 
double whorls on the point of each shoot, and resemble by their mode 
of growth an inverted umbrella. The leaves are of a light-green 
colour. The tree is hardy, and with me has done well since it was 
planted in 1879. Evidently two varieties, or male and female, 
are in cultivation. With me one bears very small cones, and 
is less robust in growth than the other. This is a valuable 
decorative tree in any collection. 

Sequoia semjjervirens (The Califoi'nian Redwood). — Discovered 
by Mr Archibald Menzies, on the north-west coast of North 
America, in 1796. Introduced 1846 by Hartweg. Height, 270 
feet; and a girth of 30 to 40 feet. Although not of a very hardy 
nature in its young state in this country, yet, in good soils 
where moderately sheltered, it has stood fairly well. Its timber 
is valuable, and of good quality. As an ornamental tree it has 
an effect which is all its own, being so very distinct and peculiar 
in leaf and habit of growth that no one need mistake it. Even 
the most cautious of planters should give this gigantic conifer 
a kindly place amongst his select forest trees. 

Taxodium distichum (The Deciduous Cypi'ess). — Habitat, 
Southern States of North America. Introduced about 1640. 
A tree of gigantic proportions in its native country, where it 
attains a height of 120 feet, and a girth of 40 feet. It is 
peculiarly a moisture-loving tree, and reaches its fullest develop- 
ment in the swamps and marshes of the Southern United States. 
It there furnishes a valuable timber, light but strong, of a fine grain, 
splits easily into shingles, is very durable, and is much used for all 
economic piirposes. In this country it is not often seen in a 
luxuriant condition, although it is moderately hardy, and thrives 
well in favourable spots, especially in the south of England and 
Ii'eland. It naturally prefers moist or swampy situations, and 
should never be planted on dry and exposed sites. A striking 
characteristic of this tree is the curious growths or " knees," which 
rise from the roots to a height of a foot or two above the surface of 
the ground. They are somewhat conical in shape, and partake of 
the nature of roots. (Jrenerally they are hollow, and in that state 
ai"e said to be used bv the negroes in the Southern United States 



224 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBOKICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

as beehives. The pendulous variety, T. d. pendulum, is a very 
beautiful object, but will only thrive in the most favourable 
situations. 

Wellingtonia gigantea (The Mammoth Tree). — Discovered in 
the mountains of California in 1852, and introduced to this 
country in 1853 by Mr "William Loljb, collector to Messrs Veitch 
and Sons, Chelsea, London. Height from 300 to 350 feet, and 
girth 60 to 80. An oft-described tree, and one which only the 
traveller is privileged to look upon in all its glory. This may 
justly be said to be the grandest production of tree growth in the 
world, and imagination dwarfs into insignificance the best of our 
British giants. It has been conjectured that some of those monster 
trees must have been growing for at least 3000 years. As timber 
it is less valuable than many other exotic trees. In this country 
it stands the climate well ; but, in order to encourage its growth, 
it should be planted in a rich alluvial soil productive of free 
growth, and thrives best in sheltered places. 

A beautiful variety originated in Mr Hartland's Nurseries, 
Cork, about twenty-five years ago, and appears under the name 
W. g. aurea variegata. When in a young state, this is one of 
the most ornamental of choice conifers. It is not so robust as the 
pai-ent, and I imagine it will be always more dwarf in growth. 
Another very distinct variety is W. g. 2)endula, one of the finest 
of all the weeping conifers, and a great acquisition to any collec- 
tion. It was sent out from the Knowefield Nurseries, Carlisle. 

The Yew. 

Taxus hrevifolia (the Californian Yew). — Habitat, California, 
Oregon, and British Columbia. Introduced in 1854. A ti-ee in 
its native habitat attaining a height of about 50 feet. It is quite 
hardy, and useful for all purposes for which the common yew is 
employed. 

2\ canadensis (the Canadian Yew). — Habitat, Canada and 
the New England States. Introduced about 1800. It is of a 
low spreading habit, and is commonly known in America as 
" Ground Hemlock." It is useful for planting under the shade of 
other trees, where few plants of any kind will grow. 

T. cuspidata (the Jajjanese Yew). — Habitat, the island of 
Jesso, Japan, where it grows to a moderate-sized tree, with a stem 
of two feet in diameter. It is a distinct species, and worthy of a 
place in all collections of exotic trees. 



TABLE, giviug the Botanical Name, Year of Introduction, Native Country. Height and Girth ol 
the Common Name, Year when Planted, and Place and County where the recorded Speci 



Natural Tiees, and Altitude at which tliey are found growing 
nens giow ; Altitude of Site above sea-level ; and the Year ii 



Abies Albertiana, . 



,1 yordmanniana, 
„ jBMUnata, 

„ Hbiriea, 
Pinus aiutriaea, . 



„ poiulerota, . 

„ Sabtntana, . 
„ SlnbvM. 
„ Teeda, . 
Arauearia vmbricata. 



Oupreama lau-Honiana, 



„ thyiiidet, 
„ iomloia, 
Jun^trut eJiinensia, 



„ oecidentatia, 

Thujopaiii dolobrala, 

Crifyttmuria eUpana, 

„ japoniea, 

j. Lobbi. 

Httinotporajilifera, 

„ obtuaa. 

Satiabilria a^ntS>lk 
Seiadopitya vtrtieUtaU^ 
Sequom aempervtrena, 

Taaxidtttm diaUehum, 
WtlUngtontaffiffantta, 

Tiuna)>ravifoUa, ". 



British Columbia and Oregon, 



British Columbia and Ore^n 
Canada and E. United States 



British Columbia and Oregon, 



il Europi 
Do. 
North 

Califoniii 



uidN. , 
Himalaya Mountains, . 



1 Europe, . 
United States, '. 



Eastern United States, 

Eastern North' Americe 
S. E. United States, 



Noi-th-Weat America, 



Cephalonian Fir, 
Tall Silver Fir, . 
Califoraian Silver Fir, 



?,000 I WesteiD Pitch Pine, 



3 to 5,000 Larch, 



Tyningbame, 

InvercBuld, 
Strathfleldsare, 
Castle Uenzies, 



Japanese Cedar, 
'^'-'-'b Japan Ced»., 
d Retinospora, 



Lobb's Japan Cedar, 
Thread Retinospon 
Japanese Cypress, 
Pea -fruited Cypress 
Maldeu-Hair Tree, 



North-West America, 



e Tabk% I liavp liad ^eat difficulty in finding out the exaci 

' ■ * ' ^ '. and probably the best authority i 



Q e'^ing the 



Hopetoun 

Do., 
Dropmore 



Taymouth, . 
Ardkingl'as, 



Castle Menzies, 



Edinburgh, 

Do.. 
Linlithgow, 

Haddington, 
Dumbarton, 
Linlitligoff, 



Perth, . 
Argyll, . 



Edinburgh, . 86} 



■s 


= ^ 








iSs 


80 


18Si 


SO 


1S8S 


1110 


im 


120 


IM 




s 



I 

\ 
I 



rt-ncy of 



comparative value of exotic conib^er/e in britain. 225 

Other Exotic Conifers. ■ 

Among other useful and ornamental Exotic Conifers, all more 
or less hardy, in the United Kingdom, and worthy of the atten- 
tion of collectors and landscape planters, are the following : — The 
Tasmanian Cypress, Arthrotaxis imbricata, a neat and ornamental 
foliaged tree ; the Chinese Yew, Cephalotaxus Fortunei, and C. 
pedunculata, small bushy trees, and fairly hardy ; several species 
of Podocarpus from Chili, New Zealand, Tasmania, China, and 
JajDan ; the Huon Pine of Tasmania, Dacrydium FranMinii ; the 
Californian Nutmeg, Torreya myristica; and the Torreya nucifera 
of Japan ; the Kauri Pine of New Zealand, Dammara australis ; 
the Cunninghamia sinensis, from Southern China ; the Patagonian 
Cypress, Fltzroya patagonica ; the Plum-fruited Yew, Prumno- 
pitys elegans, from the Andes of Chili ; and Prince Albert's Yew, 
Saxe-Gotluna conspicua, a curious and interesting member of the 
coniferous family, from the southern parts of Chili and Patagonia. 

Remarks. — Of the commei'cial value, per cubic foot, of the 
timber of these exotic conifers, we have not yet had sufficient 
experience of them to enable us to give reliable figures. A genera- 
tion or two must pass away ere this can be done with any appi'oach 
to accuracy. It is open to doubt if many exotic trees will produce 
as good and durable wood as when grown in their natural habitats ; 
although the larch is a notable example of high-class timber when 
grown in Britain, away from its natural habitat in Central Europe. 
I hope, however, that those exotic conifers, now planted and 
growing in this countiy, will long survive in healthy vigour, so 
that future generations will behold trees, it may not be equal to 
those grown in American and other genial climes, but such as we 
have not had the pleasure of looking upon in our day. Encouraged 
by hope, let us plant for future generations trees which shall not 
only be majestically grand and lovely, but such as are also really 
useful ; and, as we gradually come to know the properties of each, 
give faithful record thereof, and thus do all we can by hand and 
pen to advance the successful growth of the best timber trees, as 
well as those of an ornamental character. 

See accompanying Table for measurements of specimen conifers 
arown in Britain. 



226 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



XI. 2'he Douglas Fir (Abies Douglasii) in Scotland. By Dr 
W. ScHLiCH, Professor of Forestry, Cooper's Hill Engineering 
College, Staines, Surrey. 

Amongst the exotic timber trees which have been introduced 
into Europe during the present century, the Douglas fir has attracted 
more notice than any other species, owing to its remarkably quick 
growth during early youth. Specimens growing in free positions 
are believed to have laid on a mean annual increment of as much 
as 3 cubic feet, while only 1 cubic foot, at the most, could be ex- 
pected on a larch tree ; and even in a few fully stocked woods the 
increment appeared exceedingly great. 

In the Gardeners' Chronicle of October 8, 1887, p. 427, an 
extract from the Perthsloire Constitutional was published, which 
drew attention to the oldest plantation of pure Douglas fir in Britain, 
situated at Taymount, on the estate of the Earl of Mansfield, in 
Perthshire. In the extract this plantation is spoken of in glowing 
terms, but only a few scanty measurements are given, so that it is 
difficult for the reader to arrive at any definite idea on the progress 
of the plantation, whereby he can compare it with that of our 
indigenous timber trees. Besides being of very rapid growth, it 
has been claimed for the Douglas fir that it is not liable to disease 
— an advantage, which, if it really did exist, would be of great 
weight. 

Such general statements are often misleading, and I determined 
to take the first opportunity to inquire somewhat more fully into 
the matter. Accordingly during a short tour in Scotland in July 
1888, I measured a sample plot in the Taymount Douglas fir 
plantation, and I also measured, by way of comparison, a sample 
plot in an adjoining Scots pine plantation. The results of these 
measurements seem to me of sufficient interest to deserve 
publication. 

The plantation at Taymount is situated about seven miles to tlie 
north of Perth, in 5^}^° northern latitude, and at an elevation of 
about 200 feet above the level of the sea. The ground slopes very 
gently towards the south-east, and the soil consists of so-called 
" stiff till," which, in this case, may be described as a loamy clay. 



THE DOUGLAS FIR IN SCOTLAND. 227 

retaining moisture well. The locality may safely be given as first 
or best quality for the growth of trees. The rainfall has been put 
down at 28 inches annually. The area of the plantation amounts 
to 8 acres. It was planted by Mr William M'Corquodale, forester 
and wood-surveyor to the Earl of Mansfield, who may be said to be 
the senior wood-manager in Scotland, in the spring of 1860, in the 
following manner : Douglas fir, four years old, 9 by 9 feet ; larch, 
four years old, one between every two Douglas firs, and an additional 
line between every two lines of fir, so that the plants stood 4J by 
4| feet, each acre containing 2151 plants, of which 538 were 
Douglas fir, and 1613 larch. The plants of Douglas fir were two 
years' seedlings, and two years' transplanted. The plantation made 
a good start, and the firs are said to have taken the lead at once. 
The larch were gradually thinned out, until the last disappeared 
before the year 1880, since which time the plantation has been 
pure Douglas fir. The first regular thinning of the Douglas fir 
occurred in 1887. Before that thinning, about 277 trees remained 
per acre, the remaining 261 having gradually disappeared during 
the previous twenty-seven years. Of the 277 trees seventy-five per 
acre were thinned out in 1887, so that now, in 1888, the countings 
showed 202 trees per acre. 

No accurate statistics are in my possession regarding the material 
removed by thinning up to date. At the present moment the area 
is well stocked, and any small interruption of the leaf canopy by 
the thinning of 1887 will disappear by the end of 1889, when the 
cover overhead will, barring accidents, be again perfect. Thus, 
the thinning of 1SS7, though fairly heavy, was by no means too 
heavy. 

On a sample plot, measuring four-tenths of an acre of average 
appearance, all the trees were carefully measured by myself, per- 
sonally, on July 20, 1888, at height of chest, or 4 feet 6 inches 
from the ground. A selected sample tree was felled, by the kind 
I)ermission of Mr M'Corquodale, and carefully measured, and thus 
the cubic contents of the tree were ascertained, separated into solid 
wood and branches. The former includes all wood over 3 inches 
diameter at the small end. In the present case none of the 
branches measured as much as 3 inches in diameter, so that the 
solid wood represents the stem of the tree from the ground up to a 
diameter of 3 inches. The following table shows the growing crop 
per acre : — 



228 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



^ 




ti - 


^ 


«-, 


ee 


of Tree a 
Inches 
Ground 

ches. 


o 

^1 




" en's 

H g 2 ■£ 




1^2 


u» » c 


li 


« a 3 




t.S 


"t5g 


<i> <u e S 
S'* >' 




"5 -^ c 




£ C3 

3 » 




4 


>5 


^=^ 


O o! 


5^ 


H* 


3 


•26 


12 


20 


23-56 


5 


12 


1-64 


13 


35 


32-26 


6 


3 


•59 


14 


17 


18-17 


7 


7 


1-87 


15 


20 


24-54 


8 


10 


3-49 


16 


8 


11-17 


9 


17 


7-51 


17 


2 


3-15 


10 


15 


8-18 












n 


33 


21-78 


Total, . . 


202 


158-17 



From the above data it follows that the average sectional area 

158-17 
per tree is = 



•783 square feet, which corresponds to a 



202 
diameter of 12 inches. 

The sample tree of average development, which was felled, 
showed the following dimensions : 

Diameter at 4 feet 6 inches above the ground, . 11-78 inches. 

Sectional area ,, ,,,,.. -757 sq. ft. 

Height, ...... 60 feet. 

At 48 feet from the ground the stem showed a diameter of 3 
inches, and here the top was cut off. These 48 feet were divided 
into eight sections of 6 feet length each, each section measured in 
the middle, and thus the following data obtained : 



Number of 
Section. 


Length of Section 
in Feet. 


Mean Diameter of Volume of Solid Wood j 
Sections Inches. '" ^^'^C" " 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 

Total, . 


6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 


12-5 
10-0 
9-5 
8-5 
7-0 
6-5 
5-0 
3-5 


5-11 
3-27 
2-95 
2-36 
1-60 
1-38 
•82 
•40 


48 




17^89 



The top, 12 feet in length, and the branches, were stacked, and 
found to fill a space of 50 cubic feet, which may perhaps be put 
as equal to 50' x •15 = 7-5 cubic feet of woody matter. In the 
present paper this wood will not be taken into account. 

From the contents of the sample tree, the volume of solid wood 
per acre was calculated according to the following equation : — 



THE DOUGLAS FIR IN SCOTLAND. 



229 



Volume of sample tree : volume per acre = sectional area of sample 
tree: Sectional area of all trees per acre; or 17'89 : a; ="757: 

17-89 X 158-17 



158-17, and a; = volume per acre: 



•757 



= 3738 cubic feet 



of solid wood over 3 inches in diameter, exclusive of top and branches. 
By dividing the volume by the age of the trees (32) the average 

annual production of wood is obtained : =117 cubic feet, 

exclusive of previous thinnings ; or, if only the time since planting 
(28 years) is taken into account : — Average annual production of 

solid wood= __ = 133 cubic feet, exclusive of previous thinnings. 

28 

By way of comparing these results with the production of one 
of our indigenous trees, I measured the trees on a sample plot of 
one-tenth of an acre — in a very uniform plantation of Scotfe pine, 
situated at a short distance from the Douglas fir plantation. This 
Scots pine plantation had been established in a somewhat elevated 
spot, which was formerly of a swampy description. The locality 
must be classed as of second quality only, compared with the 
locality in which the Douglas firs grow. It was drained and 
planted in 1847 — that is forty-one years ago — with four years old 
plants of Scots pine ; it has been thinned three times, and it will 
again be thinned in 1889. On July 20, 1888, the area was fully 
stocked. Omitting all suppressed trees, the survey yielded the 
following results : — 



Diameter of Tree at 






4 Feet 6 Inches 


Number of Trees of 


Sectional Area at 4 Feet 


above the Ground 


each Diameter. 


6 Inches, in Square Feet. 


in Inches. 






5 


40 


5-45 


6 


70 


13-74 


7 


70 


18-71 


8 


90 


31 -42 


9 


100 


44-18 


10 


70 


38-18 


11 


40 


26-40 


12 
Total, 


10 


7-85 


490 


185-93 



It will be noticed that this plantation shows a greater sectional 
area per acre than the Douglas fir plantation. 

The mean height of the wood was found to be 45 feet, and from 
the available data it was ascertained that the volume of solid wood 
(3 inches diameter and upwards) amounted to 5015 cubic feet per 
acre. By dividing this number by 45 — the total age of the trees, I 



230 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY, 

5015 

obtained : — Averaere annual i)roduction of solid wood= - ^ =111 

cubic feet, exclusive of previous thinnings ; or, if only the time 
since planting is taken into account : — Average annual production 

of solid wood= '-= 122 cubic feet. 

41 

If now we compare tlie average annual production of Douglas 
fir and Scots pine, we find — Douglas fir =117 resp. 133, against 
►Scots pine = 111 resp. 122 cubic feet. Here, then, is an almost 
inappreciable difference, especially if it is considered that the 
quality of the soil in the Scots pine wood is decidedly inferior to 
that of the soil in the Douglas fir wood. Unfortunately I had no 
opportunity of measuring a larch wood in the vicinity of Taymount, 
but it is well known to all foresters that, up to an age of forty-five 
years, at any rate, larch produces a greater volume than Scots pine, 
so that I may safely say : — " If grown in a well-stocked or crowded 
wood and in localities of equal quality, Douglas fir is not likely 
to produce more solid wood during the first thirty or forty years 
than the larch, and probably also not more than Scots pine." 

The explanation is, that, although the individual Douglas fir 
develops more rapidly in diameter and in height than a Scots pine 
or larch, it requires, at any rate in Scotland, much more space ; 
and consequently an acre of land will hold only a much smaller 
number of trees. Moreover, I shall further on show that it is 
more tapering than the important European conifers. 

On the other hand, the growing stock of a Douglas fir wood con- 
sists of much larger trees (though smaller in number) than an 
equally old larch or Scots pine wood, and this is a great advantage 
where big timber fetches higher prices than moderate-sized timber. 
This advantage will, however, to a considerable extent, disappear 
with advancing age, when our indigenous timber trees reach the 
size usually demanded in the market. 

Although the Taymount plantation gives some valuable informa- 
tion respecting the early development of Douglas fir compared 
with that of Scots pine, it leaves us as yet completely in the dark 
as to the further progress of production with advancing age. We 
have detailed and accurate information of the rate of increment of 
various European conifers, such as Scots pine, spruce, and silver 
fir, but our oldest pure })lantation of Douglas fir consists of trees 
now only thirty-two years old. As regards the production per acre 
in its native home nothing reliable is available. 



THE DOUGLAS FIR IN SCOTLAND. 231 

Hougb, in his Elements of Forestry (1882), tells us tliat the 
Douglas fir reaches in Oregon to the enormous size of 200 to 300 
feet in height, and from 15 to 20 feet in diameter; he adds, however, 
that the tree is more commonly about 150 feet high and from 4 to 8 
feet in diameter. In America the trees are said to stand near each 
other, but this they certainly do not in the Scottish plantations ; 
on the contrary, here an acre can, owing to the spreading nature of 
the branches, accommodate only a small number of trees compared 
with other species. On the whole, the matter requires considerable 
further investigation. This could best be done by a competent 
forester proceeding to North America and making suitable measure- 
ments on the spot. Such a step was actually taken, in 1885, by 
Dr H. Mayr, a Bavarian forester and botanist. He visited the 
localities in which the Douglas fir thrives best, and he has 
promised to publish the information which he has gathered. So 
far, however, he has only favoured us with a few notes published 
in forest journals, and as he has proceeded to Japan as Professor 
of Forest Botany in the Japanese Forest School, his experience of 
the Douglas fir may not become available for years to come. 

Pending further investigation, I may be permitted to gather 
together what useful information is available at present, and to 
draw such conclusions as may appear permissible. The following ^ 
information is at my disposal : — 

(1.) Measurements in the Taymount plantation. 

(2.) Height growth of two Douglas firs on the same estate, 
planted in 1834. 

(3.) Information supplied by Dr H. Mayr. 

(4.) Examination of a Section of a full-grown Douglas fir, 
deposited in the Cooper's Hill Forest Museum. 

(Ad. 1.) The details of the measurements made in the Taymount 
plantation have been given above. 

(Ad. 2.) The Douglas firs, planted in the year 1834, were about 
four years old when planted, so that the trees were about fifty-seven 
years old in 1887, when they showed a height of about 90 feet. 

(Ad. 3.) Dr Mayr informs us in the Allgemeine Forst und Jagd 
Zeitung of February 1886, p. 61, that the Douglas fir reaches the 
highest degree of perfection in the moist valleys of the Cascade 
Range Mountains, which run parallel to the Pacific coast. He 
found that in those localities the average height of full-grown 
mature Douglas firs, grown on soil of the best quality, amounts to 

^ Much general information is, no doubt, available, but for the present 
object only actual measurements can be used. 



232 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ArvBOllICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 



213 feet, with a diameter of 6i feet, measured at 6^ feet above 
the ground. Iti the same locality, on gravelly soil, the trees only 
reached an average height of 148 feet, and a diameter of 26 feet. 
Again, in the Rocky Mountains, in Montana, at the same elevation 
and degree of latitude as on the west coast, the Douglas fir reaches, 
on best soils only, the same dimensions as on the gravelly soil of the 
Cascade Range Mountains, that is to say, a height of 148 feet, and 
a diameter of about 2'6 feet. The latter dimensions are not more 
than what our silver fir will attain in localities of the first quality. 
The part of the Cascade Range where the Douglas fir grows, has 
an annual rainfall of about G4 inches, while in Montana only 24 
inches fall. Dr Mayr believes that the development of the Douglas 
fir is proportionate to the rainfall ; respectively to the degree of 
moisture in the air. 

(Ad. 4.) The cross-section in question was sent from America 
for exhibition in Europe ; it was then made over to Kew, and by 
the kindness of the Director of Kew Gardens it was lately presented 
to the Cooper's HUl Forest Museum. The section shows a total 
diameter, including the bark, of 7 feet 9 inches, and the counting 
of the concentric rings indicates a total age of 515 years. A careful 
examination of the section has yielded the results exhibited in the 
subjoined table : — 



Age in Y^ears. 


Diameter in Inches. 


Sectional Area in square feet. 




Increment 




Increment 


Increment 




Total. 


during every 


Total. 


during- every 


during every 






25 years. 




25 years. 


100 years. 


-^> 


10 


9 


10-9 


0-648 


648 




50 


14 


3 


3-4 


1-115 





467 




75 


18 


4 


4-1 


1-847 





732 




100 


23 





4-6 


2-885 


1 


038 


2-885 


1-25 


26 


1 


3-1 


3-715 





380 




150 


29 


5 


3-4 


4-746 


1 


031 




175 


33 





3-5 


5-940 


1 


194 




200 


36 


6 


3-6 


7-306 


1 


366 


4-421 


225 


41 


9 


5-3 


9-575 


2 


269 




250 


47 


1 


5-2 


12-100 


2 


525 




275 


51 


6 


4-5 


14-522 


2 


422 




300 


56 


6 


5 


17-473 


2 


951 


10-167 


325 


60 


7 


4-1 


20-096 


2 


623 




350 


65 


2 


4-5 


23-186 


3 


090 




375 


09 


6 


4-4 


26-421 


3 


235 




400 


74 


8 


5-2 


30-516 


4 


095 


13-043 


425 


77 


7 


2-9 


32-928 


2 


412 




450 


81 


5 


3-8 


36-228 


3 


300 




475 


84 


6 


3 1 


39-036 


2 


808 




500 


87 


4 


2-8 


41-663 


2-627 


11-147 


515 


89 


5 




43-689 






Includinif') 
the bark. ( 


93 














THE DOUGLAS FIR IN SCOTLAND. 



233 



This table exhibits some very remarkable facts. In the first 
place, it shows that the tree was still making good increment at an 
age of 515 years, which is higher than that usually attained by the 
European larch, Scots pine, spruce, and silver fir. Secondly, it 
shows that the enormously rapid increase of the diameter during 
the first twenty-five years is suddenly followed by a much smaller 
and an approximately even increment during each of the following 
nineteen periods of twenty-five years. I have represented the 
progress of the diameter increment in the following drawing, which 
will eive a clear idea of it : — 



100 
90 
80 
























1 — 






















































i^ 


X 
































• 


^ 


y 






10 




























/ 


^ 












60 
60 
40 
























X 


/> 
































,y< 


^ 


X 
































/» 


X 


























20 








ji^ 


y 


X 
































^ 


J 






































/ 









































100 

so 

80 
70 
60 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 



50 100 160 200 260 300 350 400 450 600 



AGE IN YEARS; 

Diagram showing the increase in diameter of the trunk of the 
Douglas Fir, according to Age. 

Thirdly, the sectional area increases, on the whole, steadily. The 
periodic increment increases up to the age of 400 years, when it 
commences to fall. Taken by centuries, we find that the fourth 
century yielded the largest increment. The appended graphic 
representation will make this clear : — ■ 



. ^L a -^^ 

I L^"^* 



100 200 300 400 500 

AGE IN YEARS. 

Diagram showing the periodic increment of every Twenty-five years 
in Square Feet. 



234 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Fourthly, the rate of growth indicated in the section up to the 
year thirty resembles that of the average tree in the Taymount 
plantation in a striking degree, as the following figures will show: — 

Diameter of average tree at Taymount at 4 feet 6 inches "l 

above the ground, /^^ inches. 

Diameter of thirty years' growth on the section from ) ,i ^^ • i 

■^ •' ° f 11'9 inches. 

America, . . . . . . . . ) 

Assuming, then, that the average tree in the Taymount plantation 
will show a future development similar to that shown on the above 
mentioned cross-section, I have endeavoured to forecast the volume 
of solid wood, or growing stocks (3 inches and upwards in diameter), 
which an acre of land of the first quality is likely to contain at 
various periods. 

In order to facilitate my task I shall commence by giving such 
data for the silver fir, obtained by careful and extensive measure- 
ments on the Continent. The volume, or cubic contents of a 
standing tree, is best calculated by the following formula : — 

s X h xj". 

Here s represents the sectional area taken at a convenient height 
above the ground, usually the height of the chest of a man, or 
about 4^ feet ; h indicates the height or length of bole ; and / 
indicates a certain co-efficient called " the form figure." The 
product oi s X h represents a cylinder with a base equal to that of 
the tree at 4 feet 6 inches from the ground, and a length equal to 
the height of the tree, the volume of which is considerably larger 
than that of the tree, as the latter tapers from the base upwards ; 
hence /" is a fraction of 1 , and as the product, s x h, is thus reduced 
by multiplying it withyj the latter is sometimes called the reducing 
factor. 

During late years a large number of silver fir woods of varying 
age, from early youth up to muturity, have been carefully measured, 
arranged in different qualities — best, middling, and inferior — by 
ascertaining their height, sectional area at height of chest, and their 
cubic contents ; by dividing with the product of height by sectional 
area (h x s) into the volume, the form figure has been ascertained. 
The tables thus constructed can now be applied to the measurement 
of standing woods without any fellings whatever, by merely 
measuring the height and sectional area, and by taking the form 
figures from the tables. 



THE DOUGLAS FIR IN SCOTLAND. 



235 



The following extract shows the mean volume of solid wood in 
a well-stocked silver fir wood growing in a locality classed as 
belonging to the first quality up to an age of 140 years, beyond 
which asre no figures are available : — • 



Agre, 
Years. 


No. of 

Trees 

per 

Acre. 


Mean 

Heijfht in 

Feet. 


Sectional 

area at 

Height of 

Chest. 

Square Feet 

per Acre. 


Form 
Fiifure 
fnr'Solid 

Wood. 


Volume of 
solid wood 
(3 Inches 

diameter and 
ui)wards) 

Cubic Feet 
per Acre. 


Mean Tree. 

Sectional 
area. Diameter 
Square Inches. 
Feet. 


32 

50 

75 

100 

125 

140 


1745 
931 
433 
213 
126 
101 


17 
42 

75 

97 

109 

114 


93 
177 
243 
295 
335 
353 


•65 
•47 
•47 
•46 
•45 
•44 


1,032 

3.458 

8,532 

13,291 

16,291 

17,720 


•053 

•190 

•561 

1-385 

2-659 

3^495 


3-1 

10^1 
15-9 
22^1 
25^3 



In order to prepare a similar table for Douglas fir, it is necessary 
to ascertain the total sectional area per acre, the mean height, and 
the form figures for the years 50, 75, 100, 125, and 140 ; 
and this, with the scanty material at present available, can only be 
done in a rough and preliminary manner. 

Sectional Area. — We know that the sectional area of a dominant 
(or leading) tree is as follows : — 



the age of 50 


year.s, . 


. = 


1*115 square feet 


75 


)) 


. = 


1"847 


100 


,, 


= 


2-885 


125 


,, 


. = 


3-715 


140 


,, . 


. = 


4-307 



In order to ascertain the total sectional area per acre at these 
periods, we must ascertain the number of trees which a well-stocked 
acre is likely to contain at the same periods. We know (1.) that a 
■well-stocked acre contains 202 Douglas firs at the age of thirty-two 
years; (2.) that 101 silver firs 140 years old, of a mean sectional 
area of 3-495 square feet, find room on an acre ; (3.) that generally 
a Douglas fir requires at least as much room as a silver fir of the 
same sectional area, and, in fact, somewhat more, owing to the 
somewhat more spreading nature of the branches ; and (4.) that a 
Douglas fir 140 years old shows a sectional area of 4-307 square 
feet. 



236 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Taking these facts into consideration, the following numbers of 
Douglas firs per acre have been estimated : — 



At the age 


of 32 j'enrs, . 


202 




50 ,, . 


150 




76 „ . 


125 




100 ,, 


100 




125 ,, 


88 




140 ,, . 


80 



By multiplying these numbers with the mean sectional area per 
tree, the total sectional areas of all trees per acre are obtained. 

(b.) Height. — The following facts are at our disposal : (1.) A 
Douglas fir thirty-two years old has a mean height of 60 feet ; 
mean annual height growth = 22^ inches ; (2.) a Douglas fir fifty- 
seven years old has a mean height of 90 feet ; mean annual height 
growth (from thirty-second to fifty-seventh year) = 14 inches ; both 
grown in Perthshire. (3.) Mature Douglas firs in the most favour- 
able localities of North America are reported to reach a mean 
height of 213 feet ; such trees are often up to 500 years old, but 
it is not known at what age the height growth ceases ; let us 
assume that it is very slight after the age of 250 years. With 
these facts before us, the heights up to an age of 140 years may be 
estimated as follows : — 



At tlie age 


of 32) 


ears, . 


60 




50 


,, . 


82 


,, 


75 


,, . 


105 


J, 


100 


J) • 


125 


)> 


125 




141 




140 


,, 


150 



(c.) Form Figure. — The form figures for silver fir are : — 



At the age 


of 32 


years, . 


•65 




50 




•47 




75 




•47 




100 




•46 




125 




•45 




140 




•44 



The form figure of the Taymount plantation shows ^39 for an 
age of thirty-two years. This is very considerably below the form 
figure for silver fir, and it is in accordance with the facts of the 
case. The Douglas fir is a much more tapering tree than the 



THE DOUGLAS FIR IN SCOTLAND. 



237 



silver fir, and the highest form figures which can be expected may 
perhaps be placed as follows : — ■ 

At the age of 32 years, . . . = -39 

,, 50 ,, . . . = -38 

,, 75 „ . . . = -38 

100 „ . . . = -37 

1-25 ,, . . . = -36 

140 ,, . . . = -35 

By utilising the figures thus estimated, the following table for the 
Douglas fir has been calculated : — 



Age, 
Years. 


No. of 
Trees 
per 
Acre. 


Mean 

Height in 

Feet. 


Sectional 

Area at 

Height of 

Chest, 

Square Feet 

per Acre. 


Form 

Figure 

for 

Solid 
Wood. 


Volume of 
Solid Wood 


Mean Tree. 


(3 Inches 
Diameter and 
upwards), 
Cubic Feet 
per Acre. 


Sectional 
Area, 
Square 
Feet. 


Diameter, 
Inches. 


32 

50 

75 

100 

125 

140 


202 
150 
125 
100 
88 
80 


60 
82 
105 
125 
141 
150 


158 
167 
231 
288 
327 
345 


•39 
-38 
•38 
•37 
-36 
•35 


3,738 

5,204 

9,217 

13,322 

16,599 

18,112 


•782 
1-115 
1^847 
2-885 
3-715 
4-307 


12-0 
14-3 
18-4 
23-0 
26-1 
28-1 



Let us now compare the volume of the Douglas fir with that of 
the silver fir : — 



Age. 


Growing Stock per Acre 
in Cubic Feet. 


Mean Annual Increment in 
Cubic Feet jier Acre. 


Douglas Fir. 


Silver Fir. 


Douglas Fir. 


Silver Fir. 


50 

75 

100 

125 

140 


5,204 

9,217 

13,322 

16,599 

18,112 


3,458 

8,532 

13,291 

16,291 

17,720 


104 
123 
133 
133 
129 


69 
114 
133 
130 
127 



This table indicates that under a rotation of up to about ninety 
years the Douglas fir, owing to its more rapid development in early 
growth, yields larger returns of solid wood than the silver fir. 
Under a rotation of 90 to 120 years the returns in volume are 
about equal. Under a rotation of more than 120 years the 
Douglas fir will again yield larger returns of volume than the silver 
fir. The latter is of little consequence in this country, because no 
landed proprietor would think of •s\'orking his plantations under a 
rotation of more than 120 years, unless he had a particular fancy to 
see large trees on his estate. Attention must also be drawn to the 

VOL. XII., PART II. Q 



238 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



fact that the mean annual increment culminates between the years 
100 and 125, so that a rotation of, say, 110 to 120 years will yield, 
in the long run, a larger number of cubic feet of solid wood than 
either a shorter or longer rotation, both in the case of silver fir and, 
as far as I can judge, also of Douglas fir. 

The above data, it must always be remembered, refer only to the 
final cuttings. I have no data whatever which would enable me to 
compare the intermediate returns (thinnings) of Douglas fir and 
silver fir. I may also draw attention to the fact, that the numbers 
of cubic feet given above refer to the actual volume of solid wood. 
In order to obtain the number of cubic feet calculated from the 
quarter girth, as is usual in this country, the numbers must through- 
out be reduced byabout one-fourth (or, more accurately, 22 per cent.). 

I have compared the returns of the Douglas fir with those of the 
silver fir, because we possess accurate tables giving the volume- 
yield of the latter at difi"erent ages. It would have been more to 
the purpose to substitute the larch for the silver fir, but un- 
fortunately the laws of increment of the former have not as yet 
been so minutely studied and recorded as in the case of the latter. 
So much, however, is known, that the larch develops much more 
rapidly than the silver fir during youth, and that it yields larger 
returns of solid wood under a rotation of seventy-five years, and 
perhaps even eighty years, in favourable localities ; under a higher 
rotation the volume-yield of the silver fir is greater than that of 
larch. Hence it may be safely said, that under a rotation of 
seventy-five, and perhaps even eighty years, the larch will yield as 
much solid wood as the Douglas fir whenever they are grown in 
regular fully stocked woods, and in localities of equal quality — 
with this difference, that the material yielded by the Douglas fir 
will consist of a smaller number of trees per acre, with a greater 
mean diameter per tree. 

The laws of increment of Scots pine are well known. On good 
localities, like that of Taymount, the growing crop of a fully stocked 
acre compares as follows with that of Douglas fir : — 



Age, 


Volume of Solid Wood per Acre 
in Cubic Keet. 


Mean Annual Increment per 
Acre in Cubic Feet. 


Douglas Fir. 


Scots Pine. 


Douglas Fir. 


Scots Pine. 


.'50 
75 

100 


5,204 

9,217 

13,322 


5,G00 
7,900 
9,300 


104 
123 
133 


112 

105 

93 



THE DOUGLAS FIR IN SCOTLAND. 239 

Under a rotation of fifty years Scots pine may even"yield a little 
more material than the Douglas fir, but later on it drops consider- 
ably behind. 

Quality of the, Timber. — The next point of importance is the 
quality of the timber. The wood of the Douglas fir has a great 
reputation, and in America its quality is believed to be equal to 
that of larch timber. In how far the Douglas fir grown in this 
country will come up to that standard remains to be seen. The 
larger sized trees so far cut on the Scone estate have been freely 
bought at the same rates as those usually paid for larch, but 
sufiicient time has not elapsed to show the comparative merits of 
home-grown Douglas fir and larch timber. 

A few words must now be added with regard to the safety of 
production. First of all it is an undisputed fact that Douglas fir 
can, in this country, only be successfully grown in sheltered 
localities, because its leading shoot, and even the lateral branches, 
are very liable to be broken by wind. This reduces the area 
suitable for its cultivation very considerably. 

Then there can be no doubt that the Douglas fir, in order to yield 
large volume returns, requires good fertile and fresh or moist soil, 
in fact, soil on which any other species will produce a large volume 
of timber. Such land can, moreover, be used to greater advantage 
for field crops. What we specially require are species which will 
do well, or at any rate fairly well, on lands which are not suitable 
for field crops. 

Finally, it has been said that the Douglas fir is not exposed to 
any disease, while the larch, for instance, suffers so much in this 
respect. With regard to this point, it will be as well not to shout 
until we are safely out of the wood. It will be remembered that the 
larch disease did not show itself in Scotland until about sixty 
years ago. Only quite lately Mr M'Gregor, who has been on His 
Grace the Duke of Athole's estates for more than forty years, 
pointed out to me, that he has never seen the larch cancer on any 
of the old larch trees, except on those parts of the trees which 
have been formed during the last sixty years. This certainly 
seems to indicate that the disease did not exist before about the 
year 1S20. 

No doubt exists now that the larch cancer is the result of the 
ravages of a fungus {Peziza Willkommii), the spores of which 
enter the tree through wounds which were caused by insects (aphis), 
frosts, violence, etc. Only a few days ago, and after I had com- 



240 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

menced tliis article on the Douglas fir in Scotland, I saw in a 
German forest journal, a notice of the discovery of an injurious 
fungus on the Douglas fir. Dr von Tubeuf, a pupil of the 
celebrated pathologist, Dr R. Hartig of Munich, has now described 
a fungus, Botrytis Do%iylasii, which is parasitic on the Douglas fir : 
it has been noticed during the last ten years, in several widely 
separated localities in Germany, on the trees in the experimental 
plantations which have been made of late years. As far as is 
known at present, the fungus attacks in the first place tbe young 
shoots, the needles of which turn brown or grey, the whole being 
ultimately spun over with mycelium ; it then extends and ultimately 
kills the plants. It has alst) been found that this same fungus can 
be cultivated on two to six years old plants of silver tir, spruce, 
and larch. Dr von Tubeuf found, as a geneial rule, that those 
Douglas firs were specially attacked which grow in fully stocked 
areas, so that the branches of the trees interlaced ; and in these 
cases the lower branches were more attacked than those higher up. 
He also noticed that free standing trees were free of the disease, 
and he naturally draws the conclusion, that infection depends on a 
high degree of moisture, such as is found in dense woods, while 
free-growing trees, exposed on all sides to drying air currents, 
escaped. Now, what does this mean 1, Simply that the Douglas 
fir must be grown in thin open woods, and if so, good-bye to any 
high returns per acre, such as silver fir, larch, or even Scots 
pine will yield. 

Generally, Dr von Tubeuf adds some very sensible remarks, of 
which I give the following extracts. He says : — 

" In introducing an exotic species, the first question should be 
whether, if grown in the same locality, it possesses any real 
advantages over our indigenous species, either in consequence of a 
superior quality of wood, rapid growth, large dimensions, active 
reproductive power, etc., or by more successfully resisting any 
unfavourable conditions of the soil or climate, or by being less 
subject to natural enemies, such as game, animal or vegetable 
parasites, etc. ? A further most imj)ortant question is, whether with 
the exotic tree we are likely to introduce new enemies to our 
indigenous trees ? and in this respect we need only remind the 
reader of the imported enenues of the potato, the Colorado beetle, 
the enemies of the vine, etc. 

" Of our own enendes of trees, a large number attack without 
distinction the exotics lately introduced — Curculio, Bostrychus, 



THE DOUGLAS FIU IN SCOTLAND. 241 

cockchafers, cater2)illars, and beetles, attack exotics like indigenous 
trees ; Trametes radiciperda (one of the most formidable of fungi) 
destroys the Avood of the Douglas fir like that of any other 
species." 

These words deserve serious consideration. It is more than 
]:)robable that the Douglas fir will, with us, in the course of time, 
develop its full share of enemies, if not more, considering that it 
is an exotic species. 

Before concluding, I desire to express a hope that my object in 
l^ublishing these notes ou the Douglas fir may not be misunder- 
stood. The cultivation of the tree in Great Britain and Ireland 
looks at present very encouraging, and I trust that experiments 
will be continued ; but I deprecate altogether rushing into extensive 
plantings, as advocated by the correspondent of the Perthshire 
Constitutional, until time has shown that the tree really deserves 
to supersede the species hitherto cultivated by us, and of which 
we know what to expect. My personal opinion is, that the Douglas 
fir will just as little revolutionise our sylvicultural operations as 
the Weymouth pine has been able to do, though great things were 
expected of it at one time. There is a great difference between 
nursing up a single tree in a fine soil and under otherwise favourable 
conditions, and the growing of a species on a large scale for 
economic purposes ; in the former case only exceptional results 
present themselves to the eye. while in the latter case averages 
must be looked for and reckoned with. 



2-42 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

XI. Old and Remarkable Trees on the Rolle Estate, Stevenstone, 
Torrington, Devon. By James Barrie, Forester, Steven- 
stone. [Plates II. to v.] 

The Stevenstone Estate, the property of the Hon. Mark G. K. 
Rolle, occupies a central position in the northern division of the 
County of Devon. The park in front of the mansion ranges in 
altitude from 400 feet to 500 feet above sea-level. The soil is a 
strong loam, the subsoil sandy clay, resting on shillet rock, Wilh. a 
very uneven surface. The climate is mild, and the soil in general 
is favourable for the production of large hardwood timber trees. 

I purpose in this report to supply the particulars of twelve note- 
worthy trees on this property. Although none of them may be 
connected with historic events, yet they can be favourably com- 
pared with many other notable trees in the South of England. There 
are numerous other large trees on the property, but to give a 
minute description of them individually, along with their picturesque 
features and habits of growth, would extend this report much 
beyond the prescribed limits. 

The accompanying album contains photographs of the twelve 
trees, and also of a section of the base of the stem of each tree, so 
as to convey a fair idea of their appearance and dimensions. Each 
photograph is numbered, and these numbers correspond with those 
given in this report.^ 

The first nine trees are situated in the deer park, some close to, 
and others within one mile of the mansion. The trees numbered 
10, 11, and 12 are distant from the mansion about five, seven, 
and nine miles respectively. 

The measurements of each tree are given in a tabulated form at 
the end of this report, so as to be more convenient for reference. 

No reliable statement can be made as to the age of these trees, 
but I believe the majority of them are fully 200 years old. 

No. 1. Spanish Chestnut, Castanea vesca. 

(See Plate II.) 

This is a grand specimen, and a splendid type of what an old 

ornamental park tree should be. It is growing 70 yards south of 

Stevenstone House, is still healthy, and increasing in size yearly. 

' The handsome allnim fiirnislied with the Eeport is added to the Society's 
Library. It contains twenty-four beautiful photograpluc illustrations, giving 
a full view, and a stem section, of each of the twelve trees described. — Ed. 



OLD AND REMARKABLE TREES ON THE ROLLE ESTATE. 243 

Portions of the top have been broken off by storms at dififereiit 
times, which have reduced the height of the tree in proportion to 
the great thickness of its bole. The circumference of the bole, at 
3 feet high, is 22 feet G| inches, and the tree contains 721 cubic 
feet of timber. 

No. 2. Ash, Fraxinus excelsior. 
A fine tree which stands about 300 yards south from the 
mansion-house in the middle of a group of walnut and other trees. 
At 30 feet high it divides into three large limbs, and is a healthy, 
fast-growing tree. At 3 feet up, it girths 14 feet 1 inch. 

No. 3. Spanish Chestnut, Castanea vesca. 
(See Plate III.) 
This splendid tree stands 40 yards south of the flower garden, 
and is one of the best of the old and remarkable trees on this pro- 
perty. At 3 feet high it girths 18 feet. It has a fine balanced 
and wide-spreading head of branches, with a diameter of 100 feet, 
and the tree contains 833 cubic feet of timber. 

No. 4. Beech, Fagus sylvatlca. 
A remarkably fine specimen, which grows about 120 yards east 
of the mansion. This tree has got a peculiar large opening in the 
bole on the east side, 19 feet long, 12 inches wide outside, and 2 
feet diameter in the middle of the bole, which is quite hollow up to 
19 feet, where the tree forms a round, clean stem to 33 feet high. 
Even with this defect it would be difficult to select a handsomer 
example of a park tree. The top rises to 96 feet high, with a 
diameter of 72 feet, and the branches sweep down all round to 
within reach of the deer in the park. 

No. 5. Abele Poplar, Pojyulus alba. 
This beautiful tree stands on the west side of the park, close 
to the drive to Weekbottom, and forms an excellent contrast 
among other ornamental deciduous trees. It reaches to a height 
of 96 feet, with a clean bole of 46 feet 6 inches, and girths 11 feet 
7 inches at 3 feet high. 

No. 6. Oak, Quercus pedunculata. 
A very fine specimen of an oak, which stands close to the Week 
drive, on the east bank, near the bottom of the park, and is one of 



244 TRANSACTIONS OF KOYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

the many fine oaks on this bank. The circumference of the stem, 
at 3 feet high, is 17 feet 3 inches, and the tree contains 572 cubic 
feet of timber. 

No. 7. LiAiK, Tilia Europa'a. 

A beautiful tree, standing on the north side of the east approach 
to the mansion, and 23 feet from the road. It is a fine healthy 
tree, towering to a height of 100 feet, contains 404 cubic feet of 
timber, and girths 11 feet 1\ inches at 3 feet high. 

No. 8. Oak, Quercus pedimculata. 

(See Plates IV. and V.) 

Another fine specimen of an oak, wiiich is growing on the east 
bank of the smallest pond near the middle of the park. It presents 
a healthy and vigorous appearance, and is likely to make a very 
large tree. It girths, at 3 feet from the ground, 17 feet 2| inches, 
and contains 472 cubic feet of timber. 

No. 9. English Elm, Ulmus campestris. 

This grand old elm grows on the north side of the largest pond 
in the park, at 37 feet from the water's edge. It has lost several 
fine limbs by strong gales; still it contains no less than 544 cubic 
feet of timber, girths 16 feet 2 inches at 3 feet up, and towers to a 
height of 100 feet. 

No. 10. Oak, Quercus j^edunculata. 

In front of Beam House, and 90 yards away from it, stands this 
grand specimen, one of the finest of the old and remarkable oak 
trees in North Devon. It grows on the lawn adjoining the river 
Torridge, and is a very healthy tree with a fine balanced head of 
107 feet diameter. It contains 500 cubic feet of timber, and girths, 
at 3 feet up, 17 feet 6 inches. 

No. 11. Beech, Fagus sylvatica. 

This remarkably handsome tree is growing 200 yards south of 
the Umberleigh Station of the London and South- Western Hall- 
way, and on the east bank of the River Taw. The trunk of this 
gigantic tree is divided on the north side to near the ground, and 
at a height of 17 feet 3 inches from the base it wholly divides into 
two ponderous stems, one of which ramifies into four and the 



OLD AND REMARKABLE TKEES ON THE ROLLE ESTATE. 245 

other into six very large 'limbs, and afterwards into a number 
of smaller limbs, forming a splendid head 94 feet high and 86 feet 
6 inches in diameter. It girths 30 feet 7| inches at 3 feet, and 25 
feet 3 inches at 5 feet up ; and contains 988 cubic feet of timber. 

No. 12. Silver Fir, Picea j^ectinafa. 

A splendid specimen, and one of the largest fir trees on this 
property. It grows in a meadow, in deep, rich loam, and stands 
about 150 yards from Hudscott House. The circumference of the 
bole at 3 feet from the ground is 16 feet 1 inch. The height of the 
tree is 96 feet, and its cubic contents 522 feet. 



Table. — Giving the names, dimensions, and cubic contents of the foi'egoinr 
Twelve Remarkable Trees. 









■^"^ 


^■6 




ci 


^ 














d 


O 


o 










11 


a 3 
^ 2 


o 

pa 


H 




G 








"O 


ic^ 




o 


bjtj . 


C 




Name of Tree. 


rt 2 


« 2 


o 


&H 




a 








£^ 


,'" 3 


^ 


ID 


__rH 


u 










*j „ 


_so 




ci 










u p 










^ 


No. 






o| 


o 2 


a 


(3 


I 


3 


Common. 


Botanical. 


Ft. In. 


Ft. In. 


Ft. In. 


Ft. In. 


Ft. 


Ft. 


1 


Chestnut, Spanish, 


Castmica vesca, 


22 64 


22 4 


8 6 


80 


52 


721 


2 


Ash, . 


Fraxinus excelsior, . 


14 1 


13 3 


30 


77 


88 


372 


3 


Chestnut, Spanish, 


Castanca vesca, 


18 


1611 


12 6 


100 


86 


833 


4 


Beech, 


Fagus sylvatica, 


15 6 


13 9i 


33 


72 


96 


388 


5 


Poplar, Abele, 


Populus alba,. 


11 7 


10 44 


46 6 


74 


92 


296 


6 


Oak, . 


Quercus licdunciclata, 


17 3 


15 34 


IS 6 


84 


90 


572 


7 


Lime, . 


Tilia Europam, 


11 n 


11 bh 


16 


76 


100 


404 


8 


Oak, . 


Qucrcus pcduncidala, 


17 2k 


15 H 


13 6 


86 


68 


472 


9 


Elm, English, 


Ulnius campestris, . 


16 2 


15 


20 


64 


100 


544 


10 


Oak, . 


Quercus pcdunculata, 


17 6 


15 


12 3 


107 


70 


500 


11 


Beech, 


Fagtts sylvatica. 


30 7i 


25 3 


17 3 


86 6 


94 


988 


12 


Silver Fir, . 


Picca pectinata, 


16 1 


15 2 


12 6 


50 


96 


522 



246 TUANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISU ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

XII. The Comparative Value of Exotic Coyiiftrce as Ornamental 
or Timber Trees in Britain. By A. D. Webster, Forester, 
Holwood Estate, Kent. 

How difficult it is to \Aiu\t for future effect and utility is well 
known to every arboriculturist, unless indeed we are content to 
do as our forefathers did, and think it wiser, to prevent mistakes, 
simply to copy where they have been successful. The wisdom of 
such a policy, in most instances at least, we would not think of 
denying; yet it will be agreed by all that it would be folly not to 
give a fair trial to the many beautiful conifers introduced to Britain, 
particularly during the past three-quarters of a century. 

The comparative value of exotic coniferjB as ornamental or 
timber trees in Britain is to the arboriculturist a subject of vast 
importance, but one that has as yet received little attention. 

That many of the newly introduced conifers are highly orna- 
mental and useful in the embellishment of our parks and grounds, 
and several of great value in commerce, is well known; although it 
must be admitted that our knowledge of most of them is far from 
perfect. In the following notes, the result of fifteen years' expe- 
rience of these trees on three estates, where almost every species 
had a fair trial, only such kinds are treated of as have some claim 
on the arboriculturist for ornament or utility. In many cases, 
owing to large numbers of certain conifers having been planted, 
ample opportunity has been afforded for testing the quality of 
wood produced, while as all three estates contained lowland and 
mountainous ground, and in one case a considerable tract of peat 
bog with a large area of chalk, the soils, altitudes, and situations 
that are most suitable for each species have been carefully con- 
sidered and duly noted from time to time. 

To render this paper concise and of easy reference, the names 
of the trees have been arranged alphabetically, but not in 
order of merit, either as ornamental or timber-producing species, 
their comparative value in these respects being, however, duly 
noted. This method of arrangement may seem unsatisftictory, 
but in reality it is not so, for several conifers are both highly 
ornamental and valuable for the quality of timber they produce ; 
and it would in some measure involve a reiteration of statements 
to treat such under the two headings of ornamental and useful. 

1. Abies Albertiuna (Prince Albert's Fir). — This graceful 
conifer, with its drooping branches and delicate feathery sprays 



COMPARATIVE VALUE OF EXOTIC CONIFER.E IN BRITAIN. 247 

of foliiige, silvered on the under side, is one of the most orna- 
mental that has yet found its way into this country. The 
foliage is much admired, particularly so in early summer when 
each twig is terminated with a tuft of golden-green leaves sur- 
mounted by the darker green of the previous year. The whole 
contour of Prince Albert's Fir, particularly when grown in suit- 
able soil — a peaty loam — is gracefully irregular, the long and 
lithe branches and pendulous branchlets imparting a refined air 
that never fails to attract attention. For lawn and park planting 
it is much in request, and may be described as the most beautiful 
of its class. As a timber tree, Abies Albertiana is not likely to 
atti'act much attention, at least in this country, although, as ex- 
hibited at the Forestry Exhibition in Edinburgh, the wood seemed 
of excellent quality ; and thanks are due to the forester to the 
Right Hon. J. Inglis of Glencorse, Midlothian, for the jjractical 
way in which the timber was tested for fencing posts. One of 
those exhibited had been in the ground five years, and appeared 
to be little the woi-se. The upward annual growth of this spruce 
is fairly rapid ; the avex'age of fifteen specimens growing under 
favourable circumstances being 20 inches. At Hafodunos, in 
North Wales, one of these trees in thirty-five years produced 48^ 
feet of wood, or fully 1^ feet per annum. Habitat, Biitish 
Columbia and Oregon. Introduced in 1851. 

2. A. Alcoquiana^ (Alcock's Fir). — This is one of the most 
distinct, beautiful, and desirable of Japanese conifers, and one 
peculiarly well suited for the climate of Britain. Its chief 
attraction, and that which distinguishes it from all other sjjecies, 
is the striking and beautiful contrast in colour between the upper 
and under sides of the leaves ; for, while the former is tinged 
with a golden hue, the latter is, in the majority of specimens, 
of a silvery grey. When only a yard in height, this pretty spruce 
is a model of beauty, the dense habit of growth and pleasing out- 
line being the admiration of all beholders. Eegaixling its value 
as a timber tree in this country, it would be hazardous to advance 
an opinion, too short time having elapsed since its introduction 
for any specimen to have attained maturity. When better 
known and more widely diffused, this handsome, hardy, and 
easily-managed spruce will occupy a front rank in ornamenting 

^ A. Ajanciisis is liere described as A. Alcoquiana. The upper and under 
sides of the leaves are wrongly described. The silvery, and wliat ap[iears to 
be the under side, is in reality the upper. — Ed. 



248 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

om- parks and grounds. Introduced in 18G1 from the Island of 
Ni]»pon, Japan. 

3. A. amabilis (Lovely Fir). — This handsome tree is not common 
in this country, probably owing to the confusion which, until 
recently, existed respecting the identity and nomenclature of this 
and others of the North-West American Fii's. When planted in 
suitable soil (the finest specimens I have noted are growing in 
reclaimed peat bog) A. amnhilis is of rapid growth, one specimen 
in particular growing under favourable circumstances having for 
several successive years made an upward growth of 15 inches. 
As an ornamental tree it is second to no other conifei', the easily- 
arranged, semi-decumbent branches and great wealth of intense 
bluish-green foliage rendering it as unique as it is beautiful. 
Little is known regarding the quality of timber of this tree in 
the British Isles. Habitat, Oregon and British Columbia. In- 
troduced in 1831. 

4. A . brachyj)hylla (Short-Leaved Japanese Fir) is well worthy 
of attention, it being perfectly hardy and highly ornamental. From 
what we have seen of this unusually pretty fir, it is certainly well 
worthy of extended culture, particularly where a bright-foliaged 
and not too densely-branched conifer is in request. Introduced 
about the year 1870. Habitat, the Island of Saghalien and 
Japan. 

5. A. bracteata (Santa Lucia Fir). — Too much cannot be said 
in favour of this little known tree, for, with its long and thick 
deep-green foliage, erect habit, and generally pleasing contour, 
it is beyond doubt one of the most handsome of the many conifers 
with which California has enriched our Empire. Even the 
cones are so distinct from those of any other member of its 
tribe, being thickly covered with long leaf-like bracts, that recog- 
nition of the species from these alone is not difficult. The 
largest, best furnished, and most healthy specimen of yl. bracteata 
that I have seen is growing in a soil largely composed of peat, 
and partially sheltered from the prevailing winds of the district. 
After becoming established the upward growth of this tree is 
I'airly rapid, the annual addition to the height of the specimen 
referred to, for five consecutive yeai's, averaging 13^ inches. 
Being of recent introduction, few opportunities of testing the 
tpiality of the timber have been afforded. Native of Santa Lucia, 
in South California, and introduced in 1853. 

6. A. Branoniana (Indian Hemlock Fir) cannot be considered 



COMPARATIVE VALUE OF EXOTIC CONIFERiE IN BRITAIN. 249 

as pei'fectly hardy in this country — a matter which is to be 
regretted, for it is undoubtedly the handsomest of all the Hemlock 
Spruces. There is a l)eautiful and fast-growing specimen in the 
Red Lodge IsTursery at Southampton, which, for twenty-five years, 
has made an annual upward growth of nearly 10 inches. The 
branches are of easy arrangement, while the pendulous branchlets 
ai'e thickly studded with inch-long leaves, glaucous on the under 
side, and suffused with a milk-white bloom. Habitat, Nepaul 
and Sikkim. Date of introduction uncertain. 

7. A. canadensis (Hemlock Spruce). — No evergreen tree or 
shrub can excel this conifer for I'ichness of foliage or beauty of 
outline ; and during spring or early summer the young, droop- 
ing shoots of a lively yellowish-green contrast finely with the 
dark sombre green of the older foliage, and form a combination 
that for jjleasing eflect is certainly hard to match. An erroneous 
opinion is gaining ground, that the Hemlock Spruce is not suited 
for the climate of Britain ; even Loudon and Michaux have little 
to say in its favour ; and as a veteran American Arboriculturist 
some time ago remarked, English nurserymen have generally 
followed suit by regai'ding the tree in a similar light. True it is 
we have no such specimens as are recorded from " the far West," 
and equally true is it that this spruce will not flourish and put 
on its best garb when planted anywhere and anyhow with us, no 
more than do the majority of foreign importations ; but treat the 
Hemlock Spruce in a rational manner, and as its nature requires, 
and it will ere long be found that few trees are more amenable to 
cultivation, and, perhaps, none repay more fully the bestowal of 
a little exti'a care and attention at the time of planting. Numerous 
instances of the rapid growth of this conifer in the British Isles 
might be adduced. A moist, deep, rich, but light soil and sheltered 
situation are its chief requirements. 

Few trees in Britain attain the age or size at which the wood 
is mature ; but specimens that have come under my notice might 
be reckoned as second class in the pine list. The late Mr Speed, 
gardener at Chatsworth, who had unusual opportunity of observ- 
ing the tree and testing tlie quality of the wood, reported the 
latter as hard and heavy. In its native country the wood, of 
the Hemlock Spruce is not much in request, being coarse and 
crooked grained, and liable to splinter. It is sawn into boards of 
an inferior quality, adapted for mining purposes, flooring of 
barns, wharves, and out-buildings. The bark is used for tanning 



250 TRAXSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

purposes, and in America realises about fifteen shillings per ton. 
A native of North America, Canada, the New England States, 
etc. Introduced about the year 1736. 

8. A. cephalonica (Mount Enos Fir). — This handsome fir is 
well adapted for general use in our country, and whether planted 
singly on the lawn, or mixed with others in the woodland, is at 
all times a pleasing object, and worthy the attention of planters. 
Unfortunately, in some districts, and especially when planted in 
unsuitable situations, young trees are apt to suffer from late 
spring frosts. That, however, should be no detriment to its ex- 
tended use, as, by a proper selection of soils and sites, success in 
the cultivation of this tree is not difficult. A stitfish soil, such 
as a good clayey loam, thoroughly drained, and a northern or 
western aspect, will be found most suitable, as these con- 
siderably retard eai-ly growth, the great evil to which the tree is 
susceptible in our clime. 

As an ornamental conifer this fir is of at least second-rate 
importaiice, the long and lithe branches being well clothed with 
dark olive-green foliage, while the whole contour of the tree is 
remai-kably pleasing. The timber of home-grown trees which I 
have used experimentally for several purposes appears to be good 
and durable, but sufficient time has not elapsed since the experi- 
ments were made to speak with certainty ; so far, however, they 
are satisfactory, and tend to prove that the wood, when of mature 
age, will be of value for many out-door purposes. According to 
General Sir Charles Napier, the timber produced in its native 
wilds is of excellent quality ; and he informs us that, in pulling 
down some houses which had been built from a hundred and fifty 
to three hundred years before, the wood from the Black Forest (on 
the Black Mountain, Cephalonia) was found as hard as oak, and per- 
fectly sound. In the seventeenth century wood was supplied from 
this forest for the whole of the Ionian group of islands, as well as 
for the arsenal in Corfu. The wood is extremely resinous. Under 
favourable circumstances, the i-ate of growth is about 10 inches 
a year \ but the production of timber is somewhat slow. Three 
specimens of fifty years' growth, which I measured, were 38 
feet each on an average, or about 9 inches annually since they 
were planted. Introduced fi'om Cephalonia in 1824. 

9. A. concolor. — This species is nearly allied to A. grandis, but 
readily distinguished by the rather irregular arrangement of 
leaves, and by the u])per and under surfaces being nearly the 



COMPARATIVE VALUE OF EXOTIC CONIFERS IN BRITAIN. 251 

same colour. The cones, wliicli are usually ])rocluced singly, are 
larger, and the seeds much weightier, than those of A. grandis. 
It is more liable to be injured by spring frosts than that species, 
and this is noticeable when the trees are growing side by side 
and under similar conditions in every way. As a first-class 
ornamental conifer it is worthy of extended culture andof greater 
attention than it has hitherto received. The leaves are of a 
whitish hue, changing to a pale green as they grow old, the upper 
and under surfaces being of the same colour. When it has 
attained to a height of a dozen feet the colour of the foliage 
is very pleasing. The outline is symmetrical without being stiff". 
To produce rapid growth the tree must be planted in elevated 
ground. Kegarding the quality of timber produced by this ti-ee 
in Great Britain little is known, too short time having elajised 
since its introduction. A native of the Southern Rocky Moun- 
tains. Inti'oduced in 1851. 

10. Abies (Pseud o-tsuga) Douglasii (Douglas Fir) is in certain 
situations one of the most valuable timber trees that have yet 
found their way into these islands. As regards the actual produce 
of timber in a given time, it is far ahead of any other tree gi-own 
in this country, not excepting the Wellingtoriia or Stquoia. We 
state this from measurements I'ecorded by ourselves for a number 
of years of trees grown under similar conditions as regards soil, 
altitude, and situation. The greatest amount of timber produced 
by the Douglas fir in this country during fifty years is no doubt 
that of which we kept a record, viz., 240 feet, or nearly 5 feet 
per year for half-a-century. The tree here referred to as having 
produced this almost fabulovis quantity of wood is growing on an 
estate in North Wales, and is of the following dimensions : — Girth 
of stem at 3 feet uji, 11 feet 9 inches ; and at 21 feet up, 8 feet 
'1 inches; 42 feet in length of the butt contains 217 feet of 
excellent clean timber. Another Douglas fir, growing within a 
few yards of the former, has a girth of stem at 3 feet from the 
ground of 13 feet 8|- inches; and 24 feet in length of the stem 
contains exactly 131 feet of wood. In a plantation of this fir 
formed twenty-two years ago, the average sizes we found to be 
as follows : — Height, 76 feet; girth of stem at 24 feet uji, 4 feet ; 
cubic contents, fully 50 feet. 

The timber produced in this country is of excellent qualitv, 
being light but strong, works readily, has a pleasant yellowish 
tinge, and takes on a good polish. By way of expei-iment we 



252 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

have used the wood rather extensively for fencing purposes, for 
dooi-s, in boat-building (principally as masts), and for various 
other purposes, and with excellent results ; although it would be 
premature to speak with perfect certainty, for sufficient time for 
a fair trial has not elapsed since the experiments were instituted. 

As an ornamental tree for the park or lawn the Douglas fir is 
of great value, its graceful outline and wealth of foliage being 
special attractions. When planted in clumps or masses it is 
effective, the beautiful rich green foliage being pleasing in the 
extreme, pai'ticularly in early spi'ing, when the young leaves are 
becoming fully developed, for then the contrast between these and 
the dark green — almost yew green — of the older foliage is strik- 
ingly distinct. 

In jilanting the Douglas fir for ornament, ample space should 
be allowed for the development of all the branches, as, if the trees 
are crowded together, the lower branches die off, and thus greatly 
mar the effect. It is difficult to say as to the distance apart 
at which these trees should be planted, much depending on the 
soil, position, and altitude at which they are grown. A safe 
average, under ordinary conditions as to soil and situation, would 
be 20 feet, the standards ultimately left being 40 feet apart, 
thus giving, in the majority of instances, ample room for the 
spread of branches. 

The Douglas fir is a tree eminently adapted for cultivation 
in this country, but to grow it satisfactorily it must be planted 
in sheltered hollows, for experience has proved that it is ill- 
adapted for bearing storms, even at a few feet above the sea- 
level. It is well to bear this fact in mind, and to plant it 
only where it will be screened from the prevailing winds. Such 
situations are plentiful on almost every estate ; and if it is 
intended to grow this handsome and valuable fir in a satis- 
factory way, its peculiarities must be attended to, for experience 
has proved it does not thrive on exposed ground. A native of 
North-West America. Introduced in 1827. 

11. A. Engelmanni (Engelmann's Spruce), with its deep green 
foliage, rather short, stiff, and horizontal branches, and spire-like 
contour, is destined to rank high amongst ornamental conifers in 
this country. It is hardy, of rather slow growth, and, so far as 
we know, proof against insect pests. Owing to its recent intro- 
duction nothing is known as to the value of timber produced 
in the British Isles. In its native country the timber is said to 



COMPARATIVE VALUE OF EXOTIC COXIFER^ IN BRITAIN. 253 

be excellent and durable. A native of tlie Rocky Mountains, 
and introduced in 1864. 

12. A. excelsa (Norway Spruce). — Whether as a hardy shelter- 
giving tx-ee, or for the quantity of fairly good timber it produces, 
the common or Norway spruce must ever rank high in the list of 
exotic conifers which have been found suitable for culture in the 
British Isles. It is acknowledged by all to be a tree in every 
sense well adapted for extensive planting. It luxuriates at high 
altitudes fully exposed to our worst winds, and at the same time 
produces a great quantity of timber of excellent quality and well 
suited for general constructive purposes. The wood of the 
Norway spruce, like most other English grown timber, has fallen 
sadly into disfavour, but there can be little doubt that in a 
few years, when foreign supplies will be on the wane, its many 
good qualities will again bring it to the front. The wood is 
valuable for a great variety of purposes, but being of a 
knotty character, it is difficult to work. When clean grown it 
is valuable for roofing material (for which it has been long used 
in Scotland), flooring, pit pi'ops, fencing rails, and packing boxes. 

As an ornamental tree, the fine proportions and well-clothed 
stem of the Norway spruce are rarely seen to advantage, and it 
may be for this reason that it is seldom found occupying the pro- 
minent position it deserves as a decorative species. For park 
and lawn ornamentation it is worthy of greater attention, as it 
is one of the best and most efiective of hardy conifers. Habitat, 
Europe, as far south as the Alps and Pyi'enees. Introduced 
previous to 1548, but exact date not certain. 

13. A. Jirma, known in most collections under the name of 
A. bifida, is only seen in this country as an ornamental tree, few 
specimens having attained to anything approaching maturity. 
The somewhat stifi" but deep glossy green foliage, and erect habit 
of the tree as revealed in home grown specimens, render it one of 
great value for ornamental planting. It is found to be hardy. 
Introduced from Japan in 1861. 

14. A. Fraseri. — Introduced from North Carolina in 1811, has 
little to recommend it either for ornament or utility in these 
Islands. It is of low growth, with slender branches, and leaves 
deep green above and silvery underneath. 

15. A. grandis (Great Silver Fir). — This is truly a handsome 
conifer, and well adapted for ornamental planting ; the soft, rich, 
green foliage, densely branched stem, and symmetrical habit being 

VOL. XII., PART II. R 



254 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

recommendations rarely combined in one species. The timber 
l)roduced in this country is of excellent quality, being weighty, 
resinous, and the concentric rings firmly packed. The largest 
specimen which I have cut down, and only stern necessity 
compelled its removal, was, exchisive of the broken top, 72 feet 
in height, measured 26 inches in diameter at the butt end, 
and contained 73 feet of timber. On measuring some of the 
annual rings near the bark, I found them to average one inch 
in thickness, which speaks highly in favour of the tree as a rapid 
timber-producer. When felled and stripped of its branches, 
the balsamic fragi-ance, from the quantity of resin the tree 
contained, was perceptible at a considerable distance — further 
than I have ever noticed even in the Douglas fir — and 
the circumstance was commented upon amongst the woodmen 
employed in removing it. The average upward rate of growth 
of A. grandis in this country is 17 inches, while the quantity 
of timber produced in fifty yeai-s by the large specimen 
referred to gave an annual average of nearly \^ cubic feet. 
"When cut into boarding, the wood resembled in appearance 
the common silver fir, but was, perhaps, darker, of greater 
specific gravity, and of firmer texture. It works well and takes 
a good polish, but from the rapid rate of growth the graining is 
somewhat rough, though perfect in delineation. The timber 
was used experimentally for many purposes, but sufficient time 
has not yet elapsed for us to speak with certainty regai'ding its 
lasting qualities ; so far, however — and it is now five years since 
the tree was felled — it seems quite sound, and likely to remain 
so for many years to come. A comparison of the timber of this 
tree grown in Britain with that exhibited from British Columbia 
at the Colonial and Indian Exhibition, revealed but few differ- 
ences, and nothing more than might be expected between that of 
a partially developed and of a mature tree. 

Taking into consideration the quantity and quality of wood 
produced by A. grandis, as also its highly ornamental a])pear- 
ance and undoubted hardihood, we place it in the front rank for 
economic planting in the British Isles. The soil best suited for 
it is an open rich loam, where it will not sufler either from 
excess or want of moisture. Introduced from North- West 
America in 1831. 

16. A. Jlookeriana, named in compliment to the late Sir 
William Jackson Hooker, is a highly ornamental conifer, and one 



COMPARATIVE VALUE OF EXOTIC COXIFER.E IN BRITAIN. 255 

that has been found well suited for planting in almost any part 
of the British Isles, as may also be said of the nearly-allied species 
A. Fattoniana. Both are elegant trees for the lawn or park. 
The former is a native of California, and was sent to this country 
in 1854, A. Pattoniana occupies the higher regions of the 
Sierra Nevada, and was introduced in 1851. By most botanists 
these trees are considered as the same, and should such prove 
to be the case, the name Pattoniana has priority over that 
of Hookeriana. 

17. A. magnijica (stately Silver Fir). — When seen at its best 
in this country A. magnijica is truly a magnificent tree, but 
somewhat stiff in form. By some this tree is supposed to be but 
a form of the better known A. nohilis ; but such is not our 
opinion, for, judging from several specimens of fairly large pro- 
portions, the differences are very marked. The foliage of A. 
magnijica is at all times of a whitish silvery appeai'ance, as 
if coated with hoar frost. As an ornamental tree A. magnijica 
is of great value, while its growth is rapid, one specimen of 
which we have a record having attained the height of 25 feet in 
twelve years. Little is known regarding its value as a timber 
producer. Habitat, North California and Oregon. Introduced 
in 1851. 

18. A. Maresii, a native of Japan, introduced to this country 
in 1879, is likely to turn out a very ornamental tree; but too 
shoi't time has elapsed since its introduction for us to speak with 
confidence of its value. 

19. A. Menziesii (Menzies' Fir). — The many good qualities of 
this conifer, its strong, hardy nature, and its valuable timber, 
render it pre-eminent among the tribe. The symmetrical outline 
and vivid bluish-green foliage are its peculiar chai-acteristics, and 
when in a young state it is one of the handsomest of evergreen 
trees. The cones are very ornamental ; indeed, they are the most 
distinct and pretty of any produced by the tribe. In eool, damp 
loam, and where partial shelter from prevailing winds is secured, 
this spruce does best, but it does not bear crowding. The thick 
spreading branches point straight outwards, so that in order to 
have well-gi'own luxuriant specimens ample room on all sides 
must be provided. Where the soil is light and dry the foliage is, 
if we may use the term for an evergreen, semi-deciduous and 
meagre, and the whole tree stunted in appearance ; indeed, so 
changed in general aspect does it become under these circuui- 



256 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

stances, that it is with difficulty recognised. The colour of foliage 
varies considerably in different plants, some being of a lighter and 
others a darker green, approaching to blue, this latter colour 
being by far the most ornamental, and only attained by such 
trees as are favourably placed and more fully developed in the 
younger stages. Under favourable circumstances the rate of 
growth of A. Menziesii is rapid. It is not uncommon for 2 feet 
to be annually added to the height for the first twenty-five years. 
About 1^- cubic feet is the annual increase in the bulk of stem, 
but this has been surpassed by at least one specimen of which I 
im aware. 

The timber, although somewhat coarse-grained, is tough and 
strong, and is used for a great variety of purposes, including ship- 
building. We have cut up and used the timber of home-grown 
trees of Meuzies' fir with satisfactory results ; it being of a 
pleasing colour, easily worked, fii-m and strong in texture, and, 
so far as our experiments extend, very lasting whether employed 
in or out of doors. A comparison of home-grown wood with 
that sent from its native country to the Colonial and Indian 
Exhibition revealed but slight differences. From our knowledge 
of this tree, there can be little doubt that as a valuable timber 
producer and as an ornamental species, it can hold its own with 
any of its kind that have found their way into this country. 
A native of North- West America. Introduced in 1831. 

20. A. nigra (Black Spruce) has little to recommend it to the 
British arboi'iculturist, either as an ornamental or commercial 
tree. At certain stages of growth and when planted in peculiar 
situations there is a ceitain beauty about this spruce, but as 
usually seen in this country it is of meagre appearance and ill- 
adapted for ornamenting our parks and woodlands. The timber 
grown in its native country is of great value, but here the tree 
rarely attains to large dimensions, and the wood is seldom vised. 
Introduced from North America about the year 1700. 

21. A. nohilis (Noble Fir). — This tree is one of the hardiest 
and handsomest of the group, and is becoming tolerably common. 
Amongst the silver firs it is the most conspicuous and beautiful, 
the deep glaucous foliage, regularly disposed branches, and by no 
means stiti" outline being special recommendations. Few trees 
are less particular about the quality of soil in which they are 
planted. It is of rapid growth, the average annual increase in 
height of several specimens of which I kept a record being 20 



COMPARATIVE VALUE OF EXOTIC CONIFER.E IX BRITAIN". 257 

inches, for a period of twenty-five years. The production of 
wood is likewise rapid, and in support of this statement one 
of many instances which came under my notice may be cited. 
A tree of this kind was planted in good soil and a sheltered 
southern situation in 1854, it at that time being a robust growing 
specimen of 3 feet in height. In 1884, or thirty years after- 
wai'ds, it had attained to 55 feet, when it was found to contain 
Gl cubic feet of wood; giving an average annual increase of fully 
2 cubic feet. 

The home-grown timber of A. nohilis is not of first-rate quality, 
it being, in every instance where I have had the chance of 
examining it, soft, easily worked, and clean grained. The timber 
of mature trees will no doubt be of better quality than that of 
specimens of thirty years' growth. Habitat, about the Columbia 
River, in Oregon, and southwards to California. Introduced in 
1831. 

22. A. Nonhnanniana (Noi'dmann's Fir). — If A. nohilis be the 
best of the Californian silver firs, this is without doubt the finest 
and most valuable of the European or Asiatic species. As a lawn 
tree it can scarcely be surpassed, the handsome and regular outline, 
I'ich glossy green foliage, and stately habit rendering it one of 
the handsomest of conifei's for ornamental planting. We expect 
that at no distant date it will supplant the common silver fir 
for forest planting ; the timber is of excellent quality, the tree 
more ornamental, and as regards soil it is less exacting. Another 
advantage it has over the common silver fir is that, owing to 
starting into growth later in spring, it is less apt to be injured 
by unseasonable frosts. Few trees are less particular as to soil 
than Nordmann's fir ; it succeeds well in reclaimed peat bog, 
stiflT loam, decomposed vegetable matter, and light gravelly soils. 
For planting on cold steep declivities in the vicinity of water, it 
is invaluable, and succeeds "well where the common silver fir and 
even the larch become seared and unsightly. The timber pro- 
duced in this country is hard, close-giained, veiy lasting, and 
susceptible of a fine polish. It is superior to that of the common 
silver fir, being harder and firmer in texture, and should its 
durability prove equal to that species it will be one of the most 
valuable timbers. Introduced in 1848 from the Crimea. 

23. A. orientalis (Eastern Spruce). — The usually dense habit 
of this spruce, combined with its deep dark green foliage, which 
is perfectly distinct from any other conifer, renders it of gi-eat 



2-38 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

value for contrasting with otlier trees of a more light and airy 
appearance. Although of slow growth and doubtful value as 
a forest tree, still for ornamental planting, particularly for lawns 
of small extent, or where larger trees would be out of place, this 
spruce is of particular value, and cannot fail to attract attention 
and win the admiration of the lovers of trees. 

As scarcely half a century has elapsed since its introduction no 
trees have reached matui'ity, although specimens of fully 50 feet 
in height are not uncommon. When gi-own under favourable 
circumstances, the Eastern spruce makes an annual upward 
growth of about 17 inches. A specimen, growing on gravelly 
loam with a surface coating of decayed vegetable matter and 
in a sheltered situation, has attained to the height of 47 feet in 
twenty-nine years, and in that time has produced about 30 feet 
of timber. The few specimens of wood I have examined were of 
good quality, the graining and texture resembling closely its near 
ally, the Norway sj^ruce. As a timber tree it will never rank 
high with us ; but as an ornamental and perfectly hardy tree, it 
merits greater attention than it has received. The date of intro- 
duction is not certain, but it is supposed to have been about 1838. 
Nearly 300 years before, in 1553, however, it was noticed by 
Belon, who visited its native country. Habitat, Mount Taurus 
and the Caucasian region. 

24. A. Pattoniana (Patton's Fir). — As before stated, this tree 
and A. Hoolieriana are usually described by botanists, including 
Engelmann and Pavlatore, as one species. That they are nearly 
allied in habit and foliage must be admitted by every one who has 
examined them. It is fair to add that plants diflering materially 
in density as well as colour of foliage are occasionally met with. 
Whether these two spruces are distinct or not matters little ; both 
are highly ornamental and fast gaining favour amongst British 
tree-planters. Introduced in 1851. A native of the higher regions 
of the Sierra Nevada. 

25. A. pectinata {Common Silver Fir). — As an ornamental tree 
this is only of secondary importance ; but for the value of the 
timber it produces it is well worthy of attention, although its 
merits in this particular have been exaggerated. The timber is 
of fairly good quality, and well fitted for rough outdoor carpentry. 
The timber is elastic, and the graining irregular, while it is soft, 
apt to shrink, and soon decays on exposure. For tem2}orary 
buildings, tool-sheds, cattle-shelters, and many such purposes, we 



COMPARATIVE VALUE OF EXOTIC CONIFERS IX BRITAIN. 259 

have used tlie best quality of silver fir tiniber produced in this 
country, and with satisfactory results. It is excellent for use in 
connection with sluices and dams, or for lining the banks of streams 
and rivulets. Except the larch, we may say that the silver fir is 
second to none of the firs that have been introduced for upwards 
of one hundred years for the value of the timber which it produces. 
It is a native of Central and Southern Europe, and introduced 
to this country in the 16th century, but the exact date is 
unknown. 

26. A. Finsapo (Spanish Silver Fir).— The prickly short foliage, 
extreme density and rigidity, combined with compact gi-owth 
and unique appearance, at once distinguish this from all other 
silver firs. In favourable circumstances few trees are more 
ornamental and effective ; but to see it in its beauty it must be 
])lanted singly or sufficiently far apart from others so that the 
branches may have sufficient room for full development. It is most 
atti-active during late spring or early summer, for then the young 
growths contrast finely with the older foliage, the glaucous and 
remarkably stiff" leaves forming a regular compact cone of the 
finest colour. Regarding the quality of timber produced in this 
country I can say little ; it closely resembles, both in colour and 
texture, that of the silver fir ; but the examples which came 
into our hands were not sufficiently matured for a decided state- 
ment to be given. The average rate of growth of Abies Pinsapo 
under favourable conditions is 14 inches annually, while in one 
instance at least we have known it to produce 30 feet of timber in 
an equal number of years. A native of Spain. Introduced in 
1839. 

27. A. polita. — Introduced in 1861 from Japan. This is one 
of the handsomest and hardiest of the Japanese conifers, and one 
that is in great demand for ornamental planting, but its slow 
growth will debar it from ranking as a profitable timber tree. 
The foliage is of a pale green colour, which forms a striking contrast 
in early spring with the reddish-brown globose-shaped buds. 

28. A. Smiihiana (Himalayan Fir) is one of the most distinct 
and beautiful of the genus. Its graceful pyramidal habit is 
rendered strikingly beautiful by the slender terminal and lateral 
branchlets being pendulous to a greater extent, perhaps, than 
those of any other conifer, not excepting the Deodar. Since its 
introduction it has been widely spread over the country as an 
ornamental tree, proving hardy in most districts, although, in 



2G0 TRANSACTIONS OF KOYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY, 

common -with many conifers, it commences to grow before spring 
frosts are past. It forms a remarkably handsome lawn or park 
specimen of neat conical habit, well furnished with bright green 
drooping branchlets. The timber, in its native country, is little 
thought of, being extremely soft, clean and easily worked, biit 
perishable. Sir J. D. Hooker, in his " Himalayan Journals," says 
that this spruce " has white wood, employed ior posts and beams." 
The quality of wood grown in Britain can hardly be superior to 
that produced in its native country, yet my observations on wood 
grown at Penrhyn Castle, in North Wales, lead me to believe it 
is equal to wood of the common sj^ruce, but weightier and firmer, 
in trees of an equal age. Whatever the quality of timber pro- 
duced by the Himalayan Fir may yet turn out when that of 
mature trees is tried, we know not; but certainly as an orna- 
mental conifer it is one of the most valuable ever introduced. 
A native of the Himalaya Mountains, and introduced into 
Scotland in 1818. 

29. A. tsuga (Japanese Hemlock Fir).— This is a distinct and 
highly ornamental conifer, and one well suited for planting where 
space is limited. It is somewhat pyramidal in outline, but by no 
means stiff and harsh, with foliage i-esembling that of the American 
hemlock spruce, but pleasanter in appearance. Being hardy, this 
conifer is sure to attract much attention when better known. 
There is a dwarf form called A. tsuga nana, which has been used 
with good efiect in rock gardening. A native of Japan, and 
introduced in 1853. 

30. A. Veitchii (Yeitch's Fir). — Introduced from Japan in 1879. 
It is a beautiful conifer, and found to be perfectly hardy. The 
leaves are thickly arranged, short, of a deep almost yew-green, 
but more glossy, and with two distinct silvery lines on the under 
side. Little can yet be said as to the timber value of this fir, 
but the young specimens are highly ornamental. 

31. A. Webbiana (Captain Webb's Fir). — This is one of the 
handsomest denizens of the Himalayas, but unfortunately it 
is not well suited for general planting in this country, being 
what is usually termed " sjjring tender." By a careful choice 
of soil and situation many fine specimens have been reared in 
almost eveiy part of the British Isles, amply rewarding the 
trouble taken to grow them by their stately grandeur and distinct 
appearance. The leaves are of a deep glossy green above, with 
two broad silvery bands beneath, more intense in colour than 



COMPARATIVE VALUE OF EXOTIC CONIFERS IN BRITAHST. 2G1 

in any other conifer with which I am acquainted. When planted 
in suitable soil — we have found a light vegetable loam most 
conducive to growth — this fir is of fairly rapid increase both in 
height and girth of trunk. A specimen growing in rich alluvial 
deposit, and sheltered from hard-blowing winds, attained to a 
height of 58 feet in thirty-two years, while the stem contained 
37 feet of wood. We have more than once examined home-grown 
timber, and found it of fairly good qualitj', though somewhat soft. 
It is easily worked, and exceedingly durable when the non- 
maturity of twenty-three years' growth is taken into account. A. 
Webhiana is a native of the Himalayas, from Bhotan to Cashmere, 
and was introduced in 1822. 

32. Araucaria imbricata (Chili Pine). — Though the Araucaria 
is of stiff outline, thei'e is something remarkably pleasing and 
distinct about a well-grown and well-furnished specimen. The 
drooping sweep of the branches in old and healthy trees serves to 
a great extent to soften the rigidity of the foliage. When 
suitably placed with regard to its surroundings, it imparts to our 
lawns and grounds a distinctly foreign inspect, and associates well 
with such trees as the Deodar, the Weymouth pine, and the 
weeping spruce. Perhaps no other tree has been for the past 
quarter of a century more sought after for ornamental planting 
than the Chili pine, while there is no more ill-used and wrongly- 
placed subject amongst the whole of our forest trees. Nearly 
every cottager must have his " araucaria," be the soil and space 
suitable or not, while the town garden is in many instances 
adorned with this tree, which is unable to withstand for any 
length of time the deleterious effects of an impure atmosphere. 
The araucaria is often crowded amongst evergreens, and the 
lower bx-anches being deprived of light and air, die off pre- 
maturely. It is often planted in cottage gardens where a fair- 
sized specimen of the common Laurustinus could not, for want 
of space, become perfectly developed. It is found in damp, low- 
lying situations beneath the shade and drip of other trees ; and 
in soils where even the hardy privet fails to gi'ow properly. To 
produce stately, well-furnished, and green-foliaged specimens of 
the araucaria, plenty of room must be allowed for its perfect 
development. It cannot bear being closely hemmed in by other 
trees, or where the drip from taller plants falls upon it, and 
these peculiarities will, to a great extent, prevent its being 
used as a forest tree in this country. The timber as produced 



2G2 TRANSACTIONS OF UGYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTUEAL SOCIETY. 

here is of excellent quality, and of a beaiitifiil yellow colour, not 
unlike that of box-wood. It is remarkably fine and close- 
grained, works easily, and takes a good ])olish. I believe it 
would be useful in the manufacture of fancy work, furniture, and 
wherever a clean-grained and prettily-marked wood is in request. 
We have found it ill adapted for withstanding damp ; whereas 
some fancy articles manufactured from it, and kept constantly 
in the dry warm air of a room, have stood the test for eleven 
years in a satisfactoiy manner. After becoming established, the 
rate of growth of the Chili pine is rapid in favourable cii'cum- 
stances ; that of several specimens observed being 19 inches 
annually. When a height of 50 feet is attained, the bulk of the 
trunk increases at the expense of the iipward growth. As a 
distinct and ornamental conifer the Chili pine is of great value, 
but we hardly think that as a timber tree it will ever attract 
much attention in Britain. A native of Chili, on the western 
slopes of the Andes. Introduced in 1796. 

33. Athrotaxis selaginoides (Tasmanian Cypress).— This interest- 
ing little conifer seems to be perfectly hardy, and when planted 
on the lawn attracts considerable attention, adding contrast and 
variety to the grounds. The leaves are of a glossy green colour, 
and closely appressed to the branchlets. With us it has attained 
to the height of fully 11 feet in fifteen years, and has never 
suffered from either cutting winds or wintry frosts. A native 
of Tasmania. Introduced about 1850. 

34. Biota orientalis (Chinese Arbor-Vitse) is, perhaps, one of 
our commonest garden shrubs, or rather small trees, for it fre- 
quently attains a height of 25 feet. The leaves are of a pleasing 
green colour during summer, but usually, and particularly when 
the plant is grown in an exposed situation, turn of a brown hue 
in winter. As an elegantly symmetrical conifei-, it has long held 
a prominent position in our lawns and gi'ounds, and rightly so, 
for its peculiarly distinct form and warmth of foliage are decided 
attractions. Loudon says it was introduced in 1752 ; but a letter 
from the Duke of Richmond to Mr Collinson, dated February 1st, 
1 743, proves that it had been introduced previous to that date. 
A native of China and Japan. A considerable number of sports 
have sprung from this conifer. Of these the following are worthy 
of attention as ornamental, small-growing plants : — B. orientalis 
argentea, with creamy-white, and B. orientalis aurea, with golden 
foliage, are two of the most distinct and ornamental forms, and 



COMPARATIVE VALUE OF EXOTIC CONIFEPwE IN BRITAIN. 263 

are perhaps more popular for garden decoration than any of the 
others. B. orientalia aureo-variegata is another distinct and pretty 
form with jjiebald foliage, or one-half green and the other a rich 
yellow. B. orientalis eleganiissiina is of rigid upright growth, and 
with changeable foliage, usually of a pale yellow colour. B. orien- 
talis falcata is a distinct but not an ornamental plant, while 
B. orientalis japonica is of good form, and valuable for planting 
in masses, where its pleasing globular form is best displayed, 
B. orientalis pendula is, as its name denotes, of a weeping 
habit, and when well grown and placed to advantage is second to 
none of its relatives as a distinct and handsome shrub. B. 
orientalis semjyer-atirescens is a counterpart of the golden form in 
habit, but it is of a different shade of yellow. These are the 
princijial varieties in cultivation, and where small and bright 
foliaged plants are in request they are very useful. 

35. Cedrus atlantica (Mount Atlas or African Cedar) is, par- 
ticularly in a young state, hardly distinguishable from the more 
commonly cultivated G. Lihani, although, after a few years' growth, 
its erect haV)it and rigid branches are sufficient means of identi- 
fication. As an ornamental tree it cannot compare with the 
cedar of Lebanon, although as a forest tree it is in every way 
preferable, 2:)roducing more valuable timber, and having less 
inclination to ramify into unwieldy branches. For the latter 
reason alone it is valuable, for while the branches of the cedar 
of Lebanon suffer severely during stormy weather, and are 
often torn clean off, those of C. atlautica remain unharmed, their 
less length and weight freeing them from injury. In exposed 
situations, and where the soil is naturally cold, the Mount Atlas 
cedar makes a sturdy growth, and for this reason it is now 
much sought after for planting on bleak hill-sides. Little is yet 
known regarding the value of its timber produced in this country, 
as too short time has elapsed since its introduction for it to 
approach maturity. That it is superior to the wood of the cedar 
of Lebanon in trees of equal age, we are, however, convinced, 
and there can be little doubt that in after years, when maturity 
has been attained, it will be found of great value for many con- 
structive purposes in these isles. It is a native of Mount Atlas 
in Northern Afi'ica, and was introduced into Europe in 1841, 
and afterwards into England. 

36. C. Deodar (Indian Cedar). — This tree is almost uniivalled 
in the grandeur of its lithe and beautifully pendulous branches ; 



2G4 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

indeed we question much whetlier a more graceful, ornamental, 
and hardy tree has yet found its way into the British Isles. Few 
conifers are more accommodating as to soil. We have found it to 
be quite at home and to grow with the greatest freedom in soil 
of the most ojiposite descriptions. The timber, as produced in 
its native country, is of very superior quality ; but a comparison 
with that grown in England has rather surprised ns, the home- 
grown timber being rather soft, fine-grained, and not very lasting. 
It is, however, but fair to add that the specimens of wood with 
which Ave experimented were immature, so that the lasting 
pi-operties were materially lessened. As compared with that of 
the cedar of Lebanon of equal age, it is of better quality. A 
native of the Himalaya Mountains. Introduced in 1831. 

37. C. Lihani (Cedar of Lebanon), with its massive and well- 
clothed trunk, far-spreading and ponderous branches, and deep 
glaucous green foliage, is beyond doubt one of the most distinct 
and easily recognised of all trees. For planting amongst the 
general run of forest trees, this cedar is not well adapted. It 
requires plenty of room for spread of both root and branch, else 
it soon puts on a miserable appearance, the leaves becoming scant 
and yellowish green, the growth short, stunted, and prone to die 
off prematurely, thus imparting to the tree a half-starved look 
that is anything but desirable where a healthy state of the woods 
is of first importance. Hardly a year passes that we have not, 
on a large English estate where soil and situation are unusually 
well suited for the growth of exotic conifers, to remove one or 
two specimens of the cedar of Lebanon owing to ill-health, but 
how caused is a puzzle that has baffled our most careful in- 
vestigation. Low lying damp ground is not the cause, for others 
lying high and dry are similarly affected, and if soil be the cause, 
then that of eveiy description almost must be at fault, for on 
rough sand, heavy loam, vegetable refuse, shale I'ock with light 
sandy loam at top, chalky soils in which the tree usually grows 
with great vigour, as well as carefully-prepared peat bog, they 
have gradually become unhealthy, and ultimately died out alto- 
gether. I am not now referring wholly to woodland trees, but 
rather to those grown as single specimens for lawn and park 
decoration. Seldom does the disease, or premature death from 
other causes, attack trees of less than about twenty years' growth. 
The first indication of decay is want of foliage, which becomes 
scant and of an unhealthy colour, and in less than four years the 



COMPARATIVE VALUE OF EXOTIC CONIFER^E IX BRITAIN. 265 

tree dies off. When the tree grows in a conspicuous position, and 
gets in this condition, the axe is usually laid to its roots after the 
second year. 

The timber of the cedar of Lebanon as produced in this covintry 
is of no great value, being liable to snap across under strain, and 
owing to this many of our fine old English specimens are dis- 
figured from time to time by storms. We have had ample 
opportunity of testing the quality of the wood, and that of 
unusually large-sized specimens, but invai-iably found it wanting 
in durable properties, though fine-grained, hard, and beautifully 
coloured. When kept constantly dry, it, however, lasts for a 
very long time, and is thus of value for the purposes of the 
cabinetmaker, and is rendei'ed additionally so by the delicious 
fragrance which it emits. For firewood the wood of this cedar 
is not to be recommended, as, although it burns clear and emits 
great heat, it sparks freely, and is thus highly dangerous. 

38. C eflialotaxus drupacea (Plum-fruited Cephalotaxus). — This 
is a distinct, interesting, and beautiful coniferous shrub, and one 
that has been found hardy in almost every part of Britain. 
When grown in a cool, shady situation, it is a very ornamental 
plant, the dark, yellowish, green leaves rendering it of value for 
contrast. 

39. C. Forttmei (Fortune's Cephalotaxus) is a more ornamental 
plant than the last, the foliage being less s})arsely ari-anged and of 
a deeper and more glossy green. We have grown it to best 
advantage in peaty soil, and where, from the close proximity of 
the surrounding ti-ees, partial shelter and shade were secured. It 
is worthy of a place in any collection, be it ever so choice. Both 
this and the previous species were introduced from China in 
1849. 

40. C. j)edunculata (Lord Harrington's Yew), and 4L G. 
pedunculata fastiyiata, the latter in particular, are very desir- 
able conifers, and whei-e soil and situation ai-e found suitable, 
they may be grown with good effect in the embellishment of 
lawns and parks. As a compact growing shrub or small tree, 
the latter is worthy of attention, and being hardy and of free 
growth, may be freely planted, particulai-ly where a cool, loamy 
soil and warm sheltered corner can be supplied. G. peduncidata 
is a native of Japan, and was introduced in 1837; the other 
variety, also a native of Japan, was not introduced till 1861. 

42. Grypt07neria elegans ranks as one of our most beautiful 



2GG TUANSACTIONS OF UOYAL SC:OTTISH ARBOUICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

and distinct coniferous trees. It is perfectly hardy, of free growth, 
and not exacting as to the soil in which it is j)lanted. No other 
conifer with which we are ac(jnainted is possessed of the gorgeous 
foliage tints which are so marked a characteristic of this pi'etty 
tree. In winter it glows with a reddish copi)ery hue, which 
colour is again changed to a cheerful green in the early spring 
months. When associated with our darkest evergreens, the bright 
coppery hue is considerably enhanced ; but to show it to peifec- 
tion it must be planted at a considerable distance from these, and 
with green as a background. The feathery growth of the tree is 
elegant in the extreme, while tlie foliage is easy of arrangement. 
It is more hardy than C japonica, and has stood unharmed 
throughout the worst winters we have experienced since its 
introduction. It is one of the most ornamental and useful of 
conifers. Introduced from Japan in 1861. 

43. C. japonica {Japanese Cedai-). — This distinct and beautiful 
conifer is found to be pei-fectly hardy, sound in constitution, of 
rapid growth when once established, and not fastidious as to soil or 
situation, provided the former be naturally sweet and healthy, or 
artificially made so. The branches spread horizontally, are slightly 
drooping with up-curved tips, the lateral ones dividing into 
numerous frondose branchlets, thickly covered with bright, glossy- 
green foliage. Delighting and thriving luxuriantly in cool, moist 
soils, the humid atmosphere of Great Britain is peculiarly suited 
for the successful cultivation of this handsome conifer. Better, 
indeed, than the generality of coniferous trees, the Japanese cedar 
seems to thrive in the dense still-air of mid-woodland, and is not 
at all fastidious about the juxtaposition of surrounding trees, if 
their extending branches do not actually commingle with its own. 
The timber of this tree is light but lasting, and employed for 
room-panelling, for furniture, and in the making of light packing- 
cases. It is white, soft, and easily worked, with a pleasant 
perfume, which makes its adoption for panelling or room furniture 
particularly desirable. We may add that the wood produced in 
Britain ditfers but little from foreign timber. 

44. Cunninghamia sinensis (Chinese Fir). — This tree is of too 
tender a constitution for the climate of Britain generally, still in 
certain favoured localities, particularly within the influence of the 
sea, it does fairly well, and forms a handsome specimen, which, 
for distinct appearance and beauty of foliage, has few equals 
among hardy conifers. In no other conifer with which I am 



COMPARATIVE VALUE OF EXOTIC COXIFER/E IN BRITAIN. 267 

acquainted is there so diverse an appearance of foliage, the 
pleasant light-green of the younger leaves offering a rich contrast 
to that of the older foliage. As an ornamental tree of distinct 
appearance the Cu7ininghamia should find a well-chosen spot in 
every collection, for, although somewhat tender in unfavourable 
districts, particularly when the soil and situation have not been 
attended to at the time of planting, yet in many places it has 
stood unharmed through our most se^'ere winters, when some of 
our so-called hardy conifers were badly cut up. It wants a light 
and rich soil, plenty of room for development, and a partially 
sheltered southern situation. The rate of growth is not slow, one 
specimen of which I kept a record having attained the height 
of 45 feet in thirty-seven years, while the increase in girth at 
a yard from the ground was 7 inches in six years. The timber 
produced in this country is clean and firm, of a mahogany colour, 
and takes a good polish ; but as the specimens were rather 
immature, these qualities would be much enhanced in full-grown 
and well-ripened wood. So far as we have ascertained, the timber 
is lasting, particularly when used for indoor purposes. It is as 
an ornamental tree that it is likely to attract most attention. 
Introduced from Southern China in 1804. 

45. Cujyressus funehris (Funereal Cypress) is, unfortunately, 
a conifer that cannot, in point of hardihood, be wholly relied 
vipon for planting in these isles. It is an ornamental tree, with 
gracefully pendulous branchlets, thickly covered with yellowish- 
2reen foliage. A native of China. Introduced in 1846. 

46. C. Goveniana (Gowen's Cypress). — When seen at its best 
this is one of the prettiest and most interesting of conifei-s, par- 
ticularly during early spring, when loaded with pollen. It is of 
unusually dense habit, somewhat massive in appearance, with a 
plentiful supply of the brightest and freshest of foliage. It ranks 
with C. funehris as an ornamental species. Introduced in 1846 
from California. 

47. G. Knightiana (Knight's Cypress). — If only for its graceful 
habit and conspicuous foliage, which is of a bluish-gi-een shade, 
this cypress is well worthy of attention. It is not a common plant, 
but it is certainly the handsomest and hardiest of the Mexican 
cypresses. We found it to thrive best when planted in a mixture 
of loam and peat, and in a position where it was not subjected to 
cold or cutting winds. Once established, the growth is fairly rapid. 
A native of the Mexican Mountains, and introduced about 1840. 



2G8 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTUHAL SOCIETY. 

48. C. Lawsoniana (Lawsoii's Cypress). — No tree is more hardy 
than this cy])ress — none more easily managed or more I'eadily 
suited with soil ; while few others combine in a higher degree the 
useful with the ornamental. It has been planted largely in almost 
every British county, and in soils and situations widely different ; 
yet it is rare to see an ill-grown, stunted, or browned specimen, 
even when they are growing under very unfavourable conditions. 
I have tried it in reclaimed peat bog ; in gravelly soil ; even 
amongst the debris of a disused gravel pit ; in plastic loam almost 
bordering on clay ; free sandy loam and alluvial deposit ; and in 
all these it has proved itself to be at home, as the beautiful 
wee[)ing spray of the most vivid green and the rapidity of growth 
bore clear testimony. When grown under suitable conditions 
the tree soon assumes that lively bluish-green tint which pertains 
to a healthy specimen. This pleasing tint of foliage is not equalled 
by that of any other tree that I know. As an ornamental tree 
it is, perhaps, supei-fluous to say one word in favour of this 
cypress, its qualities in this particular being well known and 
appreciated. I may, however, refer to its cheerful and desirable 
shade of green, and to the gracefully recurved and feather-like 
foliage, neither of which is surpassed by any other conifer. It is 
of columnar habit, but not formal in outline, as it is i*elieved by 
the drooping spray and elastic leading shoot, the latter being 
sufficiently tilted to one side to impart a pleasing finish to the 
tree. The timber is of no great value, but from the appearance of 
specimens cut from home-grown trees it would seem to be of good 
quality, and well worthy of a trial in household carpentry at least. 
It is of a pleasing light-yellow colour, remarkably close-grained, 
and takes on a good polish. The rate of growth is somewhat 
rapid, sevei'al specimens of which I have a record having attained 
the height of 43 feet in twenty-seven years. Amongst the 
varieties there are several distinct and desirable kinds ; and these, 
in the majority of cases, retain their distinctive characteristics 
under cultivation, such as the following vai'ieties. 

49. C. Laiosoniana alba spica has the branch ti^is of a creamy 
white colour, and — in contradistinction to C Laiosoniana alba- 
variftgata, which has green foliage blotched with white — is of tall 
spreading nature, and soon attains to goodly proportions. C. 
Lawsoniana argentea is a distinct and pretty form, with silvery 
foliage. C. Laiosoniana erecta viridis is one of the best and most 
useful, and where a fastigiate-habited tree is wanted, and one of 



COMPARATIVE VALUE OP EXOTIC CONIFER.E IX BRITAIN. 2G9 

a lively tint of green, this cypress should find a jilace, for it is 
the most valuable of all tapering trees. C Lawsoniana Jiliformis, 
with its long and graceful branchlets, is worthy of extended 
culture; while C. Lawsoniana intertexta has beautifully glaucous 
foliage and a branching habit. C. Lawsoniana 7uina is valuable 
for rock-work embellishment. 

C. Lawsoniana is a native of Northern California, on the Shasta 
Mountains, and was introduced into this country in 1854. 

50. C. Macnahiana (MacNab's Cypress), although a very 
beautiful and distinct species, has never found much favour with 
British arboriculturists. This is certainly to be I'egretted, as its 
compact habit and deep bluish-green foliage render it a distinct 
and desirable species. Habitat, Northern California. Introduced 
in 1852. 

51. C. macrocarpa (Large-fruited Cypress). — The heavy, massive 
branches, of an unchanging bright green colour, give to this fine 
cypress an air of stately grandeur that contrasts favourably with 
the weeping foliage of such trees as the Indian cedar and Lawson's 
cypress, and renders it one of the most distinct and beautiful of 
ornamental evergreens. As an adjunct to our limited list of sea- 
side trees, it is of undoubted value, thriving better near the sea 
than inland, as has been proved in numerous places along our 
coasts. The timber, as regards graining, is the most beautiful of 
any wood grown in this country that I have seen — at least if a 
large-sized plank now before me is a fair representation. In 
appearance it resembles the wood of the American walnut (except 
in colour, which is of a beautiful Barberry yellow), the gnarled 
graining being equal to that timber. Trunk sections from trees 
I have had cut up are, towards the centre, of a deep reddish 
hue, and the colour passes into a deep yellow outwards. Being 
close-grained, and remarkably hard, it works smoothly under the 
plane, and is susceptible of a fine polish, these qualities render- 
ing it of great value for many of the finer works in which wood 
is employed. For in-door carpentry it is likely to be much used, 
and will no doubt, when more readily procured, be largely used 
for constructive purposes. C. macrocarpa, when suitably placed, 
is a tree of rapid growth. In one instance under my notice, it 
has attained to a height of 59 feet in thirty years. A native of 
California. Introduced in 1838. 

52. C. nutkaensis (Nootka Sound Cypress). — This is a fine 
spreading tx-ee, with a great exterior resemblance to Lawson's 

VOL. XII., PART II. S 



270 TRAXSACTIOXS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARCORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

cypress, but, we tliiuk, inferior to that well-known species in 
ornamental appearance. It is more formal in outline, and wanting 
to a gi-eat extent in the long weeping branchlets so charactez'istic 
of well-grown specimens of C. Laiosoniana. The timber is of 
excellent quality, remarkably light, close-grained, susceptible of 
a high polish, and has a pleasant fragrance, not unlike that of 
sandal-wood, which it retains for many years. Regarding the 
lasting properties of the wood of the Kootka Sound cy})ress grown 
in this country, it would be hazardous as yet to advance an 
opinion. It, however, promises well, and has stood the test of 
several years M'ithout any appearance of decay. At the Colonial 
and Indian Exhibition one of the largest and most conspicuous 
samples of wood was a clean and well-polished specimen, which 
clearly displayed the beautiful graining, as well as large size to 
which it attains in its native wilds. It was 18 feet in length, 
4 feet in width, and 2 inches thick, clean, smooth, knotless as a 
])iece of yellow pine, prettily grained and of desii'able colour. 
Boats and canoes are made of the timber, and have proved lasting 
and strong ; while oars, paddles, furniture, fencing materials, 
waggons, and household utensils are but a few of the many uses 
to which it is applied. Trees of twenty years' growth are usually 
about 19 feet in height, and in the nursery four- year-old plants 
are a yard in height. A native of Vancouver Island and British 
Columbia. Introduced about 1850. 

53. C. sempei'virens (Upright Roman Cypress). — This beautiful 
upright cypress is among evergreen shrubs what the Lombardy 
poplar is among timber trees — a fine contrast to the more spread- 
ing and round-headed forms. The deep evergreen branches and 
leaves render it a desirable tree for planting in graveyards and 
cemeteries, and owing to its fastigiate habit it forms a suitable 
tree for planting near buildings where the prevailing architec- 
tural lines are horizontal. When judiciously placed along the 
margins of plantations, or among other conifers of a more spread- 
ing habit, its effect is strikingly beautiful. As an ornamental 
tree this cypress is of great value, but as a timber producer, in 
this country at least, it is not likely to attract much attention. A 
native of the ilediterranean region, and eastward to the Himalaya. 
The date of introduction is uncertain, but prior to 1548. 

54. C. thyoides (White Cedar), and its variegated form 
C. thyoides varieyata, are two first-class ornamental trees, parti- 
cularly when planted in a cool dampish soil. In their cultiva- 



COMPARATIVE VALUE OF EXOTIC CONIFER.E 1^S^ BRITAIN. 271 

tion we have been most successful by using peat largely in the 
composition in which they are planted. As ornamental trees, 
these, particularly the variegated form, are worthy of extended 
culture. Introduced from the United States in 1736. 

55. C. torulosa (Tufted Cypress). — Few trees are better adapted 
for planting where space is rather confined than this, and being 
in every sense highly ornamental, it is of great value for lawn or 
garden decoration ; indeed, in the whole group of cypresses there 
is none more beautiful — the easy columnar habit, slender branch- 
lets, and bright glaucous foliage being perhaps not so niicely 
blended iii any other member of the family. This cypress is 
usually classed as a semi-hardy tree, and although a few specimens 
did succumb to the intense frost of the winters of 1860-61 and 
1866-67, yet many remained uninjui-ed. In nearly every instance 
where trees wei'e killed outright, the cause might be traced to the 
unsuitable positions in which they were placed, low-lying and 
well-sheltered places being chosen in which to plant this lover 
of high and dry ground, and a cool breezy situation. The 
branches, which are thickly produced, have a decided upward 
tendency, but tufted branchlets, with theii- graceful foliage, 
deprive it entirely of the fastigiate appearance that characterises 
not a few of our conifers. It is a tree of fairly rapid growth, — 
one specimen, which with great reluctance we had to remove 
recently, had attained a height of 43 feet in thirty-five years. 
The timber of this specimen, which we had cut up and converted 
into boarding, was hard, close-grained, and fibrous, of a purplish- 
yellow colour, and fragrant. It is a native of the North- Western 
Himalayas, and was introduced to this country in 1824. 

56. Fitzroya patagonica (Patagonian Cypress). — This tree has 
a decidedly ornamental appearance, the branches, which are 
irregularly placed and rather slender, being bent downwards 
at the tips, which is, however, more decided in healthy, fast- 
growing specimens than in those unfavourably placed and 
unhealthy. Contrary to the usually expressed opinion regarding 
the tender nature of this interesting tree, we feel justified, from 
the results of experiments both in England and Ireland, in recom- 
mending it as a valuable addition to the pinetum, more parti- 
cularly in the warmer maritime portions of southern and western 
Britain. As an ornamental conifer, the Patagonian cypress is well 
worthy of culture wherever a suitable situation can be provided. 
It is a native of Westeni Patagonia, and was introduced in 1849. 



272 TRANSACTIONS OF EOYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

57. Ginkgo biloba (Maiden-Hair Tree). — The glossy-green, fan- 
shaped leaves, cut up like some of the species of Adiantum fern, 
give to this plant a distinct and remarkable appearance. The 
light and open aspect, peculiar foliage, and stately dimensions, 
combine to render it one of the most valuable landscape trfees 
that have yet found their way into this country. The timber is 
said to be of excellent quality as produced in its native country, 
but whether that grown in the British Isles will prove equally 
valuable is still a matter of conjecture. A native of Northern 
China, and introduced about 1754. 

58. Juniperus chinensis (Chinese Juniper). — This is certainly 
the most ornamental of the genus; indeed, in this respect it is 
perhaps not excelled by any evergi*een shrub in cultivation. 
During winter or in early spring, when covered with its golden male 
flowers, this juniper is particularly beautiful. It is hardy, and of 
easy culture. A native of China and Thibet. Introduced in 1804. 

59. J. communis (Common Juniper), and J. c. nana (Dwarf 
Juniper), are native species, and both are of value wherever 
neat-growin and bright-foliaged plants are in request. 

60. J. drujKicea (Syrian Juniper), a handsome and distinct 
conifer, one that is perfectly hardy in this country, and neither 
fastidious as to soil or situation. Whether planted singly or 
mixed with other shrubs, this pretty juniper never fails to attract 
attention and produce the most pleasing results. A native of 
Syria, and introduced into European gardens in 1854. 

61. J", hibertiica, or, as it is usually styled, J. commimis 
hibernica (Irish Juniper), is a most desirable and highly orna- 
mental plant, of inestimable value in landscape gardening generally. 
The growth is close and compact, as in the Irish Yew, and the 
foliage of a peculiar silvery -grey tint. 

62. J. recurva (Weeping Indian Juniper). — When seen at its 
best and growing in suitable soil, it is certainly a most distinct 
and elegant species, and one that has been found well suited for 
culture, under certain conditions, in the British Isles. Planted in 
cool, moist, shady situations, it soon forms an elegant and distinct 
specimen, with abundance of recurved, feathery foliage, which 
is of an unusual, greenish-grey colour, while the contrasting light- 
green of the young, and the rusty brown of the older foliage is 
remarkable, and renders the tree as striking as it is beautiful. It 
is a native of the Himalayas; but the date of introduction is 
uncertain. 



COMPARATIVE VALUE OF EXOTIC CONIFER^E IN BRITAIN. 273 

G3. J. Sabina (Savin), altlioiigh hardly worthy of special remark 
as an ornamental plant, is of great value for rockwork decoration, 
or wherever a small-growing and widely-spreading evergreen 
shrub is in request. It is a native of Southern Europe, and was 
introduced to this country prior to 1548. 

64. J. virginiana (Red Cedar). — This tree is of the easiest 
cultui'B, and seems to succeed well in almost any situation, but 
attains greatest perfection when planted near the sea-coast. As 
an ornamental tree it is well known and much valued for lawn 
and shrubbery decoration. It is a native of North America, and 
was introduced in 1664. 

65. Larix europcea (European or Common Larch). — As a valu- 
able timber-producing tree the common larch is surpassed by no 
other that has been introduced into this country. The wood is 
very durable, strong, and easily worked, and largely employed 
for rural purposes. As an ornamental tree the larch is, we think, 
not sufficiently appreciated. In the spring months, just when 
the young leaves are bursting from the bud, few trees have a more 
decided golden-green tint, or are more enchanting when viewed 
from a distance. Unfortunately of late years the larch has become 
subject to a disease which has to some extent lessened the value 
of the tree for forest planting. It is a native of the Alps and 
Central Europe. The date of introduction is uncertain, but it 
must have been prior to 1629, in which year it is mentioned by 
Parkinson. 

66. L. Kczmpferi (Golden or Chinese Larch). — This is a highly 
ornamental tree, the foliage of which in spring is of the most 
delicate pea-green, and towards autumn assumes a bright or clear 
golden-yellow. Even when leafless, the beautiful yellowish-green 
or golden-brown of the young shoots is particularly efiective, and 
as uncommon as it is beautiful. We have found the golden larch 
to be perfectly hardy, to succeed well, perhaps best, on a free 
gravelly loam, and to bear stem and branch pruning with impunity. 
It is the only deciduous golden conifer at present introduced, and 
is the largest in growth. For its ornamental qualities it is cer- 
tainly well worthy of extended culture. A native of China, and 
introduced in 1846. 

67. Lihocedrus chilensis (Chilian Arbor-Yitse), although not 
perfectly hardy in all parts of Britain, is well worthy of culture 
in warm and sheltered situations for its ornamental aspect. The 
bright glaucous green foliage and neat habit are good recom. 



274 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARRORICULTURAL SOCIETV, 

mendations. It is a native of Southern Chili, and was sent to 
this country in 18i7. 

68. L. decurrens (Californian Wliite Cedar), as seen in this 
country, is a very distinct and desirable conifer, the bright gi-een 
foliage, columnar habit, and finely-divided frondose branches being 
its chief recommendations. A native of North California and 
Oregon. Introduced in 1853. 

69. Pinus Austriaca (Austrian Pine). — This tree has of late 
years attracted considerable attention, not only from its perfect 
hardihood, but from its ornamental appearance and the shelter 
it affords to other less hardy kinds. As an ornamental ti-ee it 
is certainly not behind many of its neighbours, with its wealth 
of dark, glossy, and shaggy foliage, and pleasing contour. For 
planting in clumps or masses it is particularly well suited ; indeed 
few pines form a more striking feature in the landscape than this 
tree does when arranged in irregular clumps. Single specimens, 
when allowed j)lenty of room on the greensward, are highly 
attractive, and jiroduce in a short space of time masses of the 
richest green foliage, which contrasts well with other conifers of 
a light or silvery appearance. 

As a timber ti'ee it is not without value, and several exj^eri- 
ments made with the wood prove that it is very dui'able, and one 
of the few kinds that may be used where it is subjected to wet 
and dry alternately. Seven j'^ears ago we cut up two large trees 
of this pine, and placed the planks side by side with those of the 
Scots and Spruce firs to hold up the sliding banks of a river, 
each being marked and noted for future observations, and on 
examining these a year ago the Austrian pine seemed quite sound 
but of lighter colour than when placed in position. Sufficient 
time, however, has not elapsed for us to speak with any amount 
of assurance as to the superiority of the wood of this tree over 
that of either the Spruce or Scots firs, but from the present 
appearance of gates, stiles, and posts manufactured some years 
ago, there can be little doubt that it will, so far as lasting 
qualities are concerned, be quite equal to either of the other two. 
It is remarkably strong, tough, coarse of grain, very resinous, 
works well, and takes a good polish. A native of Austria, and 
introduced into Great Britain in 1835. 

70. F. Cembra (Swiss Stone Pine). — This is a tree that 
deserves extended cultivation, as, apart from its ornamental 
appearance, it is extremely hardy and well adapted for planting 



COMPARATIVE VALUE OF EXOTIC CONIFER/E IX BRITAIX. 275 

on a great variety of soils and situations, from well-drained 
peat at sea-level to thin, poor soils at great elevations. The 
timber is soft, fine-grained, easily worked, and susceptible of 
a nice jiolish. It is found in the Alps and Carpathian Mountains, 
as well as in France, Italy, Austria, Hungaiy, and Syria. For 
its introduction to this country we are no doubt indebted to the 
Rev. J. Harte, who, in 1746, published "Essays on Husbandry," 
in which it was strongly recommended, and we leai'n that in the 
same year it was planted by the Duke of Argyll. It was not, 
however, until 1833 that Messrs Lawson, of Edinburgh, imported 
the first large supply of seed, although, several years previously, 
in 1828, Mr Lawson brought from Switzerland a small number 
of seeds which were distributed amongst his friends, the produce 
of these being, no doubt, among the oldest trees of this joine in the 
country. 

71. P. densijlora (Japanese Pine). — The pleasing bright green 
tufted foliage of this pine renders it a distinct and desirable 
species, and one that we can confidently recommend for orna- 
mental planting, but particularly where contrast and variety are 
of paramount importance. A native of Japan, and introduced 
into Europe in 18.54. 

72. F. excelsa (Himalayan Pine) is one of great value for 
ornamental planting, the long and lithe branches, elegant foliage 
of a glaucous, bluish green, and graceful outline, being all recom- 
mendations of the highest order. The wood, in its native country, 
is highly valued, but, as grown in the less favourable climate of 
Britain, it is never likely to attract attention in an economic sense. 
It is a native of the Himalayas, from Bhotan to Afghanistan, and 
was introduced into England about the year 1827. 

73. P. halepensis (Ale^ipo Pine) is well worthy of a gi'eater 
amount of attention than it has yet received. For planting 
along the seaside, and where the soil is of the poorest descrip- 
tion, it is particularly valuable. The tree has rather a pyramidal 
habit, with an abundance of long, slender branches, which are 
somewhat scantily covered with bright silvery grey foliage. The 
timber produced here is of fairly good quality, and fine examples 
were shown at the Edinburgh Forestry Exhibition. Under 
favourable circumstances the growth of the Aleppo Pine is by no 
means slow, one specimen, the dimensions of which we took 
recently, having attained to a height of 45 feet in thirty-seven 
years, while the girth at a yard from the ground was 4 feet 



27G TRANSACTIONS OF ROVAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

7 inches. It is a native of both Europe and Asia, and was 
introduced into this country in 1GG3. 

74. P. inops (Scrub Pine), although of rather straggling growth, 
is by no means an inelegant tree when well grown, and associates 
nicely with others of more formal growth. A native of North 
America, from New Jersey, southward to Kentucky. 

75. P. insignis (Remarkable Pine). — This is one of the 
handsomest pines that have yet been introduced, and it is unfor- 
tunate that so desirable a species should not be perfectly hardy. 
It succeeds fairly well in the southern English counties, and 
particularly in maritime districts, but where subjected to cold, 
cutting winds and inland situations, it is not satisfactory. In 
a suitable position it is a tree of gi-eat beauty, the dense, grass- 
green foliage and neat habit of growth rendering it as distinct as 
it is ornamental. The timber, as grown in the south of England, 
is of fairly good quality, being clean, close of grain, and easily 
worked. A native of California, and introduced in 18.33. 

76. P. Lamhertiana (Sugar Pine), with its glaucous-green 
foliage, beautiful cones, and giant proportions, is a tree that is 
well worthy of a far greater amount of attention in this country 
than it has hitherto received. It is quite hardy, although it will 
■not put on its best form on exposed and high-lying situations, 
grows moderately fast, and is not fastidious as to quality of soil. 
Young specimens in a thriving condition are usually models of 
beauty, the short and slender branches well covered with the 
brightest of bluish-green foliage, and the neat, erect habit of 
growth, being particularly pleasing and distinct. As a timber 
tree it has not proved itself to be of great value, the upward 
growth rarely exceeding 12 inches each year. It is a native of 
California and Oregon, and was introduced in 1827. 

77. P. Laricio (Corsican Pine). — There can be little doubt 
that this is the best all-round conifer that has yet found its way 
into the British Isles, and we pi-edict that ere long the number of 
Corsican pines to be found in woods and plantations will far 
exceed that of any other introduced or native species. It is of 
very rapid growth, and is well suited for planting, even in the 
most exposed and wind-swe})t situations ; is not fastidious as to 
soil, and is perhaps the most valuable timber-pi'oducing tree that 
has ever been brought before the British arboriculturist. 

As an ornamental tree it is almost superfluous for me to say one 
word in its favour, its light, airy appeaiance being well known 



COMPARATIVE VALUE OF EXOTIC CONIFEK.E IN BRITAIN. 277 

to every tree lover. We do not wish it, however, to be inferred 
that it can in point of ornament compare with several other species, 
although it will be admitted it is worthy of at least second rank. 

From our own experience of home-grown wood of the Corsican 
Pine, it is, so far as lasting qualities are concerned, second to none 
of those we have tried. It is strong, tough, elastic, very resinous, 
and easily worked, and this is speaking of trees of fully fifty 
years' growth. We have used home-grown Laricio wood for many 
purposes, and always with the most satisfactory results, some of 
the largest })lanks being fully 27 inches wide, and cut from trees 
that gii'thed nearly 9 feet at a yard from the ground. To-day 
we examined several planks which were sawn up seven years ago, 
and find that they are little the worse of the wear and tear to 
which they have been subjected. In France extensive plantations 
of this pine have been formed, while the Prussian Government 
has introduced it into the State forests. A native of Southern 
Europe, parts of Asia, and several islands of the Mediterranean 
Sea. Introduced 1759. 

78. P. monticola. — That such a beautiful and free-growing tree 
has now, after a fair trial, been found to be well suited for planting 
in our British woodlands is a matter of the greatest importance, 
for certainly few members of the pine family combine the useful 
with the ornamental in so high a degree. P. monticola is a 
veiy handsome tree, about midway in appearance between P. 
Cembra and P. Strohus; indeed, by some authorities it is ranked 
as a vai'iety of the latter. The contour of a fair-sized sjiecimen 
may be called pyramidal, not so much, however, as in P. Cembra, 
with an abundance of rather short branches, well clothed with 
dark rich green foliage. More, perhaps, as an ornamental tree 
than a valuable timber-producer is this pine known to us ; yet 
in this latter respect it is certainly far from valueless, as the 
fine samples of its timber exhibited at the Colonial Exhibition, 
as well as the various uses to which it is applied, clearly pointed 
out. The timber, of which a plank 18 feet long, 46 inches wide, 
and 3 inches thick, was exhibited, is well packed and firm, not 
of too deep a colour, and well adapted for using where sti^ength 
and lasting qualities are of first importance. The value of the 
wood, as grown in this countiy, has not yet been fairly tested. 
As an ornamental tree it, however, occupies the front rank. 
Habitat, California, Oregon, and Washington Territory. Intro- 
duced into this country in 1831. 



278 TRANSACTIONS OF UOYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

79. P. miiricata (the Bishop's Pine). — This is a very distinct 
pine, the irregular appearance of its branches and clustered 
prickly cones beini;; different to those of any other with which I 
am acquainted. From its leather unustial appearance it is worthy 
of a corner in the pinetum. It is perfectly hardy, not at all 
fastidious as to soil or situation, of the easiest culture, and valu- 
able for planting as game shelter, or for the ornamentation of 
high-lying and breezy situations. A native of California, and 
introduced in 1846. 

80. P. parvijlora. — Where a tree of dwarf habit, well-furnished, 
and compact outline, is in request, this pine may be considered 
as one of the best. It somewhat resembles the Swiss Stone Pine 
{P. Cenibra), but with lighter and more enticing foliage, which 
is of a silvery white. It is quite hardy. A native of Japan, and 
introduced into this country in 1861. 

81. P. Pinaster (Cluster, or Maritime Pine). — For shelter- 
giving purposes long experience has proved this to be a most 
valuable tree, particulai-ly in maritime districts, though an almost 
worthless species so far as the value of its timber is con- 
cerned. "When we look at the great value of P. Pinaster for 
planting as a screen to others of a less hardy nature, and 
in positions where these could not otherwise survive, this latter 
quality — timber-producing — can well be dispensed with. For 
the ornamentation of parks and lawns the Pinaster is a fitting 
tree ; its tall, massive, and rugged stem, far-spreading, flatly- 
rounded head, refreshing light-green foliage, and numerous clusters 
of terra-cotta-coloured cones, all combine to impart an air of 
massive grandeur that is hardly surpassed by any member of 
the family. A native of the Mediterranean countries of Europe. 
Introduced in 1596. 

82. P. pinea (Stone Pine). — Being of slow growth and rather 
tender condition, few specimens of this pine have attained to 
large dimensions in Great Britain. As a timber tree in this 
country it is almost valueless, but its extremely picturesque 
appearance renders it of great value for ornamental planting. It 
affords a striking contrast, from its stiff and rounded head, to 
other trees of an op«n and informal mode of growth. A native 
of both Europe and Africa. The exact date of introduction is 
uncertain, but it was prior to 1548. 

83. P. jwvderosa (Heavy-wooded Pine). — As an ornamental 
tree, there is not much to be said in favour of P. 2>"nderosa, its 



COMPARATIVE VALUE OF EXOTIC CONIFERS IX BRITAIN. 279 

rather lax, tortuous foliage, and gaunt appearance imparting to 
it more of the picturesque than the beautiful. From specimens 
of the timber grown in England it appeal's to be heavy and full 
of resin, with a very agreeable smell, and prettily marked ; but 
its economic value will never be great in these isles. Introduced 
from Oregon in 1827. 

84. P. jyyrenaica (Pyrenean Pine), witli its bright green foliage 
and shapely outline, is of value for planting along the oiitskirts 
of woods and plantations, particularly where these are pi-incipally 
composed of hardwood trees. It is of no value for timber purposes. 
A native of the Pyrenees, and introduced in 1834. 

85. P. rigida (American Pitch Pine). — The stiff and formal 
growth which characterises many pines is wanting in this tree, it 
being of an open habit, and of free growth, even in the poorest 
soils and bleakest situations. This pine, with foliage like P. 
insignis, is of value in ornamental planting, and as it succeeds 
well in the vicinity of the sea, it is likely to gain favour with 
the owners of maritime grounds. It has a wide geographical 
range in North America, and was introduced into England about 
the year 1759. 

86. P. Sahhiiana (Nut Pine), when suitably placed, and planted 
in a light rich loam, is by no means an inelegant tree, the lively 
tinted bluish-green foliage and easy air being special recom- 
mendations. It is not advisable to plant the nut pine in cold 
and wind-swept districts, for in such it will not succeed in a 
satisfactory manner. As a timber tree it is of no value in this 
country. A native of California, and introduced in 1832. 

87. P. Strobus (Weymouth Pine) is fast coming to the front not 
only as an ornamental, but as a valuable timber-producing tree ; 
indeed, whether viewed in an economic or ornamental aspect, it 
must be considered as one of the most valuable pines that have 
yet been introduced. A compai'ison of the wood produced by 
the Weymouth pine in this country and that sent to the Colonial 
and Indian Exhibition revealed but slight differences, and nothing 
more than could naturally be expected between a mature and 
partially-developed tree. The rapidly-approaching extinction of 
this tree is at present causing much anxiety to those who are 
interested in the timber supplies of America, and is owing partly 
to the reckless and improvident felling carried on under the 
impetus of speculation. With such a state of matters abroad, 
it is to be regretted that greater numbers of this pine are not/ 



280 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBOKICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 

planted in suitable soils and situations in the British Isles, for 
that thei'e are vast tracts of almost worthless land that is well 
suited for its culture is beyond a doubt. I do not wish it to 
be inferred from anything here said that the Weymouth pine is 
suitable for planting at high altitudes and in exposed situations, 
for such has been long ago proved to be a fallacy ; but that it 
will grow rapidly and produce useful timber in partially sheltered 
districts has been proved on various occasions by those who have 
paid particular attention to the value of exotic conifers as ])rofit- 
able timber producers in this country. The Weymouth pine has 
much to recommend it to the British arboricultxirist, for besides 
the great quantity of valuable timber it produces, it certainly 
is the handsomest of the genus that have been found to bo 
perfectly hardy in these isles. Its form is light and elegant, and 
the silvery glaucous leaves afford a distinct and pleasing contrast 
with the majority of the cultivated pines. Whether grown as a 
plantation tree, or singly for purely ornamental purposes, the stem 
is always straight and clean, and the branches evenly distributed. 
The Weymouth pine is a tree of very rapid growth, numerous 
specimens of which I have kept a record having attained to an 
average height of 57 feet in thirty years. A native of North 
America, and introduced in 1705. 

88. P. taberculata (Monterey Pine), if only for its rich foliage 
and persistent cones, is well worthy of a chosen spot where such 
trees are grown. It is fairly hardy in this country, but of slow 
growth, and succeeds best when planted in a sheltered and warm 
situation. A native of California, and introduced in 1847. 

89. Podocarpus alpinus (Alpine Podocarp) is a neat and very 
distinct conifer, but unfortunately one whose hardihood cannot be 
relied upon in all parts of this country. It is of rather spreading 
habit, and with an abundance of short bright-coloured foliage. 
For planting in a warm corner, and in conjunction with low- 
growing plants, it is valuable. A native of Tasmania and 
Victoria. 

90. P. macrophyllus (Broad-leaved Podocarp) is about as hardy 
as the last mentioned, of taller growth, and with longer and 
lighter-coloured foliage. A native of Japan, and introduced in 
1804. 

91. Retinospora ericoides (Heath-like Retinospora). — This is a 
beautiful shrub, of rarely more than 3 feet to 4 feet in height, 
and one that is of great value for park or garden ornamentation. 



COMPARATIVE VALUE OF EXOTIC CONIFER.^ IN BRITAIN. 281 

During the growing season the foliage is of a bright green, but 
towards autumn changes to a lovely brownish-violet. Where a 
small-growing, neat-habited, and pretty shrubby conifer is in 
request, this Retinospora will be found moat useful. 

92. R. jilicoides (Fern-like Retinospora), of much larger growth 
than the last, with short fern-like branchlets, and an abundance 
of the richest deep-green foliage. It succeeds well in this country, 
and is of value for its distinct ornamental qualities. 

93. R. leptoclada (Slender-branched Retinospora). — Another 
species, with silvery-tinted foliage, and a pyramidal habit. It is 
useful for garden purposes, and succeeds best in a dampish loam. 

94. R. obiusa (Japanese Cypress). — Although of rather stiff 
habit and sombre hue, still there is something remarkably pleasing 
and distinct about a nice healthy specimen of this Japanese 
conifer. It is not a rapid growing tree in this country, as it 
rarely makes more upward growth than a foot per year ; indeed, 
it is usually seen as a large and round-headed shrub of perhaps 
12 feet in height, and nearly as much thx'ough. But then its 
graceful pendent branches form fine masses of deep green foliage, 
suffused with a purplish hue, and thus render the tree one of 
the most distinct and ornamental with which we are acquainted. 
Introduced from Japan in 18D0. 

95. R. obtusa aurea is one of the most striking and remarkable 
of conifers, when a good-sized specimen is seen in a really healthy 
state and with a well-balanced head. In this favourite variety, 
the light fulvous green of the foliage changes into a golden- 
yellow during the period of growth. For associating with any 
of the darker-foliaged and semi- weeping conifers this tree is well 
suited, and as it is of comparatively slow growth it may be 
planted where space is limited, 

96. R. obtusa co7npacta differs little from the normal form save 
in its more compact and dense habit. It is well worthy of a place 
in every collection. 

97. R. obtusa nana has a dwarfed appearance, the branches 
being much shortened, and is useful for planting on small lawns, 
or where space is limited. 

98. R. 2^isifera (Pea- Fruited Retinospora). — This is a very 
distinct and desirable species with fern-like bright green foliage, 
and somewhat ii-regular habit of growth. It is a Japanese tree, 
and useful for contrast and variety. 

99. R. plumosa (Feathery Retinospora), and its varieties 



2S2 TRANSACTIONS OF ROVAL SCOTTISH ARBOUICULTUHAL SOCIETY. 

argenfea and aurea, are better known, and more commonly cul- 
tivated as ornamental trees, than any of the other species or 
varieties. For garden and lawn decoration these conifers are not 
surpassed, either in point of beauty or ease of culture, by any 
other with which we are acquainted. They are of Japanese 
origin, and were introduced into this country in 18C1. 

100. Sciadopitys verticillata (Umbrella Pine). — Planters, gener- 
ally speaking, have been somewhat tardy in procuring specimens 
of this tree, and that for two reasons ] its supposed inability to 
withstand a severe winter, and the high price at which a fair- 
sized plant can be obtained. Fortunately, the first supposition 
has, after a fair and unprejudiced trial, been found to be withoiit 
foundation, as some of the finest plants I know of this conifer 
are growing in northern Scottish counties, and are, in point of 
health, appearance, and rapidity of growth, little behind those in 
the warmer parts of the south of England. As to the high price 
at which a plant of sufiicient size for planting can be procured, 
I am by no means surprised, as the Sciadojniys is, perhaps, our 
rarest conifer, only one very limited habitat having been recorded. 
The Umbrella Pine is well worthy of a place in every collection ; 
for the deep, glossy-green leaves spreading out like the rays of an 
umbrella, and decidedly pleasing contour of the plant, render the 
Sciadopitys one of the most distinct and peculiar of hardy conifers. 
A native of Japan, on a mountain in the Island of Nippon, and 
introduced in 1853. 

101. Sequoia semper vir ens (Calif ornian Redwood). — For its 
ornamental appearance the redwood is worthy of extensive 
culture, but it is well to bear in mind at time of planting, that 
it only puts on its tree character when placed in good rich soils 
and in partially sheltered situations. The foliage is of a dark, 
pleasant green above, and silvery underneath, and to some extent 
resembles that of the common yew, while the branches are 
in-egularly arranged and usually semi-pendent. By depriving 
the stem of its branches — that is, in old trees — for say 5 
feet from the ground, we consider that the appearance of such 
trees is vastly improved, the thick, spongy, reddish-brown and 
deeply furrowed bark, which constitutes one of the peculiarities 
of the Ptedwood, being then shown to advantage. As regards 
the quality of timber produced in this country, it is in every 
respect fairly satisfactory, judging from specimens of hardly thirty 
years' growth. At the age of fifty or one hundred years, and 



COMPARATIVE VALUE OF EXOTIC CONIFER.^ IN BRITAIX, 283 

when maturity is arrived at, we may expect much better results. 
The appearance of the timber in a sample now before me is of a 
pleasing brick-red colour, close-grained, and free from knots. It 
is light in proportion to its bulk as compared with most other 
woods, and takes on a tine, silky polish. Being long-grained it 
splits more readily than any other British grown timber we know 
of. For these reasons we anticipate that it will, when grown in 
quantity, be largely used for fencing purposes, and in the making 
of packing-cases, boxes, etc., where neither great strength nor long- 
lasting qualities are of importance. In the making of furniture 
it would seem to be a most valuable wood, as any one could 
perceive who had the chance of seeing the several suites sent by 
the Redwood Company to the Forestry Exhibition at Edinburgh, 
The Redwood is a tree of very rapid growth when suitably placed, 
the annual upward rate of growth of several specimens of which 
we have kept a record being almost 30 inches. It is a native of 
California. Introduced in 1846. 

102. Taxodium disticimm (Deciduous Cypress) is a tree of 
great beauty ; the soft, feathery foliage, which during summer is 
of a bright, pleasing green, slowly changing as autiimn advances 
to a dark i"ed, rendering it distinct from any other conifer in 
cultivation. Even during winter, when leafless, this tree is very 
attractive, for the highly-coloured twigs and branches are re- 
splendent in the evening sun, and appear at a short distance off 
as if all aglow. Why this tree should have been so neglected of 
late years is a mystery diiiicult to solve, for, whether regarded as 
an ornamental tree or one of the easiest culture, it can well hold 
its own. It is specially adapted for planting in quagmires, where 
few other trees succeed, thriving under such conditions in a 
manner that is quite surprising. As a timber tree in the British 
Isles, the Deciduous Cypress is, however, not likely to attract 
much attention, for the simple reason that our summers are too 
short and cold for its perfect development. A native of North 
America, principally the South-eastern States, and intx'oduced 
about 1640. 

103. T. Mexicanum (Mexican Deciduous Cypress) is a pretty 
but little-known tree, which we have found to be perfectly hardy 
in the warmer poi-tions of these islands. I know of no other 
conifer so delicately beautiful, none that in autumn changes to 
such a lovely golden red its light, fresh, green foliage of the 
summer, and none that is better fitted for adorning a shady, well- 



284 TRANSACTIONS OF KOYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAJ. SOCIETY. 

chosen sj)ot on the lawn of some maritime gai-den. It may be 
described as a refined deciduous cypress, tlie foliage being finer, of 
a bright pea-green, and the whole tree more graceful in appearance. 
To recommend this tree for planting in any but the warmer parts 
of England and Ireland would [)erhaps be out of place, but I must 
say that, judging froui several specimens which have come under 
my notice, and have never sufiered fiom the effects of frost, I am 
convinced that the tree is not so tender as it is described. A 
native of Mexico. 

104. Taxus brevifolia (Californian Yew). — This is rather an 
ornamental yew, with short, yellowish-green foliage, and a spread- 
ing habit of growth. A native of California, and introduced in 
1854. 

105. T. canadensis (Canadian Yew), and its variegated form 
T. canadensis variegata, are, but particularly the latter, highly 
ornamental and desirable evergreen plants. During the growing 
season the leaves of the variegated form are margined "with 
yellowish white, which imparts to the whole plant a most distinct 
and attractive appearance. T. canadensis is a native of Canada 
ahd several of the North-eastern States. Introduced about the 
year 1800. 

106. Thuia gigantea (Giant Arbor-Vitas). — As an ornamental 
conifer, this holds a high place, its compact outline, easy appear- 
ance, and beautiful vivid green foliage being all points of special 
recommendation. To produce the best effect, however, we might 
recommend the planting of this tree in irregular-shajied clumps, 
of say five or seven trees in each, on the greensward, and not 
in too close contiguity to such stiff-growing and sombre-foliaged 
subjects as are some of the pines and other trees. 

As a British timber tree the giant arbor-vitfe is fast coming 
to the front, and has already, at the hands of certain far-seeing 
planters, received a fair amount of attention, but, in our opinion, 
not one-half of what its merits deserve. The quality of the 
timber produced in this country warrants us in speaking highly 
of it, being yellow, fine-gi'ained, easily worked, remarkably durable, 
and light in proportion to its bulk, and this refers to timber of 
thirty years' growth, and consequently immature. In its native 
country the wood is highly valued, and used extensively for 
caV)inet-making and the construction of boats and ships. The 
giant arbor-vitse is a tree of very rapid growth, it having, in 
several instances we know of, reached a height of 56 feet in thirty 



COMPARATIVE VALUE OF EXOTIC CONIFER.E IX BRITAIN. 285 

years. There can be no question that in the giant arbor-vitae we 
have, "whether for utility or ornament, a most vakiable addition 
to our forest trees, and it is the opinion of most practical arbori- 
culturists that it will be one of the trees of the future in Britain. 
A native of North- West America. Introduced in 1851. 

107. T. occidentalis (American Arbor- Vitfe). — This is a tree 
well adapted for planting in any part of the British Isles, being 
quite hardy and not fastidious as regards soil or situation. As 
an ornamental tree it is not of much value, neither is it for the 
quality of its timber. The foliage is of a brownish-green colour, 
which changes to a brownish-purple in winter, and again resumes 
its green or normal tint dui'ing the growing season. A native of 
Canada. Introduced prior to 1597. 

108. T. occidentalis Ellioangeriana is a distinct and pretty 
variety, and one that has been used with good effect in orna- 
mental gardening. It is of dense, rather formal growth, and 
dwarf in habit. 

109. T. occidentalis Vervceneana, which we may well describe 
as the handsomest and most distinct of all the varieties, is of easy 
habit, with an abundance of golden-green foliage, which, during 
autumn, changes to a light brownish-yellow. 

110. T. plicata (Siberian Arbor- Vitfe). — In this we have a neat- 
growing and compact ornamental tree, with short branches, and 
an abundance of brownish-green foliage. Being hai'dy and of 
distinct appearance, it is useful for shrubbery decoration. Intro- 
duced from North- West America in 1796. 

111. T. Wareana (Ware's Arbor- Vitaj) is a very useful orna- 
mental conifer, with deep-green foliage, and a rather neat, bushy 
habit of growth. For screening any unsightly object its dense 
habit renders it of great value, while the bright green foliage-tint 
makes it of interest, and a valuable acquisition for lawn or park 
planting. It is said to have originated some years ago in the 
nursery of Mr Ware, at Coventry. 

112. Thuiojjsis dolahrata (Hatchet-Leaved Thuiopsis). — As an 
ornamental tree this ranks high, and deservedly so, for perhaps 
in no other conifer is the tinted green of the upper and silvery 
hue of the under sides of the leaves more prominently revealed. 
For lawn purposes, and especially where space is limited, I know 
of no conifer to equal it, and being hardy and of the easiest 
culture, it is well suited for any part of the United Kingdom. 
In well-grown specimens the contour is usually pyramidal, with 

VOL. XII., PART II. T 



286 TRANSACTIONS OF KOYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

branches that arc somewhat drooping and vertical towards the 
points. The leaves are hatchet-shaped (hence the name), loosely 
imbricated, and of a beautiful shining green above and silvery 
beneath. The main branches are few, but the branchlets are 
numerous and compressed, and certainly constitute the most 
striking feature of the tree. Planted in a rather moist coal loam, 
and a semi-shady position, this tree seems to thrive best; and 
though the upward rate of growth is slow for the first dozen 
years, yet, when fairly established, a change for the better takes 
place, and occasionally an average yearly increase of half-a-foot is 
attained. There are two varieties of this tree — T. d. variegata, 
with irregularly variegated leaves of an indistinct yellow ; and 
1\ d. nana, in which the original is dwarfed into a neat, erect, 
dense bush of 4 feet to 5 feet in height. Tlmiopsis dolahrata is 
well worthy of greatly extended culture, for it is undoubtedly one 
of the handsomest and hardiest of conifers. A native of Japan, 
and introduced in 1853. 

113. Wellingtonia gigantea (Mammoth Tree). — Although of a 
somewhat stiff and formal appearance, yet the Wellingtonia, from 
its massive proportions and bright green foliage, must ever hold 
its own as an ornamental tree. It associates well with such free- 
habited and lighter-leaved conifers as the Deodar, the weeping 
spruce, and many others ; while it has, in the formation of 
avenues and drives, been made, by judicious planting, to contrast 
well with Araucaria imhricata and Abies Nordmanniana. 

As a rapid timber producer, the Wellingtonia is surpassed by 
no other ti"ee, the growth of which in this country we have kept 
a record of, save the Douglas fir, although the Californian redwood 
(^Sequoia sernjyervirens) produces under similar circumstances an 
almost equal quantity of timber, and likewise attains to a much 
greater height in the same space of time. Two specimens of 
which I kept records produced 120 feet and 115 feet of wood 
respectively in thirty years, or at the rate of about 4 feet per 
year. One of these specimens was planted in 1857, and wheir 
measured in 1887 contained exactly 115 feet of wood. The 
upward growth of the Wellingtonia per year for a period of 
thirty years is, in numerous sjjccimens of which measurements 
have been taken, about 26 inches, but even this is far exceeded 
in special instances which I have not considered it fair to record. 
Not long ago I had a very large tree cut into boarding, used in 
the construction of a hut for charcoal bui'ners, and I was surprised 



COMPARATIVE VALUE OF EXOTIC CONIFERyK IN BRITAIN. 2S7 

with both the appearance and texture of the wood, it being 
beautifully marked with red lines lengthwise, while the ground- 
work is of a desirable yellow. Though light in proportion to 
its bulk, as compared with the generality of timber, it was 
firm and free from knots, worked readily, and polished with ease. 
Had I not been conversant with the somewhat valueless nature 
of the timber of the Wellingt07iia, and its brittle, spongy quality, 
as set forth by the numerous specimens exhibited in this country 
of late years, both in a manufactured and unmanufactured state, I 
would have been apt to sj^eak in fairly high terms of its qualities, 
at least so far as could be judged by ajipearance, without actual 
experiment as to strength and durability. Although hardy in 
any part of the British Isles, yet repeated experiments have 
proved that, unless in sheltered districts, the Welliugtonia cannot 
be relied upon as a tree for forest planting. This is much to be 
regretted, for, whether looked at in an ornamental or commercial 
sense, this tree must be considered as an acquisition, being one 
of the brightest ornaments of our lawns, as well as one of the 
most rapid timber-producers. A native of California on the 
Sierra Xevada Mountains, and introduced in 1853. 



288 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



XIII. Flan and Specification for the Erection of a Foresters 
Cottage. By R. JB. Keay, Forester, Redcastle, Ross-sbire. 
[Plate VI.] 

General Conditions and Stipulations, 

Execution of Works. — The whole of the works required for the 
perfect completion of the Forester's Cottage nmst be constructed 
and finished in a sound and substantial manner, agreeably to the 
particulars contained in the following specification, and in con- 
formity with the drawings now furnished. 

I'lan and Specification. — Every effort has been made to include, 
in making out the plan and specification, all that is usual and neces- 
sary for the perfect completion of the works ; therefore, contractors 
shall be held bound to finish the whole in a sound and proper 
manner, even although a mistake or omission may appear in the 
plan or specification. 

Dimensions. — All dimensions marked on the plan, or described 
in the specification, must be worked to ; and any descriptions or 
particulars written on the plan are to be equally binding, as if 
contained in the specification. 

Materials, Tools, etc. — Contractors must provide all materials 
and cartage of same; also all tools, scaffolding, and everything 
necessary to complete the works herein referred to, or shown on 
the accompanying plan. 

Quality of Materials. — The whole of the works are to be executed 
with the best materials of their respective kinds, all of which shall 
be subject to the approval of the architect, who will have full power 
and liberty to inspect the materials at all times and places during 
their progress. 

Defective Materials or Work. — If at any time during the progress 
of the works any imperfections shall appear, through the introduction 
of unsound materials or by defective workmanship, the contractor 
shall, upon written notice being served upon him by the architect, 
be bound to take down, rebuild, or reconstruct and make good the 
same at his own expense. 

Alterations. — The architect reserves power to make such altera- 
tions during the progress of the work as he may deem advisable ; 
but no deviation from the plan or specification shall be made witli- 
out his express consent. The cost of any alteration that may be 



PLAN AND SPECIFICATION OP FORESTER's COTTAGE. 289 

made, whether as a deduction or addition, to be ascertained accord- 
ing to the usual mode of measuring, and regulated by the prices 
contained in the detailed estimate. Where the estimate does not 
apply, the price shall be determined by the architect. 

Contracts. — The architect does not bind himself to accept the 
lowest, or any tender for the work ; and reserves full power to in- 
crease, lessen, and omit any portion of the work which he thinks 
proper. 

Payments. — Payments shall be made on account of the contract, 
equal to 75 per cent, upon the certified value of the work executed; 
and the balance within a period not exceeding three calendar 
months after the buildings have been completed, and the work has 
been certified by the architect to have been duly performed accord- 
ing to the contract. Part of the payment of the slater's estimate 
will be retained until twelve months after all the works are 
completed. 

Time of Completion. — The works to be commenced immediately 
on signing the contract, and carried on with business-like diligence ; 
and the whole must be completed to the entire satisfaction of the 
architect, or whoever he may appoint to inspect the work, on or 
before the 1st day of November 1888. 

Mason Work. 

Excavations. — The contractor will remove the surface soil from 
off the whole area of the buildings, and make the necessary ex- 
cavations for walls, space under floors, drains, etc., and the materials 
thus removed will be laid down by him in a place to be pointed 
out. The tracks for the walls to be sunk to whatever depth is 
required to secure a proper foundation on the solid subsoil, with- 
out respect to the depth shown on the sections, but none to be less 
than two feet below the finished ground outside. The ground under 
wooden floors to be sunk to a depth of 15 inches below the under- 
side of the sleeper joists. The entire area of the back wing will be 
taken out to a depth of 18 inches below the surface of finished 
floors, and will be again filled in to a depth of 12 inches with 
broken stones well rammed down. 

Materials. — The window sills, lintels, rybats, corners, jambs, 
hearths, and chimney heads will be of good freestone, carefully 
selected, and perfectly free from defects. 

Lime Mortar. — The lime to be of the best quality Scotch lime 
shells, properly slacked, and the mortar prepared in the proportion 



290 TRANSACTIONS OF KOYAL SCOTTISH AU130RICULTUKAL SOCIKTY. 

of two measures of clean sliai-p sand to one of lime, thoroughly 
beaten up before being used. 

Foundations. — The foundation courses will be laid with large 
flat bedded stones, averaging G feet in area, and 7 to 9 inches 
thick, bedded and packed with stone chips and lime mortar, and 
forming scarcements on each side of the walls as shown, the inside 
scarcements being carried up to bear the ends of sleeper joists 
where required. 

Walls. — The whole of the walls will be built of the best descrip- 
tion of rubble work, to the forms and dimensions shown on the 
plan, having band-stones in every foot in height, extending two- 
thirds of the thickness of the walls, built from the outside and 
inside alternately, and not more than 5 feet apart. All walls to be 
thoroughly packed and hearted with stone chips and lime mortar, 
and to be levelled at every 20 inches in height for bond-timber, and 
also at height shown on plan for joists and roof timbers, and to be 
filled close up to the sarking after the roof is put on. All to be 
close harl-pointed inside, and the outside harling will be clean- 
jointed and cut off. Foundation walls will be built under wooden 
partitions, and sleeper walls will be built under centre of sleeper 
joists in parlour and sitting-room. These walls to be carefully 
built and levelled for wall-plates. 

Dressed Tro?7c.— All rybats, scuntions, and corners will be 9 
inches on the heads, 22 inches long, not less than 7 inches or more 
than 14 inches high. Door and window rybats will be checked, 
the former 2\ inches and the latter 3 inches, built out-and-in band, 
and to have o-inch droved heads and 3-inch margins, with stop 
chamfers 1| inches broad. Lintels will be checked and dressed to 
correspond with rybats, and window-sills droved and weathered. 
Mullions of parlour and sitting-room will be in single stones, 6 
inches broad on face, 5 inches deep, droved and chamfered as 
described. Upstarts of dormer windows will be in single stones, 8 
inches broad on face, 22 inches deep, checked, droved, and 
chamfered. Chimney heads and corners to have 1^-inch droved 
margins. Co[)ing of chimney-tops to be formed of two stones 9 
inches thick, droved, and cramped together with iron bats run in with 
lead, and pointed in mastic. All chimneys, except kitchen, to have 
polished freestone jambs and lintels. All jambs to be 20 inches 
deep ; those in parlour and sitting-room to be 6 inches, and in 
office and bedrooms to be 4^ inches on face, to project 3 inches be- 
yond plaster. Fireplaces in " office " and bedrooms to be 2 feet 9 



PLAN AND SPECIFICATION OF FORESTEr's COTTAGE. 291 

inches wide by 3 feet high ; parlour and sitting-room fireplaces to 
be 3 feet by 3 feet, all inside measure. Kitchen fireplace to have 
droved jambs and lintel ; jambs to be 4 feet 4 inches by 1 foot 8 
inches by 6 inches ; lintel, 5 feet by 9 inches by 6 inches. All 
hearths to be of polished freestone, corresponding in length to out- 
side of jambs ; to be 2 feet broad, and not less than 2 inches thick, 
with proper back hearths complete. All hearths on the ground- 
floor to be laid on strong rubble foundations, and bedded in lime 
mortar. 

GhimnPAj Vents. — The vents to be carried up with easy turns, 
and lined with fire-clay vent linings 10 inches diameter, carefully 
jointed and close packed round with stone chips and lime mortar, 
to be carried 6 inches above the chimney tops and finished with 
a bead or roll ; lining of kitchen vent to be 1 2 inches diameter. 

Door Steps. — Flags will be placed at the outer doors, that for the 
front door to be 5 feet 9 inches by 2 feet 6 inches by 2 inches, and 
for the back 3 feet 9 inches by 2 feet by 2 inches, bedded in cement. 
Upper steps in doorways to be 12 inches by 7 inches by the length 
required to fit neatly in between rybats ; the upper step at front 
door to have a bottle and fillet nosing. tSteps and flags to be of 
polished freestone. 

Ventilation. — Four ventilating openings, 9 inches by 6 inches, 
will be built in base of walls where shown, the stones for opening 
on face of wall to be 18 inches by 18 inches by 7 inches droved 
and splayed, and to have galvanised iron plates 9 inches by 6 
inches (Cameron, Roberton, & Co.'s No. 40), securely fixed in. 

Drains. — The main drain, the line of which will be pointed out 
by the architect, will be cut to an average depth of 2 feet, and laid 
with 6-inch hard-burned glazed fireclay spigot and faucet pipes, 
provided with all necessary bends, firmly bedded and carefully 
jointed with Portland cement, and having a fall of 1 inch to the 
yard. Build brick eye "where pointed out," for stop cock of 
supply pipe from reservoir. Fill in drain after all connections 
of piping are finished. Excavation to be made for cesspool 
" where pointed out " 8 feet 6 inches under surface of ground, to 
be built with wall IS inches thick of good rubble without lime, 
covered over with strong covers 6 inches thick, having 9-inch wall 
hold ; inside size of cesspool, 7 feet 6 inches by 4 feet by 6 feet. 
Overflows to be formed from cesspool with 4-inch agricultural 
drain pipes 2| feet deep. The total length of main drain will be 
about 60 lineal yards, that of overflow drain about 15 lineal yards. 



292 TRANSACTION'S OF KOYAL SCOTTISH ARBOUICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Traps. — Provide 7 fireclay gully traps with fireclay covers for 
foot of rain water-pipes, and connect drain pipes carefully with 
same. 

Provide and set in drain, outside of scullery window, a fireclay 
grease trap 12 inches by 12 inches by 12 inches, with cast-iron 
grating, and connect drain pipe to same. 

A 6-inch Buchan trap with ventilating horn, and furnished with 
cast-iron grating, to be placed outside wall of W.-C. 

Syphon trap, with cast-iron grating, to be placed at junction 
of drain pipes, as shown on plan. 

Miscellaneous. — Build in kitchen range and all other grates, 
providing fire and other bricks, lime, etc. 

Cut raggles for all lead flashings, cut all bat and dook holes, and 
all openings for water or soil pipes, and build round the same after 
the pipes are in. 

Clear away all unused material and rubbish from the place when 
finished. 

JoiKER Work, 

Materials. — The whole of the timber required must be of the 
best quality, free from sapwood, shakes, large or loose knots, 
thoroughly seasoned, and all battens or other timbers must be 
square up on the edges from end to end. The whole of the joisting, 
lintels, bondwood, stairs, outside doors, and posts, windows, and 
projections of roofs, to be of the best quality of Baltic redwood. 
Sleepers, standards, rafters, wall plates, wall straps, flooring, furnish- 
ing of servant's bedroom and closet, wall presses, finishing of kitchen 
and scullery, and shelving, to be of best quality of Baltic white- 
wood. Furnishings of parlour, sitting-room, oflice, lobby, AV.-C, 
and bedrooms, to be of best quality American yellow pine, i)erfectly 
free from knots. 

Bond Timber. — Bond timbers 4 inches by 1 inch to be built into 
the walls at 20 inches apart. 

Safe-Lintels. — Safe-lintels for all voids to be 1 \ inches thick for 
every foot of span, and not less than 10 inches wide, with back 
closers, and to have 9 inches of wall hold at each end. 

Sleejjers. — The sleeper joists under wood floors to be 6i inches 
by 2^ inches, and placed IG inches apart on wall plates of 6^- 
inches by 1^ inches. 

Joists. — Floor joists will be 8 inches by 2\ inches, placed at 
IG inches apart on wall plates of Gi inches by 1-J- inches, dwanged at 



PLAN AXD SPECIFICATIOX OF FORESTERS COTTAGE. 293 

7 feet apart with pieces 8 inches by 1^ inches, driven up and firmly 
nailed. Joists to be bridled for stairs, and hearths where shown. 
Bridling joists will be 8 inches by 3J inches. The space between 
joists will be prepared for deafening with boards | inch thick, 

3 inches broad, laid on fillets 1 inch by 1 inch, firmly nailed to 
joists. 

Roofs. — The roofs will be constructed as shown on plan, with 
rafters 6| inches by 2^ inches, placed at IS-inch centres. Piend 
rafters will be 9 inches by 2 inches. The lower end of rafters will 
be dressed and moulded, and will project from the walls as shown. 
Cantilevers for gables will be 5 inches by 2| inches clean dressed 
at outer ends, and extending through walls and firmly nailed to 
first rafter. Roofs of dormer windows will be formed as shown, 
with rafters, ties, and uprights at sides. Rafters to be bh inches 
by 2\ inches, uprights 4 inches by 2 inches. The whole of the 
roofs will be covered with |-inch sarking, close jointed and securely 
nailed. Ridge-rolls will be 1| inches diameter, firmly fixed down 
at alternate rafters with iron spikes. Provide the roof with all 
necessary tilting fillets. Fit on roof-lights, which the plumber 
provides, and place |-inch beaded facings inside the same. 

Projections. — Projections of roofs will be covered with li-inch 
red-wood flooring, dressed on under side, tongued and grooved 
and properly jointed ; the rafters being checked down to suit 
the difi"erent thickness of flooring and sarking. Rolls for pro- 
jections of roofs will be 2\ inches by 1^-inches, rounded on upper 
edge, checked and firmly nailed to sarking. Fret-board and mould- 
ing will be fitted up on projections as shown. 

Strajjs and Lath. — The interior surface of all external walls to 
have straps 1| inches by | inch, placed at 14 inches apart, securely 
fixed to bond-timbers, opposite flues to be fixed with holdfasts, 
and to be all covered with best St Petersburg lath- wood \ inch 
thick, placed f inch apart, double nailed at joinings, but not over- 
lapped, and to have band broken every 2 feet. 

Partitions. — Partition standards w^ill be 4 inches by 2 inches, placed 
at 14 inches from centre to centre, top and bottom runners to be 

4 inches by 2 inches. Dwangs 4 inches by IJ inches to be placed 
opposite door-lintel, and gradually lowered to mid-way between top 
and bottom runners, firmly driven up and nailed. The whole of the 
partitions to be covered on both sides with lath as above described. 

Ceilings. — The whole ceilings throughout the building will be 
lathed in the same manner. 



294 TUANSACTIOXS OF HOYAL SCOTTISH AUBORICULTUKAL SOCIKTY. 

Door Posts. — Outside door-posts will be 6 inches by 2^- inclies, 
properly batted to the stone-work. Door-frame standards in parti- 
tions will be 6 inches by 2i- inches, checked 1 inch on back for 
receiving lath and plaster. 

Grounds. — Window grounds will be 2| inches by 2 inches, 
checked. Foot-base grounds will be 2J- inches by 1 inch. All 
external angles will have |-inch corner beads. 

Floors. — The whole of the joisting and sleepers throughout the 
building will be covered with best quality of white-wood flooring 
4 inches broad, 1^ inches thick, tongued, grooved, and nailed on 
feathers, thoroughly stove-dried before being laid, and properly 
cleaned off after being laid. The hearths to have mitred borders 
put round them. 

Windoios. — The windows to be framed as shown with 1-inch 
pulley stiles, l-|-inch lintels, |-inch inside and |-inch outside 
facings, 4-inch checked, weathered, and moulded sills ; inner edges 
of sills and lintels to be grooved for finishings, and pulley stiles 
checked for batten-rods. Sash wood to be 2 inches by 2 inches ; 
counterchecks If inches, properly checked together. All the Avin- 
dows, except window of W.-C, to be glazed with the best quality 
of 21-oz. sheet-glass. W.-C. windows to be glazed with 21-oz. 
obscured sheet-glass. Pulley stiles to have l|-inch brass-faced iron 
axle pulleys. Sashes to be hung with patent woven sash line and 
cast-iron weights. All the windows, except those in jiarlour, to 
have brass fasteners and lifts, value 2s. per set. The windows in 
parlour and sitting-room to have bound finishing framing, 3^ inches 
by If inches. Shutters to be hung with .3-inch D.J. iron edge 
hinges, to have back closers with cross heads, hung with 2-inch 
edge hinges, and having hookand-eye fasteners. One .shutter only 
of the end windows to be hung, and to have back closers Avith 
hook-and-eye fasteners. The panels of finishing in parlour to have 
fine raised planted mouldings, those in sitting-room to have fine 
sunk mouldings. Bedrooms and office windows to have bound 
shutters 3| inches by If inches, with fine sunk mouldings, and to 
have back closers with hook-and-eye fasteners. Breasts and elbows 
to be lined with 3-incli by |-inch tongued, grooved, and properly 
jointed linings. Kitchen and servant's bedroom windows to have 
plain shutters formed of 3-inch by |-inch tongued, grooved, and 
V-jointed linings, with chamfered bars on back, to be hung 
with 3-inch D.J. iron edge hinges, and to have closers with hook- 
and-eye fasteners. Breasts and elbows to be lined as specified for 



PLAN AXD SPECIFICATION OF FOPvESTEr's COTTAGE. 295 

bedroom and office windows. Scullery and W.-C. windows to be 
furnished with corner beads. 

Fanlights, 2 inches thick, will be placed in front and back doors, 
and in front lobby door, to be glazed with 21-oz. sheet-glass. 

Doors. — The parlour, sitting-room, and front lobby door to be 
bound and framed in four panels, If inches thick, and to have fine 
raised planted moulding, inner side of sitting-room door to have 
fine sunk mouldings. Doors of office and bedrooms to be bound and 
framed in four panels If inches thick, with fine sunk planted mould- 
ings. All these doors to be hung Avith 6-inch D.J. iron edge hinges. 
Parlour and lobby doors to have 6-iuch mortice locks, with boxwood 
furniture, value 7s. 6d. Parlour windows to have furniture to 
match door. Sitting-room door to have 6 -inch rim lock, with box- 
wood furniture outside and brass inside, value 4s. 6d. All shutters 
throughout the house, except parlour, to have brass knobs. Office 
and bedroom doors to have 6-inch rim locks, with brass furniture, 
value 3s. 6d. Door of W.-C. to be bound and framed in four panels 
\h inches thick with sunk mouldings on face, to be hung with 
5-inch D.J. iron edge hinges, to have spring latch with brass furni- 
ture, and 3-inch brass slip bolt inside. All the other doors tlirough- 
out the house to be formed of 3 inches by 1^ inches tongued, 
grooved, and Y-jointed lining, with chamfered bars on back, to be 
hung with 14-inch Tee hinges, and provided with thumb latching. 
The front door will be bound and framed in four panels 2\ inches 
thick, the panels to be of 3 inches by \\ inches, tongued, grooved, 
and V-jointed ; lining placed diagonally as shown on plan, hung 
with three 7-inch D.J. iron edge hinges, and having a 7-inch 
strong rim lock, with box furniture inside and bronze outside, 
value 6s. Transom will be 5 inches by 3 inches moulded, 
facings f inch thick, with O.G. moulding. The back door will 
be bound and framed 2^ inches thick, with 3-inch by l^-inch 
tongued, grooved, and Y-jointed lining, hung with three 6-inch 
D.J. iron edge hinges, with 7-inch rim lock and brass furniture, 
value 4s. 6d. Transom will be 5 inches by 3 inches, with beaded 
facing ; facings of door to be | inch thick and beaded. Press 
door in sitting-room will be bound and framed in four panels IJ 
inches thick, with fine sunk mouldings on face, hung with 5-inch 
D.J. iron edge hinges, and having press lock with brass furniture, 
value Is. 6d. Lobby doors and parlour windows to have single 
faced architraves set on blocks. Foot base in parlour and lobby 
will be 8 inches deep, | inch thick, with moulding 2] inches by 



296 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

1} inches. Facings in sitting-room will be 7 inches by | inch 
moulded. Foot base will be 8 inches by f inch moulded. Foot 
base in office and bedroom will be 7 inches by | inch moulded, 
facings 5 inches by f inch moulded. All other facing w^ll be 
^ inches by f inch beaded. Foot bases to be neatly mitred into 
back of facings. All door stops to be ^ inch thick. 

^^,„-,.s._The front stair will be constructed of pitch pine, with 
inside stringer 9 inches by 1^ inches, and outside stringer 9 inches 
by If inches; treads, 9 inches by 1| inches, with rounded nosings 
and cavetto underneath ; risers, 7 inches by 1 inch. The balustrade 
will be formed with cast-iron balusters of approved pattern, value 
1 s. each ; two for each tread. Two main balusters of approved 
pattern to be provided for ends. The lower step will be rounded 
oflF, as shown on plan. Hand-rail to be 4 inches by 3^ inches, of 
pitch pine, moulded, with terminal scrolls. Back stair to be of Baltic 
redwood, with stringers, 9 inches by l^- inches; treads, 9 inches 
by 1^ inches; risers, 7 inches by 1 inch; to have wooden balusters 
1 inch by 1 inch morticed into floor and hand-rail. The newel 
post will be carried up to form main baluster. Hand-rail to be 
3}y inches by 2| inches, moulded, and securely fixed to wooden 
partition. 

Water Closet. — Two bearers, 5 inches by 3 inches, of Baltic 
redwood to be put into W.-C. at height required for supporting 
cistern ; the ends next wall to be laid on 6 inches by 1 inch wall 
plate, and ends next wooden partition to be supported on cross-bar 
4 inches by 2 inches, all firmly nailed together. Inch bearers to 
be put in before walls are lathed. Under side of bearers and front 
of cistern to be lined with 3 inches by | inch tongued, grooved, 
and V-jointed yellow pine lining ; part of lining of front to be fixed 
on with screw nails. Movable seat for closet to be of yellow pine 
1-^ inches thick with flush beaded panels; lid of seat to be hinged 
with 3-inch brass edge hinges. Moulded skirting, 6 inches by | 
inch, to be carried round top and down face of seat, and neatly 
mitred into foot-base. Grounds, If inches by If inches, to be put 
up where required by plumber to form space for pipes, to have 
|-inch yellow pine cover fixed with screw nails. 

Sink. — The scullery sink will be fitted up on strong bearers, and 

lined on front with 3 inches by | inch tongued, grooved, and 

V-jointed lining, part of which will be movable and fixed with 

screw nails. Coping of sink to be of hardwood, 1 inch thick. 

Mantelpieces. — The mantelpieces will be formed in the usual way. 



PLAN AND SPECIFICATIOX OF FORESTER's COTTAGE. 297 

Parlour mantelpiece to have S-iiich pilasters, 10-incli friezes, heavy 
neck moulding, and moulded base ; shelf, 8 inches by If inches. 
Sitting-room mantelpiece to have 8-inch pilasters, 9i-inch friezes, 
with neck moulding, and shelf 8 inches by 1-| inches, and plain 
base. Oifice and bedroom mantelpieces to have 7-inch pilasters, 
9-inch friezes, neck mouldings, and plain bases, and shelves 8 inches 
by 1| inches. Kitchen fireplace to have shelf only, 8 inches by 
1| inches. 

Shelving. — Fit up wall press in sitting-room with back, sides, 
and top I inch thick, and four shelves 1 inch thick. Fit up press 
in recess in kitchen with four shelves 1 inch thick, supported with 
fillets nailed to partitions "to be fitted up before partitions are 
plastered." Fit up 24 superficial feet of 1-inch shelving on framed 
brackets and fillets in scullery and kitchen. Fit up 20 lineal feet 
of utensil plate 5 inches by | inch, moulded on edge, placed 
mostly underneath shelves. Space beneath back stair to be lined 
with |-inch whitewood lining. 

Miscellayieous. — Fit up board in kitchen, 8 feet by 12 inches by 
f inch, moulded on edge, for carrying bells. 

Gable boards, 8 inches by 1 \ inches, to be formed to detail draw- 
ing, neatly mitred at top, and securely nailed to ends of cantilevers 

The framing of outside doors to be put together with white lead, 
and the joints of lining of same to receive one coat of brown paint 
before being put in. Prime all windows with best lead and oil 
priming, before being glazed. 

Do all jobbing usually required by other tradesmen. 

Plumber Work. 

The eave gutters to be half round, cast-iron, 4| inches diameter 
(similar to M'Farlane's No. 2), hung on japanned iron hooks, 1 inch 
by \ inch, placed 3 feet apart, and firmly fixed to sarking. The 
gutters to have all necessary stop ends, angles, and drop pipes, 
complete ; the whole being put together with red lead and screw 
bolts. Conductors to be of cast-iron, 3 inches diameter, fixed with 
wrought-iron holdfasts, to have galvanized iron gratings at top, and 
cast-iron shoes at bottom, to discharge on fireclay basins. 

Ridges to be covered with No. 14 V. M. zinc, 14 inches wide, held 
down with galvanized iron straps placed at 2 feet 6 inches apart. 

Flanks of same zinc, 12 inches wide; caps of 4|-lb. lead, 18 inches 
by 18 inches, to be put on at intersection of ridges and flanks. 

The flashings at sides of dormers, roof of porch, and intersection 



298 TRAN.SACTIOXS OF HOYAL SCOTTISH AIUiOHICULTUUAL SOCIKTV. 

of back wing, to be 5 lb. lead, 10 inches wide. Flashings of 
chimneys to be of -IJj-ll). lead, 9 inches wide; but those for haunches 
of chimneys, 12 inches wide, all batted into the raggles. 

Projection rolls to be covered with 5-\h. lead, 8 inches wide, with 
bead formed under slates ; neatly finished oft" with lower edge of 
chamfer on face of roll, and securely fixed with coi)per nails. 

Cast-iron opening roof lights to have 4-lb. lead soles, and to be 
glazed with j^^-iuch rough plate glass. 

Front gable to have cast-iron finial (M'Dowell's No. 53), arms 
four ways, and 2 feet 6 inches high. Dormers and porch to have 
cast-iron finials (M'Dowell's No. 11), arms four ways, 14-| inches 
high. Bases of finials to be covered with 4-lb. lead. Cast-metal 
gutter to be provided for roof of porch, properly cast to pitch of 
roof, with bead on edge under slates, and flange on perpendicular 
side, I inch wide, to fit with raggle in wall. 

Provide fireclay sink for scullery, pale yellow enamel, 2 feet 
3 inches by 1 foot 5 inches by 9 inches, with overflow brass 
grating and chain, to have a 3-inch cesspool of 7-lb. lead, with 
brass trap, screw, and waste-pipe out through wall, 3 inches dia- 
meter, of 7-lb. lead, and connected to grease trap. Fit up in closet 
under front stair a combination sanitary closet, with 3-gallon 
cistern, with brackets, handle, and pull complete. Dig track from 
reservoir and lay 40 yards i-inch lead pipe, 5-lbs. per yard, to be 
connected with cistern in W.-C, having brass stoji, and cleansing 
cock to be put on at brick eye. Supply-pipe to be H inches 
diameter, of G-lb. lead. 

A 3-inch cast-metal pipe to be taken off horn at the Buchan trap 
outside wall of W,-C. and carried up side of wall to eave of roof, 
and furnished on top with wire cone. Pipe to be fixed to wall with 
holdfasts. 

Supply-pipe to sink to be |-inch lead G lb., and to have ^-inch 
screw-down gun-metal cock at sink (Guest (k Chrime's). Track 
from reservoir to be filled in after pipes are laid. All supply-piping 
above ground to be wrapped in hair felt, tied with small twine. 

Slater Work. 

The whole of the roofs will be covered with the very best quality 
of Port Dinorwick slates, IG inches by 8 inches, properly shouldered 
with hair lime mortar, and securely double-nailed with galvanized 
iron nails, weighing 13 lbs. per M., and to have 3 inches of cover 
at the eave?, gradually diminishing to li inches at ridges. 



PLAN AXD SPECIFICATION' OF FORESTEIi's COTTAfJE. 299 

The slates on sides of dormers to be close jointed to stone 
u^jstarts, and pointed with cement. 

The raggles of lead flashings, and gutter of porch, to be pointed 
with mastic. The whole of the rhoues to be left properly cleaned 
at the completion of the work. 

The contractor to maintain and uphold the whole roofs perfect 
and water-tiglit for twelve months after the works are completed. 

Plastek Work. 

Materials. — The lime to be of the best quality of Scotch lime- 
shells, all run and mixed in proper proportions with clean, sharp, 
river sand, fresh well-beaten hair, and pure water. All to be 
thoroughly worked up and used throughout the works in the 
proportion of 20 cwts. of limeshells to every 100 yards of 3-coat 
plaster. 

Cement to be the best Portland. 

Bed all the window-cases with plaster lime, and point them 
outside with mastic. Deafen the whole of the upper floors with 
3 inches of dry engine ashes, laid between two thick coats of well- 
haired lime plaster, and all cracks in the upper coat to be filled 
in and repaired before the floors are laid. 

The whole of the walls, partitions, and ceilings throughout the 
house will be covered with the best 3-coat plaster, finished per- 
fectly straight, all thoroughly hand-floated and left free from 
cracks, blisters, or other flaws. 

The pai'loui", sitting-room, and front lobby will have a moulded 
cornice girthing about 15 inches; the cornice in lobby to be 
returned at stair bridling and corner of back lobby. 

The floor of kitchen, scullery, passage at kitchen door, and floor 
under back stair, will be laid with best Portland cement concrete, 
composed of five parts clean washed gravel to one part of cement, 
5 inches thick, all hard rammed down ; finished on top with a 
coat 1 inch thick, composed of equal parts of fine washed river 
sand and Portland cement ; all to be left perfectly smooth and 
level, and finished oflf with the hand-float. Point outside of back 
door posts with cement. Relieve all corner beads, and repair all 
breakages after the other tradesmen are finished. 

Bellhanger Work. 
The bells to be of the best bell-metal, averaging 1 4 oz. weight, 
with spring carriages complete. 



300 TRANSACTIONS OF IJOYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTUHAL SOCIETV. 

Tlie wires to be of the best copper, No. 1GB. W. G., conve3'ed 
behind lath in zinc tubes. All cranks to be of the best descrip- 
tion, and made to work with, freedom and ease. 

Parlour to have pair of pulls, value 9s. ; sitting-room to have 
pair of. pulls, value 7s. 6d. ; bed-rooms and office to have single 
pulls, value 3s. 6d., and all to match door-furniture. Front-door 
to have 4-inch octagon bronze pull set in door-rybat. 

Painter Work. 

Painting. — All outside wood- work to receive three coats of 
good oil paint of appi-oved tint. Outside doors to be grained 
*' oak," and to receive two coats of varnish. 

The whole of the finishings in parhmr, sitting-room, office, 
lobby, staircase, stair-landing, front bedrooms, and W.-C, to be 
thoroughly cleaned of all stains, and all nail-holes to be filled 
with putty, tinted to correspond with wood, and to receive three 
coats of best pale oak varnish. 

The finishings of kitchen, scullery, servant's bedroom, and 
closet, to receive three coats of good oil paint of approved tint. 

Paperhanging. — The parlour, sitting-room, office, ])orch, lobby, 
front staircase, and bedi-ooms, to be hung with selected papers at 
the following prices per roll of 12 yards :— jiarlour, 2s. Gd. ; 
sitting-room. Is. 6d. ; porch, lobby, and staircase, Is. ; front bed- 
rooms, lOd. ; back bedroom, 8d. ; ceiling in })arlour and sitting- 
room. Is. All paper on walls to be hung plumb, neatly matched, 
free from creases, and left peifectly clean when finished. The 
office and bedrooms to have borders to match the papers. 



OLD AND REMARKABLE TREES ON HOLWOOD ESTATE, 301 



XIV, Old and Remarkable Trees on Holwood Estate, Kent. By 
A. D. Webster, Holwood, Kent. 

Holwood Park, including Keston and Hollydale, the property of 
Earl Derby, is situated in the north-western portion of the county 
of Kent, and is distant from London about twelve miles. This 
estate is of particular interest, both historically and for the many 
old and remarkable trees growing upon it ; and, previous to 
enumerating the latter, we will give a brief description of the 
estate generally, including its geological features and history, in so 
far at least as these bear directly upon arboriculture. 

History and Antiquities. — In 1767 Holwood was purchased by 
Mr Kobert Burrow, who converted considerable woodlands into 
beautiful pastures and sheets of water, and planted ornamental 
shrubberies ; and, after being owned by an eminent ship-builder, 
Mr Randall, was sold in 1785 to the Right Hon. William Pitt, 
second son of the great Earl of Chatham, who made it his country 
residence. To the energy and good taste of Mr Pitt, Holwood owes 
much of its present beauty. He planted extensively, formed new 
roads and drives, levelled many surface inequalities, and otherwise 
improved the park during the short space of sixteen years ; for we 
find that in 1801 the property again changed hands. On the west 
side of Holwood Hill is the ancient Roman Camp, near which the 
river Ravensbourne takes its rise, the ramparts of which were 
planted in a most artistic manner by Mr Pitt. The remains of the 
Camp consist of a large and strong fortification of an oblong form, 
commanding an extensive view on every side, the area whereof is 
for the greater part inclosed with ramparts and double ditches of a 
vast height and depth, especially on the south and west sides. It 
contains an area of about one hundred acres of ground, and is 
nearly two miles in compass, the measurement of one side of the 
innermost vallum from the brow of the hill towards Holwood 
House being fully seven hundred yards in length. Judging from 
the quantity of Roman bricks, tiles, ancient foundations, and other 
remains which have been discovered at various times, there can be 
little doubt that the Camp is of Roman origin. Some persons 
believe that this was the Camp which Julius Csesar made, when the 
Britons gave him the last battle with their united forces, just before 
he passed the Thames in pursuit of Cassivelaun ; while others 
suppose it to be the remains of the Noviomagus, the first Roman 

VOL. XII., PART II. U 



302 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

station from London towards Dover ; others again believing it, and 
with great probability, to have been the place where Aulus Plautius, 
the prKtor, after his fourth action with the Britons, encamped with 
his forces, whilst he waited the arrival of the Emperor Claudius, as 
mentioned by Dion. Its gigantic dimensions, strength, and. near- 
ness to the Thames are strong inducements to think that it could 
hardly have been made for any other purpose. 

The trees used by Mr Pitt for the ornamentation of the fortifica- 
tions are principally the Scots and Cluster pines, and the Cedar of 
Lebanon ; indeed, in judging from the numbers of these dotted, 
about, usuallj' in formal shaped clumps of from seven to a dozen trees 
in each, they would appear to have been his favourite conifers. 

Surface and Geology. — The soil may be divided into three 
distinct classes — chalk, gravel, and clay ; the first two forming the 
main ingredients of the hilly grounds, while the valleys and flat land 
are almost wholly composed of the latter. The chalk range runs 
through, the estate from west to east. In some instances the chalk 
crops through the surface, while in others, notably to the north of 
Holwood House, it is overlaid with a small quantity of clay or 
loam, varying in depth from a few inches to several feet. South 
from this the greensand occurs, this being immediately followed, 
particularly in the lower grounds, by a stiflf, retentive Weald clay, 
alternating with a rich but dampish loam. On the chalk, thinly 
covered with soil, few trees grow satisfactorily, and this may also 
be said of the gravel or sand ; but where the clay, gravel, and chalk 
mix in due proportions, an extremely fertile loam is produced, in 
which the majority of forest trees grow with great rapidity, and 
attain to large dimensions. 

Old and Remarkable Trees. — As might be expected from the 
historic associations connected with the estate, and the remains of 
the ancient Kentish forests still in existence, the old and remarkable 
trees are very numerous, and many of them are of large dimensions, 
particularly of the oak, beech, and elm. 

No. 1. Oak. — This tree is more abundant than any other ; indeed, 
throughout the whole county it predominates, thus showing that at 
one time Kent must have been covered with vast primeval forests of 
oak. On the sloping ground to the north-west of Holwood House, 
and onwards into the vale of Keston, are many fine specimens, the 
giant proportions and venerable appearance of which at once indi- 
cate that they are the remnants of one of the ancient forests for 
which Southern England was at one time so remarkable. 



OLD AND REMARKABLE TREES ON HOLWOOD ESTATE. 303 

One of the largest stands alongside the public path that leads 
through the park on the north-western side of Holwood. This is 
supposed to be the tree under which Pitt and WUberforce were 
seated when the latter resolved to bring forward a bill for the 
abolition of slaverj'. The following note in reference to this episode 
is extracted from Mr Wilberforce's diary of the year 1788 : — "At 
length I well remember, after a conversation with Mr Pitt in the 
open air at the root of an old tree at Holwood, just above the steep 
descent into the vale of Keston, I resolved to give notice on a fit 
occasion in the House of Commons of my intention to bring forward 
the abolition of the slave trade." These words are engraved on a 
stone chair which Earl Stanhope had set up close to this historic 
tree in 1862, by the permission of Lord Cran worth who then owned 
the estate. At 3 feet and 5 feet from the ground the stem of this 
ancient oak girths 18 feet 1 inch and 18 feet 3 inches respectively, 
the total height being 42 feet, and the spread of branches 51 feet in 
diameter. At 6| feet from the ground this tree divides into two 
(formerly four, two having been broken off) massive limbs, the girth 
of each at the point of junction being 11 feet 4 inches and 10 feet 
3 inches. The centre is hollow, and forms an open space 4| feet 
feet in diameter, while the roots extend, on the lower side particu- 
larly, for 1 1 feet in length above ground, thus affcirding a convenient 
seat for the weary traveller or hard-worked politician. 

Another oak growing near the Five Island Pond, and within 
two hundred yards of the latter, girths 21 feet 11 inches at a yard 
from the ground, and has a sheer height of 45 feet. Three large 
roots, or rather portions of the stem, extend outward on the eastern 
side for 1 1 feet in length, and growing close together they form a 
solid mass 12 feet in width, which projects above ground for in 
most parts fully 18 inches. The centre of this gigantic tree is also 
hollow, while, as is usual with these old oaks, the stem at 8 feet 
from the ground divides into numerous large limbs, and at which 
part it is buttressed to an enormous extent. Several other old oaks 
stand close to this one, but as they are mere shells, and much 
contorted in the stem, no reliable measurements can be given. 
Although in nearly every instance these forest Patriarchs are 
hollow-stemmed, yet they are otherwise in perfect health, and 
annually produce fine umbrageous heads of the richest-coloured 
foliage. Not far distant from the same pond is another interesting 
specimen of the oak, the curiously contorted stem of which gives it 
a peculiarly weird appearance, and the many stout props with which 



304 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

the unwieldy branches are upheld clearly show that this iirinieval 
oak is carefully tended by its worthy owner. At 3 feet from the 
ground the partially hollow stem is 16 feet 10 inches in girth, 
while at 5 feet it ramifies into three ponderous limbs, one of which 
bends backwards from the main stem in an abrupt manner, and 
runs nearly parallel with the ground for 15 feet. Here it abruptly 
stops, and sends upwards for nearly 30 feet several large and 
almost perfectly straight branches. The girth of this limb at a 
yard from the main stem is 8 feet 7 inches. 

Another curiously irregular oak, growing nearer to the pond, 
girths, at 3 feet from the ground, 17 feet 8 inches. At 4| feet up 
the bole terminates, and there sends out several tree-like branches, 
one of which bends right backwards from the main stem and enters 
the ground at 5^ feet therefrom. This branch is 9 feet 11 inches 
in girth near the point where it diverges from the bole, and 
curiously enough a large root, fully 20 inches in diameter, runs 
along the surface of the ground and comes in contact with th.e 
branch at a distance of 6 feet 9 inches from where the former is 
emitted by the stem. 

"Pitt's Oak" (Qicercus Bobur pedunculata). — This eminently 
historic oak, which stands within a stone-throw of Holwood 
House, and without the garden wall, is in a very healthy and 
thriving condition, and will, should accident not befall it, live for 
many years to perpetuate the memory of the great statesman. It 
was Mr Pitt's habit to sit and read beneath the spreading branches 
of this stately oak. The tree stands upon a conical mound, part 
of the old encampments, and within a short distance of two 
magnificent though half-hidden cedars of Lebanon. The dimen- 
sions are as follows ; — At a yard from the ground level the stem 
gii'ths 20 feet 1 inch, and at 8 feet it divides into four massive 
limbs, the two largest of which girth 9 feet 6 inches and 9 feet 
4 inches at 2 feet from point of juncture with the main stem. 
The branch-spread is wide in proportion to the tree's height, 
covering as it does a space of 57 feet in diameter, while the total 
height is only about 36 feet. 

The stem is hollow from 4 feet upwards to the point where the 
branches begin to ramify, but the tree is otherwise in a very 
healthy condition, as is clearly demonstrated by the rich abun- 
dance of glaucous green foliage, as well as by the numerous 
strong shoots that are annually emitted by the stem and larger 
branches. 



OLD AND REMARKABLE TREES ON HOLWOOD ESTATE. 305 

Both this and the " Wilberforce Oak," already described, are 
the variety known as Quercus Robur jy^d^mculata. 

That Mr Pitt was fond of trees and planting Holwood Park 
plainly shows, for not only were the ramparts of the Roman Camp 
planted by him, bnt likewise many of the shrubberies around the 
mansion. With what ardour Pitt applied himself to planting will 
be seen in a letter addressed from Downing Street to his mother, 
dated November 13th, 1786, in which he says — "To-morrow I 
hope to get to Holwood, where I am impatient to look at my 
works. I must carry there, however, only my passion for planting, 
and leave that of cutting entirely to Burton." It is said that 
when night drew on the work of planting was frequently not 
interrupted, but completed by lantern light. 

Mr Wilberforce, who was exceedingly fond of visiting his friend 
at Holwood, says in his Diary — " Walked about after breakfast 
with Pitt and Grenville. We sallied forth, armed with bill- 
hooks, cutting new walks from one large tree to another through 
the thickets of Holwood copses." 

The " Bee Oak " is another curiously contorted tree, which stands 
on an eminence commanding a beautiful view of the vale of Keston. 
A hive of bees have for many years taken up their abode in its 
partially hollow stem. 

The above are descriptions and measurements of a few of the 
many fine old oaks at Holwood, but particularly such as are remark- 
able for their great age and size. In all cases the girths have been 
taken so as to avoid recording exaggerated dimensions. Many of 
the trunks at 1 foot and 5 feet, owing to buttresses or excrescences, 
are nearly double of the size at 3 feet. The cubic contents cannot 
be given with any approach to accuracy, as in most instances the 
trunks are hollow, and terminate at from 8 feet to 10 feet from the 
ground, after which they ramify into wide-spreading branchy heads. 
As to the age of these trees, it would be hazardous to advance an 
opinion ; but that they are remnants of the primeval forests with 
which Kent at one time abounded is beyond dispute. Not, how- 
ever, until the end of the fifteenth and beginning of the sixteenth 
centuries, or previous to the introduction of hops into England, did 
the vast Kentish forests suflTer from the ruthless hand of the wood- 
man ; but after that date it was found that the cultivation of 
coppice for hop poles was far more remunerative than even the best 
quality of oak wood, and so these natural forests were either clean 



30G TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTUIIAL SOCIETY. 

swept away or severely thinned out, to make room for the planting 
of the Spanish chestnut, ash, and alder. 

Interspersed with the old oaks referred to are numerous other 
oaks of about one hundred years' growth, all straight, clean- 
stemmed, and perfectly sound trees, containing on an average 60 
feet of timber each. How to account for the present rather unsatis- 
factory state of the old oaks — their short, hollow stems and contorted 
appearance — is, perhaps, easy enough, for by most persons this 
would at once be attributed to their great age and consequent 
natural decay. This is, no doubt, so far true ; but the wind, com- 
bined with injuries inflicted by both man and beast, perhaps 
centuries ago, have likewise been powerful agents in the work of 
destruction. When a limb was broken by the wind, it was allowed 
to lie where it fell, for pruning was then but seldom thought of, 
while the wound caused by wrenching the branch from the stem 
formed in the majority of instances a lodgment for water, and thus 
conducted moisture, ending in decay and rot, into the very core of 
the tree. 

No. 2, Beech. — This tree luxuriates on the chalk formation, and 
is, next to the oak, perhaps more plentiful in Kent than any other. 
One of the largest and most remarkable on this estate is growing 
in the Lake wood on the left side of the drive entering from the 
top or Holwood side. At 3 feet from the ground this giant tree is 
20 feet 6 inches in girth, above which it divides into ten massive 
limbs, two of the largest girthing 5 feet 3 inches and 5 feet 4 inches 
at a yard from the fork, the whole tree containing 235 feet of timber. 
The head is beautifully rounded, and amply furnished with branches, 
the diameter of the latter being fully 78 feet. As a picturesque 
tree this noble beech occupies the front rank, and, standing on 
the greensward at a considerable distance from any other tree, it 
has a very striking appearance. The soil is a strong loam, resting 
on gravel. 

Growing within twenty-five yards of the last, and on the southern 
bank of the lake, is another beech tree of noble proportions, the stem 
at a yard up girthing 17 feet 1 inch, and having a height of fully 
GO feet. At 4 feet up the stem divides into thirteen limbs, and the 
average girth of each at 3 feet from the fork is 3 feet 7 inches. 
These branches are very uniform in size, and rise perfectly straight 
for a considerable length before ramifying into the top branchlets. 
Between the lower lake and the public footpath to the north of it 
are numerous fine examples of the beech, with clean and straight 



OLD AND REMARKABLE TREES OX HOLWOOD ESTATE. 



307 



stems, 70 to 80 feet in height. The following are measurements of 
six of the largest, which are growing in a space of about 100 yards 
.square : — 





i>i<;i<:(. 


■a.. 




Feet. 


Inches 


No. 1— Height, . . . 


87 





Girth of stem at .3 feet. 








9 


7 


Do. do. 5 feet. 








9 


,5 


Cubic contents, . 








127 





No. 2— Height, . 








8.5 





Girth of stem at 3 feet, 








9 


5 


Do. do. 5 feet, 








9 


3 


Cubic contents, . 








113 





No. 3— Height, . 








87 





Girth of stem at 3 feet, 








9 


5 


Do. do. 5 feet, 








9 


4 


Cubic contents, . 








129 





No. 4— Height, . 








78 





Girth of stem at 3 feet. 








10 





Do. do. 5 feet. 








9 





Cubic contents, . 








98 





No. 5— Height, . 








73 





Girth of stem at 3 feet. 








8 





Do. do. 5 feet. 








8 


9 


Cubic contents, . 








87 





No. 6— Height, . 








83 





Girth of stem at 3 feet. 








9 





Do. do. 5 feet. 








8 


9 


Cubic contents, . 








113 






These trees are in perfect health, and having been allowed plenty 
of room, their heads are well developed, and average about 50 feet 
in diameter. The soil is a strong peaty loam, the surface being 
largely composed of decayed vegetable matter for several inches in 
depth. Near to Holwood Farm, between it and Keston Church, 
are numerous large and healthy specimens of the beech, the stems 
being clean and well-grown, and girth on an average about 10 feet 
at a yard up. 

No. 3. Cedar of Lebanon.— This tree is the pride of Holwood, 
and it is questionable whether any other estate in Britain of equal 
extent contains either so many or so large specimens. Growing on 
the lawn at Holwood House are several stately well-branched trees, 
the largest of which is G2 feet in height, girths 14 feet 4 inches at 
3 feet from the ground, and 12 feet 7 inches at 5 feet up, the 
diameter of branches being 72 feet. At 48 feet from this tree is 
another fine specimen, the girths of which, at 3 feet and 5 feet 



308 TRANSACTIONS OF KOYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

from tlie ground, are 10 feet 10 inches and 9 feet 7 inclies, tlie 
branches being 57 feet in diameter, and the height of the tree 
being 72 feet. This latter tree is in a very healthy condition, 
more so than the former, which has a somewhat rusty appearance, 
particuhirly during winter and early spring. Tlie branches of both 
are long and lithe, and sweeping the greensward. Their stems are 
straight and clean, and contain, the former 137 feet, and the latter 
127 feet of timber. Another large and well-branched specimen 
stands opposite to Holwood House, the bole of which girths 12 
feet at a yard from the ground, and 1 1 feet 1 1 inches at 5 feet ujj. 
The height is G7 feet, and the branches cover a diameter of 66 
feet. This stately cedar is in perfect health, and is worthy of 
the conspicuous position which it so nobly fills on the well-kept 
lawn. 

On the sloping ground between Holwood House and the farm 
are several large and highly-ornamental Cedars of Lebanon, planted 
almost in the form of a semicircle. The following are the dimen- 
sions of these, beginning at the left in advancing from Holwood 
House : — No. 1, height 57 feet ; girths of stem at 3 feet and 5 feet, 
10 feet 10 inches and 10 feet 4 inches; diameter of branches, 60 
feet. No. 2 is 56 feet in height, with a girth at 3 feet and 5 feet 
of 9 feet 3 inches and 8 feet 3 inches, and a spread of branches 
covering a diameter of 51 feet. No. 3 has a height of 55 feet, 
spread of branches 60 feet in diameter, and a stem girthing 9 feet 
and 8 feet 9 inches at 3 feet and 5 feet up. No. 4, height 54 feet, 
spread of branches 52 feet, girths of stem at 3 feet and 5 feet up 
6 feet 7 inches and 6 feet 6 inches. No. 4, along with Nos. 5 and 
6, form a clump of imposing grandeur, the two latter having large 
and well-formed trunks, with girths at 3 feet and 5 feet up of 8 
feet 8 inches and 8 feet 6 inches, and 7 feet 5 inches and 7 feet 3 
inches respectively. No. 7 has a spread of branches 63 feet in 
diameter, a bole 61 feet in height, and girthing 10 feet 5 inches 
and 10 feet 2 inches at 3 feet and 5 feet up. No. 8, height 63 
feet, girths of stem at 3 feet and 5 feet up 8 feet 8 inches and 
8 feet 7 inches. No. 9 has a stem which girths at 3 feet and 5 feet 
from the ground 12 feet 2 inches and 12 feet, a total height of 65 
feet, and a spread of branches 66 feet in diameter. This fine tree 
contains 190 feet of timber, the stem at 6 feet up dividing into 
three massive limbs, which rise clean and branchless for fully 20 
feet. The soil on which these nine specimens of the Cedar of 
Lebanon are growing is a stiffish, rich, clayey loam, resting at no 



OLD AND REMARKABLE TREES ON HOLWOOD ESTATE. 309 

great depth on chalk. Around Holwood House there are many- 
splendid specimens of the Cedar of Lebanon, while on the ramparts 
of the Roman Camp are not a few whose size and rich glossy 
appearance betoken perfect health and rapid growth. 

Two specimens of this Cedar in the grounds at Keston are worthy 
of record ; the largest, which stands close to the stables, has a girth 
of 12 feet 5 inches at 3 feet up, after which it divides into two 
limbs, which girth 7 feet 9 inches and 7 feet 10 inches at 3 feet 
from the fork. The height is 68 feet, and the spread of branches 
61 feet. The other is in a secluded spot by the lake, and is 73 feet 
in height, with a stem girthing 11 feet 3 inches at 3 feet, and 10 
feet 10 inches at 5 feet up. The spread of branches is 69 feet, and 
the bole contains 157 feet of wood. Numerous seedling plants have 
appeared beneath this noble tree, some of v/hich are now robust 
specimens of 5 feet in height. This is interesting as showing that 
the Cedar of Lebanon reproduces itself naturally in this country. 

At Hollydale is another picturesque cedar, with an umbrageous 
head, 72 feet in diameter. The stem girths 11 feet 2 inches at 
3 feet, and 11 feet 2 inches at 5 feet up, the height being 61 feet. 
The soil is a rich stiff loam, resting on gravel. 

No. 4. Evergreen Oak. — This tree thrives with great luxuriance 
at Holwood. To the south-west of the mansion are several large 
specimens, two of which, growing within a few yards of each other, 
measure as follows : — No. 1, height 49 feet, girths of stem at 3 feet 
and 5 feet from the ground 7 feet 10 inches and 7 feet 9 inches, 
spread of branches 48 feet, and total contents of tree 69 feet. 
No. 2 is 11 feet 10 inches in girth of stem at 2 feet up, after which 
it ramifies into eight large stems, which form a well-rounded head 
of about 50 feet in diameter. Another large tree is growing on the 
lower side of the public path that leads through Holwood park. At 
3 feet and 5 feet from the ground it measures 9 feet 7 inches and 
8 feet 11 inches in girth of stem, the height being 54 feet, and the 
spread of branches 37 feet in diameter. 

No. 5. The Cork Oak [Qv.ercus Suher). — Seldom indeed is it 
that finer specimens of this tree are to be seen than those at 
Holwood. Two of the largest occupy conspicuous positions on the 
lawn, one of which is 44 feet in height, the girth at 2 feet from 
the ground being 7 feet 5 inches, and the spread of branches 42 
feet in diameter. The other is 28 feet in height, girths at 3 feet 
and 5 feet up 6 feet 4 inches and 6 feet, and has a spread of 
bratiches of 33 feet in diameter. Both these trees are highly 



310 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ornamental. The bark is another striking feature of these trees, 
the cork in some instances being 3^ inches thick, deeply furrowed, 
and of a pleasant light buflF colour. 

No. 6. Lime. — Formirifj a triangle on the lawn in front of Hol- 
wood House are three unusually large specimens of this tree, all 
in perfect health, as is evident by their well-developed heads. Their 
dimensions are as follows : — No. 1 — Girth of stem at 3 feet and 5 
feet up 9 feet 5 inches and 8 feet 9 inches, and containing 140 
feet of timber. No. 2 is 10 feet 6 inches in girth at 3 feet, and 
9 feet 7 inches at 5 feet up, and contains 218 feet of timber. No. 
3 is 8 feet 8 inches and 8 feet 3 inches in girth of stem at 3 feet 
and 5 feet from the ground, and contains 110 feet of timber. The 
three specimens are of an equal height — 87 feet — the combined 
spread of branches being 87 feet in diameter. These trees form 
a well-matched trio, and are, when in full leaf, objects of much 
interest. Another excellent example of the lime is growing close 
to the path from Hollydale House to the lake. At 3 feet and 
5 feet up the well-rounded stem girths 11 feet 4 inches and 10 feet 
3 inches, the spread of branches covering a space of 61 feet in 
diameter. The stem at 1 1 feet up divides into a number of limbs, 
and these shooting upwards to a height of 81 feet, as well as 
ramifying in all directions, form a head of great beauty. The soil 
is of good quality, being a strong clayey loam, with a svibsoil of 
gravel. All over the estate the lime grows with the greatest 
luxuriance, and produces clean timber of large size. At Keston 
Lodge there is a path lined on one side with limes, while at 
Hollydale one of the drives runs along an avenue of this tree, and, 
during the heat of summer, is a deliciously cool retreat. 

No. 7. Elm. — The largest and most beautiful specimen of the 
English Elm on this estate is growing close to the drive, and 
within 150 yards of the front door of Holwood House. At 3 feet 
up this fine tree girths 12 feet 6 inches, and at 5 feet 11 feet 10 
inches, and contains 157 feet of timber. The height is 83 feet, and 
the spread of branches 69 feet. As regards the quality of soil on 
which this gigantic tree is growing, little can be said in its favour, 
it being for the greater part a poor gravel, overlaid with a small 
quantity of loam. Another grand elm stands without the garden 
wall at Hollydale, and close to the little gate leading to the lake. 
This specimen girths 12 feet at 3 feet up, and 10 feet 11 inches at 
5 feet, the cubic contents being 213 feet. The height of the tree 
is 89 feet, and the branches extend over a space 81 feet in diameter. 



OLD AND REMAKKABLE TREES ON HOLWOOD ESTATE. 311 

The stem of this tree has but little taper, the girth at 12 feet being 
scarcely less than at 5 feet, while the ponderous limbs into which 
it divides at 30 feet wp would of themselves form good-sized trees. 
The soil is loamy clay, resting at no great depth on gravel. On 
the chalk formation the elm does remarkably well, growing to a 
great size, and producing a large quantity of clean and valuable 
timber. At Holwood Farm are numerous stately elms, some 
of which grow where only a few inches of soil overlies the chalk. 

No. 8. Thorn. — By the side of the drive from Holwood House 
past the Roman Camp are numerous large and healthy specimens 
of the Thorn, which, judging from their present dimensions, must 
be of considerable antiquity. One of these is 6 feet 5 inches 
in girth of stem at a yard from the ground, and has a spread of 
branches 39 feet in diameter. Others ranging from 5 feet to 6 
feet in girth of stem at a yard from the ground, are not uncommon. 
Another perhaps unique specimen is growing in the park, and 
within a few yards of the public path where it joins the road at 
Holwood Farm. At 3 feet from the ground the stem girths 14 
feet 6 inches, after which it divides into six limbs, the girth of 
each, at a yard from the fork, being as follows : — No. 1 — 4 feet 
2 inches. 2 — 4 feet. 3 — 5 feet 8 inches. 4 — 2 feet 8 inches. 
5 — 4 feet 4 inches. 6 — 3 feet 5 inches. The height is 42 feet, 
with a spread of branches 63 feet in diameter. This gigantic 
specimen of the thorn is in perfect health, branched to the ground 
in most parts, and grows in strong clayey loam. At twenty-five 
yards distant is another thorn worthy of note. At a yard from 
the ground the stem is 8 feet 11 inches in circumference, while 
the branches have a spread of 33 feet. 

No. 9. Spanish Chestnut. — The largest tree of this kind is grow- 
ing in the grounds at Keston Lodge, and close to the green walk 
running alongside the pond. At 3 feet and 5 feet from the ground 
the stem girths 14 feet 3 inches and 13 feet 1 inch, the branches 
having a diameter of 78 feet. At 7 feet up the stem divides into 
two large limbs, which rise perfectly straight and parallel with 
each other for almost their entire length. This tree is 78 feet in 
height, and is in perfect health and forming wood rapidly. Not far 
from this tree, but in Holwood bounds, and growing close to Lake 
No. 2, is another noteworthy Spanish chestnut, the stem of which, 
at 3 feet and 5 feet from the ground, measures 11 feet 2 inches 
and 10 feet 3 inches. So little taper has the stem, that at 8 feet 
up the girth is 10 feet. Sixteen feet in length of the butt contains 



312 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

exactly 100 cubic feet. The height is 67 feet, and the spread of 
branches is GO feet in diameter. Soil, a strong clayey loam, on 
gravel. 

No. 10. Locust-Tree {Robinia Pseud- Acacia). — This tree would 
seem, from the numerous fine specimens growing on this estate, to 
be well suited for Kent. Two of the largest are growing at Holly- 
dale, close to the public road from Farnborough to Keston. The 
largest has a stem girth of 14 feet 10 inches at a yard from the 
ground, the height being 78 feet, and the diameter of branches 54 
feet. The otlier girths, at 3 feet and 5 feet up, 11 feet 8 inches 
and 11 feet 7 inches, and contains 110 feet of wood. One of the 
largest limbs, which girthed 8 feet, was broken off this tree some 
years ago, but it is otherwise perfect. The height is 78 feet, and 
the diameter of branches 54 feet. 

No. 11. Plane-Tree {Platanus orientalis). — On the lawn at 
Holly dale there is growing a large and weU-furnished oriental plane. 
The height is 78 feet, diameter of branches 75 feet, girth of stem 
at 3 feet and 5 feet from the ground 1 1 feet 5 inches and 9 feet 
10 inches, cubic contents 118 feet. This tree is growing in plastic 
loam, resting on roughish gravel, and exposed on all sides. There 
are many other specimens in various parts of the ground, but the 
one just mentioned is, perhaps, the largest, oldest, and most orna- 
mental of any on the property. There are several varieties of 
plane, but P. acerifolia is the best and most distinct. 

No. 12. Ash. — Of this tree there are very few remarkable speci- 
mens, the largest being, at 3 feet and 5 feet from the ground, 17 
feet 11 inches and 18 feet 7 inches in girth of stem. The height 
is 68 feet, and the diameter of branches 66 feet. It is growing 
south-west from Holwood House, and close to the public path 
which leads through the park to the farm. The centre is hollow 
for some distance up, but the stem is of perfect shape for the first 
7 feet, after which it branches, and at 8 feet girths nearly double 
what it does at 3 feet. 

No. 13. Larch. — The largest Larch on the Hohvood property is 
growing by the side of "My Lady's" path, a green drive leading 
from Keston Lodge past the lake. It is not an ornamental tree, 
but is indeed a great curiosity, the stem being bent in a peculiar 
manner, although it is otherwise well shaped. At 3 feet and 5 feet 
from the ground, the stem girths 11 feet 10 inches and 10 feet 
6 inches, and contains 123 feet of timber. The height is 72 feet, 
and the diameter of branches is 66 feet. This fine tree is in excel- 



OLD AXD REMARKABLE TREES ON HOLWOOD ESTATE. 313 

lent health, and forming wood rapidly, the soil on which it is 
growing being a stiff but rich loam. 

No. 14. Yew. — Standing alone in the South Park to the north- 
east of Holwood is a noble specimen of the Yew, rendered conspi- 
cuous by its densely-branched and wide-spreading head, clothed 
with the healthiest of foliage. At 2 feet from the ground the stem 
has a girth of 20 feet 5 inches, and at 5 feet of 14 feet I inch, 
while the branches cover a space 57 feet in diameter. Ai'ound 
this handsome tree is a neat iron fence, with a small gate leading 
to a rustic seat, which, during the heat of summer, forms a deli- 
ciously cool retreat. The soil is not of the best quality, it being a 
gravelly and clayey loam. Another noteworthy yew is growing on 
the south side of the Five Island Pond, its roots reaching the water. 
At 3 feet and 5 feet up the stem girths 13 feet 1 inch and 13 feet, 
the height being 42 feet, and the diameter of branches 42 feet. 
This is a very picturesque tree, the curiously gnarled stem giving 
it an aged and weird appearance. 

Not far from this tree is one of the most peculiar cases of the 
junction of the stems of two trees — an oak and a yew — that has 
ever come under my notice. The combined stem of the yew and 
oak, which is of a perfectly normal shape throughout its entire 
length, is 7 feet 1 1 inches in girth at a yard from the ground, and 
7 feet 10 inches at 5 feet up. The yew I'ises to 15 feet in heioht, 
and has a branch-spread of 36 feet ; while the oak, whose height is 
35 feet, has a diameter of branches of 54 feet. Both stems are so 
amalgamated into one, that were it not for the difference in colour 
of the barks, the point of junction could hardly be detected. For 
fully 5 feet up, at which point two large limbs are sent out by the 
oak, the yew takes up from 2 feet 2 inches to 2 feet 5 inches of 
the total girth of the stem, but how far the wood of the yew 
extends inwards has not been ascertained. At 2 feet from the main 
stem the two large limbs sent out by the oak girth respectively 
4 feet 7 inches and 4 feet 9 inches, and as they grow on opposite 
sides — north and south — of the trunk, have an appearance that is 
very peculiar. The yew stem almost encircles the northern limb, 
and with it is completely amalgamated, the barks being quite level 
at their points of junction. When viewed from the public path, 
from which it is 11 yards distant, these combined trees present a 
curious appearance, particularly when the oak is destitute of leaves, 
the commingled deciduous and evergreen branches being then most 
noticeable. How this union of the two trees, but particularly an 



314 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY, 



evergreen conifer and a deciduous hardwood, could have been 
brought about it is difficult to determine, but as both the oak and 
yew are of about equal age, in all probability they had been planted 
intentionally closely together when seedlings, and so grown into 
one stem owing to their close contiguity. Tying of the two stems 
together may likewise have been resorted to; indeed, owing to 
their nearness to the public path, this is quite likely. 

No. 15. Ouster Pine (Ptnus Pinaster).— The numerous large 
specimens of this pine which are growing on the Holwood estate, 
particularly at Keston, clearly prove that the climate and soil of 
certain parts of Kent are well adapted for the perfect development 
of this tree. On the right side of the drive from Keston Lodge to 
the gardens are a number of unusually large specimens, which 
have evidently been planted at the same time as the Scots firs 
with which they are associated. The following are measurements 
of six of the largest : — 



No. 1— Height, . 

Girth of stem at 3 feet, . 
Do. do. 5 feet, . 

Cubic contents, . 
Diameter of spread of branches, 
No. 2— Height, . 

Girth of stem at 3 feet, . 
Do. do. 5 feet, . 

Cubic contents, . 
Diameter of spread of brandies, 
No. 3— Height, . 

Girth of stem at 3 feet, . 
Do. do. 5 feet, . 

Cubic contents, , 
Diameter of spread of branches, 
No. 4— Height, , 

Girth of stem at 3 feet, , 
Do. do. 5 feet, . 

Cubic contents, . 
Diameter of spread of brandies, 
No. 5 — Girth of stem at 3 feet, , 
Do. do. 5 feet, . 

Cubic contents, . 
Diameter of spread of brandies, 
No, 6— Height, , . . 

Girth of stem at 3 feet, , 
Do. do, 5 feet, . 

Cubic contents, . 
Diameter of spread of branches. 



Feet. 


Inches 


76 





8 


6 


8 


4 


92 





48 





85 





8 


8 


8 


7 


112 





45 





79 





8 


4 


8 


2 


97 





51 





73 





8 


4 


8 


1 


93 





33 





7 


10 


7 


9 


78 





51 





60 





8 


1 


8 





76 





48 






OLD AND REMARKABLE TREES ON HOLWOOD ESTATE, 315 

These trees are generally destitute of branclies to 40 or 50 feet 
up. In nearly every case the stems are perfectly straight, and 
with a very gradual taper, this being due to growing in close 
contact with other pines, and not allowed room to develop side 
branches. The bark on the stems is rough and rugged, and being 
of a pleasant light-brown colour, is readily distinguishable from that 
of any other tree. The soil is sandy, or rather gravelly, with a 
small admixture of peat, to a depth of a few inches. 

On the Eoman Camp are many specimens of the cluster pine, 
probably of the same age as the Scots firs among which they grow, 
and if so, were, in all probability, planted by Pitt when he owned 
the estate. One of the largest has a stem which girths 7 feet 10 
inches and 7 feet 6 inches at 3 feet and 5 feet from the ground, is 
67 feet in height, and contains 78 feet of wood. The Scots firs 
are not nearly so large as the cluster pines, and thus show that 
the Pinaster is by far the most rapid timber-producing tree. The 
soil of which the camp is composed is principally a rough gravel. 

Growing on the lawn in front of Holwood House is another old 
and weather-beaten cluster pine, which, with its mop head and 
branchless stem, affords a striking contrast to the weU-clothed and 
wide-spreading Cedars of Lebanon and evergreen oaks near which 
it stands. 

No. 16. Holly. — This tree is everywhere abundant, but particu- 
larly at Hollydale. The largest, however, is one growing in the 
grounds at Keston Lodge. At 3 feet and 5 feet from the ground 
the stem of this giant holly measures 9 feet 4 inches and 9 feet 
2 inches in circumference, and the branches cover a space 33 feet 
in diameter. The stem is enveloped in ivy, and the tree has 
suffered severely from the effects of the wind, the top being com- 
pletely broken off, as well as many of the larger side branches. The 
height is 32 feet, and the tree is perfectly healthy, and will no 
doubt survive in its present shattered condition for many years. 
It stands close to the gravel path leading from Hayward's Lodge 
to Keston Lake. At Hollydale a part of an old oak wood is 
almost all hollies, many of them being from 40 feet to 50 feet in 
height, and girthing fuUy 5 feet at a yard from the ground. The 
holly is quite naturalised at Holwood, seedlings springing up with 
the greatest freedom in all directions. 

No. 17. Birch. — The birch does not attain a large size at 
Holwood, the finest trees, with one or two exceptions, being at the 
Roman Camp and alongside the lakes. Immediately to the right 



310 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

of the green drive, where it crosses the Roman Camp, is a good 
example of this tree, and which, at 3 feet and 5 feet from the 
ground, girths 12 feet 2 inches and 12 feet 1 inch. At a few feet 
from the ground the stem divides into three limbs, whose girths 
at 3 feet from the fork are 5 feet 8 inches, 4 feet 1 inch, and 
3 feet 7 inches. The brandies have a spread of 57 feet in diameter, 
and the height is 62 feet. 

No. 18. Scots Fir. — Many of these trees were planted about one 
hundred years ago, particularly those on the Roman Camp, when 
Pitt owned the Holwood property. The planting of the Camp 
has been executed in an admirable manner, great skill being 
displayed in the arrangement of the various clumps, so that they 
present quite a natural appearance, especially when viewed from 
the centre of the area enclosed by the rarapions. The trees have 
been arranged generally in clumps of fives, sevens, and nines, but 
occasionally in twos and threes ; and single trees have also been 
used with telling effect in adorning these grounds. Immediately 
to the right of the remains of the old road from Csesar's Well to 
the Camp is a clump of Scots firs, seven in number, and planted 
in an oval. These trees are about an equal height, 68 feet, and 
the largest girths, at 3 feet and 5 feet from the ground, 6 feet 
10 inches and 6 feet 7 inches, while the distance apart at which 
they stand is 9 feet. Further along, towards Holwood House, 
another clump of seven trees, planted in circular form, is to be 
seen, the individual trees standing at only 5 feet apart. The 
largest tree of this clump girths 7 feet 3 inches and 6 feet 7 inches 
at 3 feet and 5 feet from the ground. Many other instances might 
be given of the formal planting of Scots firs on the Roman Camp, 
but those already given are enough to show the peculiar way 
in which these historic remains were rendered beautiful by tree- 
planting. 

Growing in the shrubbery at Holwood are several large Scots firs, 
two of which measure as follows : — 



No. 1— Height, . 

Girth of stem at 3 feet, 
Do. do, 5 feet, 

Diameter of branches, 
No. 2— Height, . 

Girth of stem at 3 feet, 
Do. do. ^ feet, 

Diameter of branches, 



Feet. 


Inches 


82 





10 


6 


9 


10 


35 





80 





8 


8 


8 


6 


33 






OLD AND REMARKABLE TREES ON HOLWOOD ESTATE. 317 



ect. 


Inches 


78 





8 


9 


8 


7 


45 





78 





9 


4 


9 


3 


57 






Growing on the lawn, and on opposite sides of a walk, are two 
other Scots firs of picturesque ai)pearance, the measurements of 
which are as follows : — 



No. 1— Height, . 

Girth of stem at 3 feet, 
Do. do. 5 feet, 

Diameter of branches, 
No. 2— Height, , 

Girth of stem at 3 feet. 
Do. do. 5 feet. 

Diameter of brandies, 



At Hollydale, in the park between the ponds, is an oval-shaped 
clump of eight Scots firs, planted 9 feet apart. The oval is 30 feet 
in length by 20 feet in width, and the outline is quite perfect. 
The largest, that nearest Hollydale House, girths 6 feet 6 inches 
at 3 feet from the ground, and 6 feet 1 inch at 5 feet up, the 
height being 52 feet. There is reason to believe that this clump 
was planted at the instigation of Pitt, who was very fond of 
imparting his knowledge of tree-planting to the owners of neigh- 
bouring estates. 

No. 19. White Poplar [Populus alba). — Of this handsome and 
fast-growing tree there are several fair examples in the grounds at 
Hollydale, where they attain a large size, in a dampish loam over- 
lying a bed of gravel. Growing near one of the lakes is a clean- 
stemmed specimen of this tree, which is not so remarkable for the 
girth as for the uniformity of its stem, the girth at 20 feet being 
very little less than that at a yard from the ground. The follow- 
ing are measurements of two of the cleanest and straightest 
specimens : — 



No. 1— Height, . 

Girth of stem at 3 feet, 
Do. do. 5 feet, 

Diameter of branches, 

Cubic contents. 
No. 2— Height, . 

Girth of stem at 3 feet. 
Do. do. 5 feet. 

Diameter of branches, 

Cubic contents, 



eet. 


Indies 


82 





8 


10 


8 


C) 


45 





97 





79 





8 


3 


8 


2 


57 





67 






No. 1 grows in the grounds at Hollydale, by the side of the 

VOL. XII., PART II. X 



318 TRANSACTIOXS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

public road ; and No. 2 occupies a prominent position close to tlie 
smaller pond at the same place. 

No. 20. Weymouth Pine (Pinus Strohus).—'No tree of this 
kind on the Holwuod property has as yet reached maturity, but 
several of large size and vigorous growth are to be met with. 
Growing on the ramps of the Roman Camp are several fine 
specimens, the largest of which we have measured having a stem 
girth 3 feet and 5 feet from the ground of G feet 8 inches and 6 
feet 3 inches respectively. The height is 72 feet, and the greatest 
spread of branches is 42 feet in diameter. In all probability these 
trees were planted at the same time as the Scots firs and cluster 
pines already mentioned, and if so, a fair estimate may be made 
as to the respective rates of growth of these three species of pines. 
Soil, a rich gravelly loam. 

No. 21. Wych or Scotch Elm. — Of this tree there is a large 
specimen on the south side of Holwood House, near to the public 
path. The dimensions are as follows : — Height, 72 feet ; diameter 
of branches, 66 feet; girth at 3 feet and 5 feet, 12 feet and 11 
feet ; and cubic contents, 162 feet. This fine specimen of a wych 
elm has a tall, straight, and well-formed stem, from the base 
of which few suckers are ever emitted. 

No. 22. Horse Chestnut. — A fine tree, which is not so remark- 
able for lar-ge dimensions as it is for symmetrical shape and 
ornamental aspect, stands near the road from Holwood House 
to Keston Church. Its dimensions are — Height, 54 feet; dia- 
meter of branches, 52 feet ; girth of stem at 3 and 5 feet, 7 feet 
9 inches and 7 feet 2 inches. This is the most remarkable 
specimen, so far at least as oinament is concerned, of the horse 
chestnut on the Holwood estate. It is gx'owing in a gravelly soil, 
on chalk. 

No. 23. Silver Fir. — The largest silver fir at Holwood is 
growing in the old oak wood which extends along the west side 
of the park, not far distant from the Five Island Pond. Another 
whose dimensions we also subjoin is growing in the shrubbery 
at Holwood House. The dimensions of both are as follows : — 







Feet. 


Inches 


Xo 


1— Height, ..... 


92 







Diameter of branches, . 


fi? 







(Jiith of stem at 3 feet, . 





7 




Do. do. 5 feet, . 


9 


3 




Cubic contents, .... 


12:j 






OLD AXD REMARKABLE TREES OX HOLWOOD ESTATE. 



319 





Feet 


Inches 


No. 2— Height, ..... 


89 





Diameter of brandies, . 


49 





Girth of stem at 3 feet, . 


7 


.> 


Do. do. 5 feet, . 




11 


Cubic contents, .... 


92 






No. 24. Spruce Fir. — In a few spots ou the estate where the 
soil is a heavy dampish loam, the spruce fir succeeds fairly well ; 
but where gravel and chalk predominate in the surface soil, the 
spruce is short-lived, and rarely attains a large size. One of the 
largest, cei'tainly the most ornamental from its peculiar weeping 
habit, is growing to the west of Holwood House on a gently 
sloping bank, and where its characteristic features are brought 
prominently before the visitor who chances to stray along the 
beautiful gi-een drives with which this part of the park abounds. 
This tree measures as follows : — 









Feet. 


Indies. 


Heiglit, . 






59 





Diameter of branches, . 






27 





Girth of stem at 3 feet, . 






7 


8 


Do. do. 5 feet, . 






7 


6 


Greatest length of weeping 


spi 


iiy. 


16 






No. 25. Hoi'se Chestnut (two trees) raised from seed brought 
by the Earl and Countess of Derby from Ferney, Lake of Geneva, 
March 1873. These trees are growing at the top of the concrete 
pond at Keston Lodge, and on the mai-gin of the carriage drive. 
They are both growing rapidly, the largest being 15 feet in height, 
and with a stem girthing 14 inches at a yard from the gi-ound. 

No. 26. Oaks. — A number of trees, raised from acorns planted 
for Mary, Countess of Derby, by Thomas Carlyle in October 1875. 
These are not in a flourishing condition, which can hardly be due 
to the soil, as other oaks growing in close proximity have attained 
to goodly proportions. The largest of these seedling oaks does 
not exceed 8 feet in height, and the average is 6 feet. 

No. 27. Quercus sessilis (Q. Rohur sessiliflora?). — This was 
reared in 1873 from an acorn brought from Burwood, Cranborne. 
It is 6 feet 7 inches in height, in a fairly healthy condition, and 
grows on the lawn, near thd entrance gate to Keston Lodge. 

No. 28. Flowering Ash (Ornus europceus). — There is a beautiful 
specimen of this interesting tree in the park in front of Hollydale 
House, which is a treat to view when in full flower. It is 35 feet 



320 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

in height, girths 4 feet 7 inches and 3 feet 11 inches at 3 feet 
and 5 feet from the ground, and has a spread of branches 27 feet 
in diameter. 

No. 29. Mulberry (Morus nigra). — This tree is growing within 
fifty yards of the latter, and in an open though partially shaded 
situation. It is fully 25 feet in height, girths 4 feet 8 inches at 
3 feet up, and 4 feet 7 inches at 5 feet from the ground, with a 
diameter of branches of 39 feet. Judging from the healthy 
appearance of this tree, it seems to be peculiarly well suited for 
the soil and climate of this part of Kent. 

No. 30. Purple Beech {Fagus sylvatica purpurea). — Of this 
very distinct variety of beech there are numerous examples, some 
being of a great size, while others exhibit the richest colouring of 
foliage. The largest occupies a conspicuous position on the sloping 
ground to the south of Holwood House, and is the best furnished 
specimen I have ever seen. At 3 feet and 5 feet from the ground 
the straight and well-rounded stem girths 11 feet and 10 feet 11 
inches, while the tree rises to fully 50 feet in height, and has a 
spread of branches 75 feet in diameter. The head of this tree is 
very shapely, and having at all times been allowed plenty of room 
for development the branches are long, lithe, and evenly distri- 
buted on the stem. The soil is a free and rich loam, resting on a 
bed of chalk. 

No. 31. Cut-leaved Alder (^Alnus glutinosa laciniata). — There 
are two specimens of this tree at Hollydale, both of about equal 
height and bulk of stem. The largest is growing on the margin of 
the lake, and almost opposite to Keston Lodge. It is 45 feet 
in height, is 6 feet and 5 feet 2 inches in girth at 3 feet and 
5 feet from the ground, and has a spread of branches 45 feet 
in diameter. Both trees are objects of great beauty, the plenti- 
fully and finely-divided foliage being a source of much attraction. 
This variety of alder seems to be veiy partial to water, much more 
so than the normal form ; indeed the finest specimens are always 
to be found growing with their roots within reach of water. 

No. 32. The Catalpa thrives with unusual luxuriance in the 
grounds at Hollydale. A specimen on the lawn is 40 feet in 
height, and girths, at 3 feet and 5 feet from the ground, 3 feet 
3 inches and 3 feet 2 inches. Owing fo being crowded in between 
a huge beech and a deciduous cypress, the spread of branches is 
not in proportion to the height, but otherwise it is perfect. 

No. 33. The Magnolia {Magnolia cordata) is represented by a 



OLD AND REMARKABLE TREES ON HOLWOOD ESTATE. 321 

large well-furnished tree, which seems to be quite at home in 
" The Garden of England," as Kent is designated. It is growing 
on the greensward within a few yards of the wall of Holly dale 
garden, and in a partially sheltered situation. When studded 
with its deliciously fragi-ant flowers, this tree is an object of much, 
admiration. The height is 52 feet- girth at 3 feet and 5 feet 
fi'om the ground 5 feet 1 1 inches and 5 feet 9 inches ; diameter of 
branches 45 feet. 

No. 34. The Umbrella Magnolia {Magnolia tripetala).— The 
leaves of this curious and handsome species are unusually large, 
and of a pleasing light green above, paler beneath, while the 
flowers are white, and produced about midsummer. About 14 
inches is the average length of the leaves, while they are fully 
5 inches in bi^eadth. The largest plant of this magnolia is 
growing within half-a-dozen yards of the M. cordata above 
described. 

No. 35. The Mexican Deciduous Cypress (Taxodium Mexi- 
canum) is not a tree that may be relied upon as perfectly hardy 
in this country. At Holly dale, growing on the lawn, there is 
a fairly good tree, straight as an arrow, and fully 35 feet in 
height, with a stem girthing 3 feet 3 inches at a yard from the 
ground. During early summer this is a tree of great beauty, the 
light fulvous green foliage being pleasing almost beyond descrip- 
tion. In autumn again it turns of a lovely pinky hue, and 
associates well with the majority of our forest trees whose foliage 
at that season is of a waning yellow. 

No. 36. The Tree Box (Buxus semj)ervirens arhorescens) has, in 
the grounds at Keston Lodge, attained to a height of fully 30 feet, 
and with a spread of branches 18 feet in diameter. The position 
in which it is planted is well sheltered, while the soil is a dampish 
loam incumbent on gravel. 



322 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



XV. Landscape and Economic Planting. By Charles S. 
France, Bridge of Dee, Aberdeen. 

Every one who travels and exercises those common attributes 
with which man is endowed — namely, the natural emotions 
of likes and dislikes in the objects which are always surrounding 
them, must be affected either pleasingly or otherwise by the pro- 
fusion and variety with which nature has adorned the landscape ; 
it may be by the rolling undulations of a comparatively flat 
country, by the sterile waste of the bleak muir or bare sandy 
down, or by the wild mountain range and precipitous crag. In 
these natural scenes the picture is invariably modified so as to 
relieve it of monotony and sameness by the sylvan beauties of 
our valleys, the disti'ibution of larger tracts of woodland and 
forest on the more elevated reaches, or, it may be, by small 
isolated clumps, here and there, either announcing where more 
trees have existed, or indicating where trees ought to grow. 
These, and many other features, are all calculated to evoke 
feelings of interest and admiration in proportion as they strike 
the eye from given points, and produce pleasing emotions, or 
otherwise by association, in the mind of the observer. 

Nature has thus provided many I'ich treats to the eye of the 
intelligent and thinking mind. These beautiful gradations of 
" wood and fell," of " light and shade," are calculated not only to 
touch the heart with the most gentle feelings, but are also intended 
to elevate and inspire the mind with high and holy emotions 
of reverence and awe, and 

" To trace in Nature's most minute desi^^n, 
The signature and stamp of Tower Divine." 

We must, then, admit that nothing approaches perfection in 
general beauty more than Nature if viewed aright. Still, even 
Nature has been subject to change, arising from many causes. 
Nothing on earth has escaped accident to its normal condition, 
nor has that which we call Nature had immunity from acci- 
dents and their influences. What we would call accidents to 
Nature have been brought about by many causes. It may have 
been the ruthless hand of the invader, the foi'ce of worldly 
circumstances, the uneducated work of man, or the convulsions 
of Nature herself. These and many other influences may have 



LANDSCAPE AND ECONOMIC PLANTING. 323 

interfered with the normal condition of Natui'e ; hence the neces- 
sity of human taste and skill being applied, in order to replace 
if possible what an abnormal state of things has brought about. 
This, then, in so far as it relates to our subject, is the work of the 
planter ; and we will endeavour in the course of this paper to lay 
down a few general principles by which this may be accomplished. 
We admit the ntter impossibility in the compass of a single 
essay to do anything but merely "tap the subject;" but we trust 
sufficient may be said to engender a desii'e for further and more 
minute study. 

Planting for landscape effect may, however, have other objects 
than merely replacing what the accidents of Nature have deranged. 
Special circumstances may demand, on given and limited areas, the 
production of a distinct and complete effect. In such a case, in 
order to produce beauty in accordance with true principles, it may 
be found necessary to act in opposition to the teachings of Nature 
in its widest meaning. Permit me to explain this. "We admit the 
natural distribution of trees in the landscape, both as an index to 
climate, soil, etc., to be economically the best guide. We further 
admit that in the distribution of colour, light, and shade. Nature 
is the best preceptor ; but we must also recollect that Nature is 
far reaching. We do not see the whole picture. It is beautiful 
and complete as a whole, but the eye of man can only see a part. 
That part is obviously imperfect, as its proportions only bear a 
relation to the whole. For example, if we take a beautiful picture 
and divide it into several parts ; looking at these parts separately, 
we will at once see grave inequalities both in colouring and relative 
propoi'tion. The incongruities of the parts could only be harmon- 
ised by seeing it as a whole, as all the details bear a relation 
to the whole, not to a part. The part inspected separately is a 
meaningless daub — the whole is an exquisite work of art. In 
like manner also it is with Nature ; we only see a part of the 
picture, and consequently we imagine we see certain incongruities. 
We then introduce art to elaborate on a small scale what 
Nature has done on a large. While it is right, therefore, to keep 
the laws of Nature in the forefront as the basis of beauty, 
it is not expedient to follow her in every detail, because wild 
Nature is not always and under all circumstances pleasing to 
the cultivated eye. 

We consequently introduce art, based upon Nature, but refined 
to the circumstances, to satisfy the demands of educated taste. In 



324 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

order that this may be attained, certain general rules, or first 
principles, must be carefully studied, and not only so, but the 
operator must be, by natural intuition and experience, able to 
apply these principles in a careful and discriminating manner, so 
as to produce the desired result. With the view, therefore, of 
assisting in this inquiry, we would as briefly as possible notice a 
few of the points which we deem necessary in order to ai'rive at 
au approximation of the truth on this subject. 

The first matter of study is the principles of Taste, as leading 
to the production of the Beautiful ; and, while it cannot be 
expected that we can go into an exhaustive discussion on the 
difTerent opinions that have been held on this subject, we may be 
permitted to draw the attention of the reader to what we consider 
are the more important points which seem to be germane to the 
mattei', and which may be useful to the student. 

The natui'e and the principles of taste are subjects which have 
been very fully treated by the following writers, — viz., Price, 
Knight, Burke, Allison, and Bepton, and, as showing the complex 
nature of the inquiry, it is a remarkable fact that no two of these 
great men have absolutely agreed. Loudon, again, has condensed 
the views of all the foregoing, and we would recommend his 
works, along with those of Price, Bepton, and Gilpin, as the best 
calculated to assist the student in the present inquiry, because 
they ti'eat of the subject from a purely landscape point of view, 
while most of the other writers have made it the subject of 
philosophical or rather psychological study. 

Price devotes his inquiry to the definition of the picturesque ; 
Burke endeavours (and has, perhaps, done more than any other) 
to illustrate what is " the Sublime and Beautiful ; " and Knight 
in many respects controverts the views of both, as well as some of 
those of the more practical Bepton. Allison, on the other hand, 
while clearly laying down lines of his own, summarising the 
truth, and casting aside errors, has, in his admirable " Disser- 
tation on the Nature and Principles of Taste," to a certain extent 
finished the discussion, by carefully eliminating the docti'ines of 
each from their fallacies, and bringing into clear relief what is 
really the definition of true taste. This has been expressively and 
succinctly given in a summary, which, for the benefit of the reader, 
I will shortly recapitulate in as near as possible the words of the 
author. The two primary objects of inquiry which he lays down 
are — First, " The investigation of these qualities that produce the 



LANDSCAPE AND ECONOMIC PLANTING. 325 

emotions of taste ; " Secondly, " The nature of the faculty by 
which these emotions are received." 

It will be obvious that the two qualities or objects should be 
considered together, for he says, " We can never ascertain what is 
beauty without having clear notions of the state of mind which it 
produces, and in its power of producing which its essence consists; 
and it is utterly impossible to ascertain what is the nature of the 
effect produced by beauty on the mind, till we can decide what 
ai-e the common properties that are found in all the objects that 
produce it." 

It would therefore appear that the view Allison held was, that 
the feelings which actuate our minds from the contemplation of 
beauty are not engendered by any physical or absolute quality 
in the objects we contemplate, but by the association in our 
imaginations of them with other objects which are interesting or 
affecting, such as love, pity, fear, veneration, or some other 
common or lively emotion of the mind. 

The fundamental principle of this theory is, that all objects are 
beautiful or tasteful, or even sublime, which suggest to our minds 
some simple emotion, such as love, pity, terror, or any other social 
or self affection of our natui-e, and that the beauty we ascribe to 
them consists in the power they have by association, or other- 
wise, of reminding us of the proper objects of these familiar 
affections, or of some other similar emotion which we have felt on 
a former occasion when identical feelings of the heart and mind 
were evoked. We are by no means prepared to give this theory 
an unqualified assent, because there are various arguments that 
may be advanced against it in its bare and skeleton form ; but as 
a safe basis from which to start, we think it may with certain 
qualifications be generally admitted. 

It may be said now, however, what has this to do with the main 
object of this paper 1 the doctrine is so speculative that it may be 
deemed as quite inapplicable. We will endeavour to show how it 
is completely germane, and thoroughly in keeping with our present 
object. There can be no doubt that in creating beautiful objects 
in the landscape, or in making the objects around us pleasing to 
the eye, all the qualities enumerated above must be understood 
and, if possible, so arranged as to evoke the emotions necessary to 
to constitute beauty or good taste. At one time smoothness and 
regularity may draw forth a feeling of pleasure, at another time 
ruggedness and irregulai'ity may have the same effect ; but these 



326 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

are relative either to objects immediately in association with them, 
or as bearing affinity to some other similar object created by past 
experience or recollection. "We will take an instance or two so 
as to illusti-ate our meaning. For example, see yon old ruin, 
the stones of which are gradually crumbling into decay, the 
green ivy clinging around it to shield it, as it were, from the 
damaging influence of the atmos})here. Examine it closely ; is it 
beautiful in itself? are those crumbling stones and lime inherently 
beautiful 1 No ; but the contemplation of that old structure is 
beautiful to the eye, because it carries the mind back to years long 
gone by. It may be the only remains of some departed glory in 
either Church or State, or it may be the link which ties the 
present with the memory of some great man, or some epoch in 
history which draws forth feelings of interest and respect, venera- 
tion, love, or pity ; or long ago within those walls may have been 
enacted some terrible tragedy, which even now produces a sense 
of horror in beholding the spot. See again, that old gnarled tree, 
it may be an oak, with twisted branches, hollow stem, and 
apparently existing only by a miracle in nature. In itself it is 
ugly, no symmetry, partially decayed, struggling for an existence, 
or perhaps dead altogether. Can there be beauty in it 1 Yes ; 
there is beauty to the mind that can be affected with past associa- 
tions. That tree may have withstood the blasts and convulsions 
of hundreds of years ; beneath its ample shade deeds may have 
been done which thrill the heart; or among its spreading boughs 
it may have hid one whose name is associated with historical 
events which intei'est and draw forth the tenderest or most 
patriotic emotions of the heart : consequently it is beautiful. Now, 
true taste is the creation or arrangement of existing objects of this 
or a kindred descrijition, so as to produce in the mind true beauty. 

Let us now endeavour to apply this in the further and more 
particular consideration of our subject, and in order that this may 
be done as perspicuously as possible, it is necessaiy that we should 
define the objects of ornamental planting. This we will shortly 
put under three heads — 

First. Planting around a countiy residence, or in the home 
park for ornamental purposes. 

Second. The general distribution of trees over a large area of 
country with the view to landscape efiect and general utility. 

Third. Hints on the distribution of different varieties of trees 
with a view to the pictures(]ue and beautiful. 



LANDSCAPE AND ECONOMIC PLANTING, 327 



1. The Ornamental Planting of the Grounds arotmcl a Countri/ 
Residence, or in the Home Park. 

As this is a branch of the subject which may be moi'e parti- 
cularly ^defined under the name of " Landscape Gardening," the 
sphere of operation is necessarily circumscribed, and has con- 
sequently to be dealt with as distinct from the larger question. 

The object of the distribution of woods, plantations, etc., in a 
home park may be said to be of a purely decorative or ornamental 
description, and while the principles of general utility must 
always be kept in view, they do not form so large a considei^ation 
as the question of creating a beautiful picture which shall be 
pleasing from various points of observation. 

The diihculties which ^jresent themselves to the landscape 
gardener in the carrying out of this are sometimes very great. 
While he is an artist supposed to execute a natural picture in 
accordance with the principles of good taste, he has at the same 
time often to create a picture, pleasing to a certain individual, his 
employer, who may not agree with him as to what is good taste. 
As already pretty fully adverted to, however, taste is an emotional 
quality of the mind, and therefore subject to many different altera- 
tions, in proportion (1.) to the constitution of the mental condition 
at given times ; and (2.) to the various circumstances which from 
time to time may affect it ; and consequently it is obvious that 
while there are certain very distinct lines by which the successful 
operator must be guided, he in many cases must make these 
subservient to the necessary variations of each particular case. 

It would be trespassing too much on the patience of the reader 
to go into details on this point, beyond merely adverting to it in 
passing. Moreover, our chief object is shortly to give some 
practical hints for general application, rather than to go into 
the theoretical phases of the subject, and delineate, as near as we 
can, the lines upon which the planter ought to proceed in adorning 
a home park. 

The first consideration is the nature and extent of the ground 
which has to be treated, and the situation of the mansion-house, 
or main object from which the different views of the effect are to be 
observed. This, therefore, being the point of greatest importance, 
it should be the centre from which the main body of the planta- 
tions should radiate, and while these need not be continuous, they 



328 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

shoiild have the appearance, at any distant point, of forming a 
principal feature of the park. The objects in this arrangement 
are various. It gives shelter and the appearance of wai'mth to 
the mansion, and can be utilised for covering up any necessary 
outbuildings which may interfere with its appearance ; at the 
same time, it can be made effective in closing up from the 
mansion any object not pleasing to the view in its immediate 
vicinity, such as stables or other buildings necessary to the 
establishment. From this main body or mass must then diverge 
all the lesser plantations, strips, or individual trees — in other 
words, the further distribution of trees in the park, which must, 
however, in all instances be relative to this initial point. 

In laying out this central body care should be taken to pi-eserve 
all fai'-stretching views from the mansion, either by vistas through 
the mass, or by larger openings, such as glades or partially 
enclosed spaces of grass, in order that fi-om several points at the 
mansion, or in the private grounds, pleasing views of distant 
objects may be preserved, as well as views of the farther woods 
in the park, or beyond its limits. 

In forming the more distant plantations, the shape which they 
are to take must be settled very much in accordance with the 
general nature of the gi'ound, as well as their relation to the main 
body. If the general surface of the ground is level, as in many 
parks in the midlands of England, straight avenues and individual 
trees are quite admissible, or even groups to give breadth at 
certain points ; and an informal mass on any point which will 
not obstruct a view may be introduced with good effect. The 
ground being level, the natural consequence is, that any given 
area looks much less than the same extent would do if it was hilly 
or rolling, and the introduction of properly distributed individual 
trees, groups, avenues, or, it may be, larger masses, gives an idea 
of extent, or lengthens the distance, which is here so much 
required. 

Should the ground be hilly or rolling, the treatment is differ- 
ent. Avenues should be avoided as much as possible — in fact, 
avenues on uneven surfaces are, as a rule, not in good taste, being 
too formal. The hills or rising ground should be ])lanted in 
irregular masses, and the lower ground left free from trees, because 
])lanting the hills always increases the effect, while planting the 
valleys, and leaving the hills bare, diminishes the idea of extent. 
These masses should be so distributed as to permit of views of the 



LANDSCAPE AND ECONOMIC PLANTING. 329 

intervening glades being seen at a distance. The planting of belts 
is, and lias been, very common in home parks, and no doubt there 
are cases in which they ai-e essential ; but as a rule they should 
be avoided for several reasons — (1.) because they are unprofitable ; 
(2.) they are too formal ; (3.) they are liable to convey the idea of 
being closed in; and (4.) they in many cases obstruct views of 
distant objects of interest which always ought to be conserved. 
Except therefore it may be for shelter, or to shut out or cover 
up some unsightly object, belts should not be adopted in park 
planting. 

This is a very cursory outline of a few of the different points 
to be observed in laying out plantations in a demesne or home 
park. There are, however, many other little details which natur- 
ally reveal themselves in order to satisfy taste and local cii'cuui- 
stances, but which could only be fully described on a given 
subject being presented to view, accompanied with a series of 
detailed drawings to illustrate the case. Our end being to lay 
down general principles rather than elaborated details, we allow 
each individual case to be treated as may be found necessary in 
accordance with these principles. 



2. The distribution of Trees over a large area of country, with 
the view to Landscape Effect and General Utility. 

We now approach the second head, and assume that the 
question is — the planting, or distribution of plantations, in a 
wide district, with the view to improve the landscape, as well as 
for general utility. 

It may be said that Nature is here the true preceptor to follow, 
because the object being more general and less of an artificial 
character, the adoption of Nature as the sole guide is the proper 
course. Now we are by no means prepared to admit this without 
a considerable qualification. In laying out a district for such a 
purpose as indicated, we must always bear in mind that, extended 
though the area may be as compared with the ornamenting of a 
demesne or home park, even here it is circumscribed as compared 
to Nature in its widest acceptation — in other words, we wish to 
make a complete picture of what is necessarily only a portion of 
the one great picture. Again, we must rectify and rearrange the 
accidents before referred to, with the view of bringing out true 



330 TRANSACTIONS OF KOYAL SCOTTISH ARCORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

beauty. To achieve tliis it may be necessary to depart in a great 
measure from those arbitrary rules which a study of Nature would 
inculcate, because here as well as under the former head, local 
circumstances, general utility, and the physical asj^ect of the 
ground, must all exercise an influence on the course which it is 
necessary to adopt. In proceeding practically to the carrying out 
of these ideas, it is necessary to consider and settle the quantity 
of ground to be planted, bearing in mind always only to plant the 
least valuable land, and also to consider and arrange the forms 
those plantations should take, and their relationship to each other, 
BO as to produce, as much as possible, a proper balance in the 
landscape, while at the same time having them so distributed as 
to render not only mutual shelter, but also shelter to the culti- 
vated land around them. 

In planting a large extent of country, the primary object is not 
so much landscape effect, although that ought to be very promi- 
nently kept in view, as the profitable covering of the less fertile 
land, the sheltering of neighbouring arable land, and, in short, 
devoting the ground as a whole to the most useful and profitable 
purposes. 

Having fixed the locality and extent of the different planta- 
tions, the next step is to arrange definitely the form or boundaries 
of each. "We may here premise that anything opposed to utility 
is bad taste, because otherwise the main object would be sacrificed 
to the less. "While irregular boundaries in a state of wild nature 
are generally the rule in a waste and uncultivable country, it 
would be eminently bad taste alongside of good arable land, where 
such an arrangement would entail much extra expense in the 
working and cultivation of the soil. In this case, therefore, 
straight boundaries along cultivated fields are by no means ugly 
or out of taste. Small groups or individual trees ought also to be 
avoided on such ground, as tending to incommode pi'ofitable 
cultivation, besides producing unprofitable timber. The ground 
selected for planting should generally be the least valuable ; but 
even at the sacrifice of a portion of the more fertile the planta- 
tions should be in good large masses, so distributed as to produce 
a pleasing effect, while at the same time laid out with the view to 
produce the best timber. Nature generally plants the valley, and 
leaves the hill tops bare. "We would, however, reverse this so 
far by planting the hills and leaving all the valleys or lowlands 
fit for cultivation bare of trees, while at the same time any 



LANDSCAPE AND ECONOMIC PLANTING. 331 

sheltered glens that are too narrow, or whose banks may be too 
steep for profitable cultivation, ought to be planted. In planting 
hillsides, it is always well to make the upper outline as irregular 
as possible, if it is impossible from the altitude to carry the 
plantation over or up to the top of the hill. In this case the 
irregular outline is better than a straight line. It is here we 
again apply the teaching of nature — first, because there is no 
economic object to be attained by a straight line, and it is here 
that rugged nature ought to be shown, as it conveys the idea that 
altitude or climatic influences have prevented the plantation from 
naturally existing higher. So much for the planting of a hilly 
or rolling country. 

On a level country, again, the treatment must be different. 
Large masses are not so essential, except, it may be, on a flat 
sterile plain too poor for profitable cultivation, in which case large 
masses are not only quite admissible, but the proper form for the 
plantations to take ; but in a rich and fertile district it would be 
too great a saci-itice of good ground. Smaller masses may be with 
advantage introduced, however, and hedgerow trees alongside of 
roads and lanes, but not in hedges or fences, as they, by their 
shelter or otherwise, might unduly interfere with the ripening of 
neighbouring crops. The ornamental object in planting level 
ground is not so much to create a ])icture, because the extent open 
to the vision is very limited, hence form or relative effect is not 
so apparent as to break the level surface, and in doing so enhance 
the beauty, by conveying an idea of extent and creating interest 
in the beholder, while the introduction of plantations breaks the 
damaging influences of prevailing winds, and shelters the inter- 
vening lands both for the production of crops and the pasturage 
of stock. 

Beauty being a purely relative quality dependent on the circum- 
stances under which it is contemplated, and the associations 
attached to either the object or the mind of the beholdei", it is 
quite possible that as much beauty may be conveyed by the 
beholding of a comparatively flat or even rolling country, rich in 
sylvan treasures, as in the wilder and more rugged scenery where 
woods and jagged crags are the prevailing objects in the landscape. 
Each has beauties peculiar to itself. It is then the duty of the 
planter to endeavour to realise what are the conditions necessary 
to produce their several efiects in accordance with the principles 
of good taste ; and it may be said that this consists in the most 



332 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

implicit attention being paid to the following — viz., " Utility, 
proportion, and unity, or the general harmonising of all the parts 
and cii'cumstances to the whole." 

3. Hints on the proper Distribution of Trees, with a view to 
Effect in the Landscape. 

We have hitherto been dealing entirely with those branches of 
the subject which may be classed under the following heads : — 
Taste, form, and the proper distribution of plantations in the land- 
scape under two different conditions — viz., in a home park with 
a view to oi'nament alone, and over a large area of country, where 
ornament and utility are each combined. 

We now desire to draw attention to the material by which these 
several objects may be best accomplished. 

In the case of the grounds surrounding a residence, be it small 
or large, the treatment must necessai'ily depend in some measm'e 
on the desire and peculiar taste of the proprietor, and that must 
be further qualified by the situation, soil, and other local circum- 
stances. In order to make a beautiful or pleasing arrangement of 
trees and shrubs, the fii'st consideration is, to use such plants as 
are likely to suit the locality and display their natural character- 
istics. Again, form must be closely studied so that trees which 
naturally assume certain distinct forms or shapes are introduced 
where such forms will be in keeping with the position occupied 
by them. We may class trees under three heads — Spiral-shaped, 
such as the spruce ; oblong-headed, such as the Lombardy poplar, 
and some of the cypress tribe; and round-headed, such as the oak, 
beech, and many other trees. As most plantations, whether they 
be large masses, groups, or clumps, are seen in profile, it must be 
obvious that the introduction of spiral-shaped trees as forming 
the mai'gin of any gi'oup, is not good taste, because they are 
too formal and stifi". Round-headed trees are, therefore, much 
more in keeping, because there is greater variety in the form of 
head and distribution of the branches, while as regards height 
they are more likely to form an uneven surface to the eye, and by 
that means give light and shade to the general picture. We 
therefoi'e recommend that in producing a pleasing effect by plant- 
ing groups or clumps, the pi'eponderance ought to be given to 
round-headed trees. At the same time the introduction of a 
spiral tree here and there may form a pleasing contrast ; but care 



LANDSCAPE AND ECONOMIC PLANTING, 333 

should be taken that they are only introduced so as to produce 
this, or it may be colour at given points. On the other hand, if 
they are planted in small groups, or one or two introduced along 
the margin of a thicket, or in the bottom of some dingle or 
sheltered spot where their form will not impi-operly interfere, the 
general effect will probably be enhanced. Again, on rocky or 
uneven surfaces, and among hills, the spiral-shaped trees are in 
their proper place ; indeed, it is their natural habitat. For 
general ornamental planting, we think that round or irregular 
headed ought to have the preponderance, with those of an oblong 
or fastigiate form sparingly introduced among them, as they blend 
better than the more formal spiral trees. 

Another very important point which must be kept in view is 
the selection of trees likely to attain a certain size and height ; 
and the commingling of those trees, so as to produce effect with- 
oiit conveying the idea of crowding. No doubt in planting it is 
necessary to plant at first pretty thickly, so as to encourage 
growth, and thereby enable the trees to assume their natural 
characteristics ; but in laying out mixed plantations for ornament, 
care should be taken to plant such trees as are intended to form 
the permanent crop, at such distances that they can be presex'ved 
in the subsequent thinnings. Ligneous plants are divided into 
two classes, viz., trees and shrubs; and each class varies materially 
in individual magnitude. A proper study therefore of this char- 
acteristic is of the first importance. 

The next point to be considered is the difierent kinds of trees 
most suitable for ornamental planting. As already hinted, this 
must greatly depend on circumstances — viz., soil, situation, and 
the object desired. The list from which the planter can select is, 
we may say, almost inexhaustible. 

Among trees which are indigenous to Britain we may enumerate 
the following : oak, ash, beech, Wych or Scots elm, English elm, 
sycamore, alder, birch, several species of willow and poplar, and 
last, though not least, we have the only indigenous member of the 
fir tribe in our Scottish pine. Among exotic kinds which have 
been introduced to Britain, none have furnished more choice 
species than the order of Coniferce; while many of the American 
maples judiciously distributed form a beautiful contrast of colour 
when blended with our more stern foliaged trees. In a paper 
such as this, it is unnecessary to give a list of the many trees and 
shrubs at the command of the planter, to enable him to produce 

VOL. XII., PART II. Y 



334 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

results satisfactory, not only to good taste, but also to utility. 
We therefore pass that over, and in the subsequent remarks will 
advert more to the disposition of varieties in ornamental planta- 
tions in relation to form. 

We will presume that the outlines of an existing plantation 
require to be bi-oken, and, to accomplish this, it is necessary to 
plant a group, or single trees, on the verge of this plantation. 
In doing this, regard must be had to what the body of the planta- 
tion is composed of. The introduced group ought to be the same ; 
by this means harmony and unity are produced, while if trees 
entirely different were planted, the opposite would be the effect. 
If, however, in the planting of a protuberance, or group, it is 
found necessary to make that protuberance more apparent, and 
show a more decided recess in the outline, one or two distinct 
trees, not too dissimilar in shape, but possessing greater depth of 
colour, may be introduced with advantage, without in any way 
detracting from the harmony. 

In general planting for ornament, it is held by some that mixed 
plantations furnish the greatest amount of beauty. Now this is 
a matter that is by no means clear, and cannot in our opinion be 
held as an arbitrary axiom. On the contrary it is subject to 
very great objection. By mixing up all varieties in general 
planting, there is no real variety, as the eye is always seeing the 
same thing, and, as Repton says, "Variety is destroyed by the 
excess of variety." But by grouping certain kinds by themselves 
this is not the case, because the eye passes from one gi^oup to the 
other, and hence receives, as it were, a fresh impression. We are 
therefore inclined to think that, as a general rule, the promiscuous 
mingling of varieties in a plantation is a mistake, and we would 
under all circumstances prefer the planting of each separate 
species in groups. These may be large or small as the cii'cum- 
stances may admit, but done in such a way as to prevent them 
from palling on our sense of beauty, by conveying an idea of 
sameness. 

Another point which we would refer to here is, what we 
would call the associations of trees. Different varieties of trees 
have attached to them certain attributes by association, either 
arising from historical connection, peciiliarity to certain soils or 
localities, or in connection with their generally-applied uses ; and, 
as the creation of objects of interest is one of the first considera- 
tions of the landscape gardener or planter, it is well that this 



LANDSCAPE AND ECONOMIC PLANTING. 335 

should not be overlooked. The oak and yew convey an idea of 
permanency, strength, and antiquity ; the cypress and the weeping 
willow an impression of veneration, the lime and sycamore of 
luxuriance, the alder and the mountain ash of poverty or sterility, 
and so on. It is well therefore that these qualities should be 
borne in mind, so that they may be either introduced where an 
impression in accordance with their distinctive associations is 
necessary, or calculated to produce interest ; or, on the other 
hand, avoided where such an association would be incongruous. 

We have endeavoured to condense in as short a space as 
possible what we consider the most important points on this head 
of the subject, but obviously much more could be said in order to 
make all points clear. Space, however, will not permit of oxir 
going more minutely into the subject, but we trust sufficient has 
been said to convey to the reader a fairly correct idea of the 
general principles prescribed. 

It is now necessary to advert very shortly to the distribution 
of different varieties ornamentally, where the plantations are on a 
more extended scale, and where the main object is the profitable 
adorning of the landscape. Under this head it must be under- 
stood that the principle object is utility, and that, in regard to 
the ground plan, it has been already pretty fully gone into. 
The chief matter now to be considered is, How to combine the 
greatest profit with the utmost possible beauty in general effect I 
We can conceive of no better disti-ibution of trees under these 
circumstances, than to plant in each situation the trees which 
are by nature best suited to it ; because, the more naturally the 
trees are distributed, the more will they display their inherent 
beauties, which we conceive is really true beauty. The pro- 
miscuous mixing of many different kinds of trees, some indigenous, 
some exotic, some evergreen, and some deciduous, without relation 
to their suitability to the soil and situation, is in our opinion not 
only devoid of beauty, but is, to say the least, vulgar. We do 
not in any way find fault with a mixture of different trees all 
likely to grow well, and produce not only good timber but show 
variety in foliage ; nay, we distinctly say that is perfectly good 
taste where it can be accomplished ; but that all lai'ge plantations 
should be so mixed, simply for variety in foliage or individual 
form alone, is preposterous. Let there be mixed plantations where 
they are likely to be profitable, but let there also be plantations 
of one variety, such as Scots fir, larch, oak, or even of some of 



33G TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

our more recently mtrodviced conifers, where they are likely to 
produce a really profitable crop. 

It is in such masses that trees of all kinds, if they are on their 
proper soil and situation, are most likely to display their true 
characteristics ; hence true beauty. There must be no patching 
here. Let everything be conceived and done in proportion to the 
extent of the work. No petty intermingling of patches of colour 
here and there will either add or detract from the general beauty 
of the design, if done in the way indicated. Where utility is 
accomplished, beauty exists ; and where proportion of design and 
harmony of outline and colour form the chief points, then the 
landscape may be said to be pleasing to the eye, and beautiful to 
the senses. 



ON THE ADVANTAGES OF FORMING BELTS OF PLANTATIONS. 337 



XVI. Oil the Advantages of forming Belts of Plantations on Hill 
Pasture Land. By Thomas Wilkie, Forestex*, Tyninghame, 
East Lothian. 

As an enormous number of sheep are grazed upon our hill pastures, 
and a large percentage of them are left there through the winter 
to find their food, in most cases upon cold bleak exposures, any 
means that can be adopted to add to their comfort and safety ought 
to be hailed with satisfaction. During severe storms thousands 
of them lose their lives, and others become so emaciated that 
many deaths follow, which means an almost incalculable loss to the 
owner. The knowledge of this ought to prompt us in our desires 
and endeavours to prevent suffering to the sheep and danger and 
anxiety to the shepherd. 

During the year 1885, there were stated to be, in the agricul- 
tural returns, 6,957,198 sheep in Scotland, and for the year ending 
4th June 1886, 6,603,611. It is a well-known fact that sheep 
have some natural premonition of the coming storm, as I have seen 
those on the higher elevations coming down six or eight miles on 
the approach of a storm to seek for shelter from its fury in the lower 
grounds. If shelter is not naturally provided there, we ought to 
adopt the best means at our command for forming it. 

But serious as is the loss of stock in times of storm, cold wet 
springs are often as destructive as is the winter's hurricane. Ewes 
become so weak and lean that they often are so reduced as to be 
unable to give birth to their young, or if they do, they fail to give 
the necessary support to them afterwards ; and thus we find the 
number of lambs very much less in severe seasons than in others of 
a more favourable nature. The past spring (1888) has been one 
of this severe description, and I have had reports from various 
quarters stating that it was one of the worst lambing seasons 
experienced for many years. All my correspondents agree in 
saying that had shelter been provided, a much less percentage of 
deaths would have resulted ; and several cases have been specially 
referred to where the death-rate has been much lower, owing to 
the presence and sheltering influences of plantations. 

In laying out belts of plantations on hills for shelter, the expe- 
rienced owner, or observant shepherd, should be consulted, as they 
are better acquainted with the peculiar and general wants of the land. 
It may, however, be unhesitatingly asserted that the plantations 



338 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

should be so laid out tliat shelter on all sides will be provided, in 
order that a more comfortable resting-place may be had, as well as 
the security of the stock provided for, and that irregular or crooked 
margins following along the base of a ridge running up and down 
the hill should be the fixed boundary lines. The width of these 
belts may vary according to the width of the ridge, and may be 
stated at from 100 to 250 yards, and the highest belt should be made 
the widest, say from 250 to 500 yards broad, so as to give increased 
density to resist the storm. In order that freedom be allowed to 
the stock to roam at pleasure in search of their food, I would sug- 
gest that no belt should extend continuously without a break every 
1000 or 1500 yards, and the higher and lower extremities of each 
should terminate in the hollows of the ground. Those lowest 
down, where it may be necessary to give artificial feeding, should 
have a broad base, enclosing a square or circular piece of unplanted 
ground, of such a size as may be necessary for the safe accommoda- 
tion of the stock, and so formed that it may be easily accessible in 
any emergency, advantage being always taken of any natural 
shelter. No belts should be formed near ravines or rivulets, 
where sheep may congregate and be suffocated under the accumu- 
lated depth of snow. Should a belt be required where no prominent 
ridge occurs, or on a neck of land where contrary currents meet, 
it must be formed of greater width. 

Draining may be necessary where the lower belts are to be 
formed, but if the ground is considered in a good condition for 
pasturing, I hold that fir plantations will grow without any more 
drainage. Better to shorten the length of the plantation than to 
have large ruts formed near the lower base, in which sheep may be 
lost or injured; and as I propose setting plants on ridges or 
" shanks," as they are locally termed, it will be understood that 
the ground will have a slope on at least three sides, hence stagnant 
water will seldom if ever be found. Pine timber absorbs a large 
amount of moisture, and unless where water is stagnant I would 
not recommend the formation of drains. 

Fencing is often one of the most expensive items in connection 
with the formation of plantations, but in the circumstances under 
consideration, shelter and not profit from the crop being the main 
oVjject, the fences ought to be of the best class. Where stones can 
be had, and the ground is not too steep for the erection of walls or 
stone dykes, these are the best for adoption ; but where too steep 
for their erection, or stones are absent, galvanised iron and wire 



ON THE ADVANTAGES OF FORMING BELTS OF PLANTATIONS, 339 

fences are the best and most durable. Short sections of stone 
dykes might, however, be erected in many instances, which would 
shelter both the newly-formed plantation and the grazing stock at 
the same time. In erecting the iron and wire fences, care should 
be taken that the holes in the iron standards are only as large as 
will allow the wire to be passed through, as, if the holes be larger 
and the wires have room to play, the constant movement produced 
by the wind, and consequent friction against the standards, causes 
the wires to be cut through in six or eight years especially at high 
altitudes. Both standards and wire should be of a strong descrip- 
tion, as the snow may gather in heavy wreaths and destroy the 
whole at a time when the damage cannot be repaired, and the 
stock thereby have access to, and might destroy the crop in the 
plantation. 

The best trees for the purpose are the Scots Fir (Pinus sylves- 
tris), the Austrian Pine (P. auslriaca), the Mountain Pine (P. 
moiilaua), the Birch (Ueiula alba), and the Mountain Ash (Pyrus 
Auciiparia), all well-known hardy trees, which, although planted at 
an altitude of 2000 or 3000 feet, will grow well, and produce the 
shelter required. At and under 1600 feet elevation the larch and 
Norway spruce {Abies excelsa) may also be used. The pines on the 
higher and drier portions of the ground should be mixed with the 
birch and mountain ash, and the lower belts planted on the same 
principle, but may have the larch set on the less exposed portions, 
with spruce and birch mixed in the dampest sections along with 
the Scots fir. The mountain pine need not be planted at elevations 
under 1200 feet. The plants at high altitudes, or above 800 feet, 
and those to be set on exposed promontories or bare margins, should 
be 1 year 1 year plants of the pines, and the birch and mountain ash 
6 inches to 9 inches in height. The lower belts, in cases where 
the herbage is rough, may be planted with 2 year 1 year ; or if at 
elevations of only a few hundred feet, 2 years 2 years pines and larch 
may be used, and also plants from 9 to 15 inches of birch and 
mountain ash. Wherever the surface is broken, birch seeds might 
advantageously be sown, and a few hazels set in the ground. All 
should be planted at 2| feet apart, with a view to encourage an 
early start and produce the desired effect as soon as possible. 

Remarks. — From 5 to 10 per cent, of sheep stock would be 
saved from suffocation in the snow, by the protection afforded to 
them by the sheltering plantations; and from 10 to 15, or even 
20 per cent, of ewes and lambs from death by the evil consequences 



340 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

of a cold wet spring. Then we may safely reckon that a much less 
percentage of the stock would be attacked by what is known as 
" trembling," and other diseases arising from cold and exposure, 
and hence the increased numbers and value of the stock, producing 
a greater return to the tenant, a larger rental to the proprietor, and 
cheaper meat and clothing to the people. If such are the approxi- 
mate results in bad seasons, we may also anticipate a favourable 
return in ordinary ones ; but without doubt we would produce a 
healthier and heavier stock, and I affirm that the pasture would be 
materially improved; it would come away sooner in the spring, 
and remain fresh later in the autumn. We would also be showing 
a proper feeling of sympathy towards the harmless sufferers from 
inclement Nature, and confer a boon and draw forth the praise of 
succeeding generations, as the plantations, if carefully attended to, 
would afford good shelter for 200 years to come. And let us hope 
that, before they are cleared, the fallen seeds will germinate and 
perpetuate the blessing. 



THE GIANT ARBOR-VITvE. 341 



XVII. The Giant Arhor-Vitce (Thuja gigantea). By A. D, 
Webster, Holwood, Kent. 

The climate of Great Britain is well suited for the culture of 
this handsome, fast^growing, and valuable timber-producing tree, 
as it thrives luxuriantly in a cool moist soil, and although intro- 
duced only thirty-six years ago, there are numerous specimens 
fully 70 feet in height to be met with in various parts of the 
country. 

Perhaps the name of no other tree has been the subject of 
so much confusion ; even the honour and date of its introduc- 
tion to Britain is a matter of dispute. Veitch's " Manual of 
Coniferse " states that it was introduced by them, through their 
collector, William Lobb, in 1853, — a statement which receives 
little credence from Edinburgh authorities ; for in the " Trans- 
actions and Proceedings of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh," 
1872, Mr James M'Nab tells us that " a Thuja, raised from seed, 
and proved to be the true Thuja gigantea (Yellow Cypress), is 
another acquisition first sent by Jeffrey. At first the seedlings 
resembled Thtija occidentalis, and little attention for a time was 
paid to them." 

This statement is rendered all the more probable by specimens 
taken from three of the ti'ees raised from seed sent home by 
Jeffrey to the Oregon Association, and now growing in the Botanic 
Garden at Edinburgh, which were recognised, about three years 
ago, by some of the Kew authorities as " forms of the true Thuja 
gigantea." It is also well to remember that both T. gigantea 
and the nearly allied T. plicata grow side by side in their native 
wilds, which, coupled with the fact that two more of Jeffrey's 
seedlings were recognised by the same authorities as T. plicata, 
goes far to substantiate Mr M'Nab's remarks. When sending 
the specimens to Kew for examination, the Curator of the Edin- 
burgh Botanic Garden stated they were from plants " raised from 
seeds sent to Edinburgh by Jeffrey in 1851." This statement, 
along with the recognition of the specimens by so high an authority 
as forms of the true T. gigantea, gives Jeff"rey's claim two years 
of priority over that of Lobb. The tree under notice has also 
been named T. Menziesii, and T. Lohhi. It is, however, the true 
T. gigantea which was first described by Nuttall in his " Plants 
of the Rocky Mountains," and this is now the recognised name. 



342 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Soil, Situation, and Exposure. — Professor Macoun, botanist to 
the Geological and Natural History Survey of Canada, tells me 
that he has always found the largest specimens of this tree in 
damp alluvial deposits; indeed, that it is almost unknown in the 
dry central plateau, but plentiful along the coast and rivers, as 
well as in the great mountain valleys. Judging from its growth 
on an estate in this country where it has been planted by the 
hundred, and under vai'ying circumstances as regards soil and 
situation, we should say that a deep and dampish sandy loam 
best suits the Giant Arbor- Vitse, although we have seen it doing 
well and forming timber rapidly on decayed vegetable refuse, 
rocky slate debris, gravelly loam, loam of a plastic clayey nature, 
and well-drained peat bog. In each case, however, abundance of 
moisture was present in the soil — not stagnant, but sufficient to 
keep the soil in a dampish condiiion, and prevent it becoming 
dust-dry even in the hottest and driest of summers. We measured 
recently several specimens of this tree, which were planted twenty- 
five years ago in a deep, rich, sandy loam resting on gravel, with 
a deep surface layer of decayed vegetable matter, and found the 
average annual upward growth to be 2 feet 8 inches ; whereas 
others, planted at the same time on a fairly rich but rather dry 
gravelly loam, had made hardly 2 feet. Of twenty-four trees 
measured, the average annual growth was found to be 22 inches; 
but no special cai'e, either in the planting of the trees or choice 
of soil, had been bestowed on them. On reclaimed bog the upward 
growth of the tree is surprising, several specimens having formed 
a leading shoot of fully 37 inches annually. The bog, previous 
to draining and reclaiming, was used for peat-making, but at the 
time of planting a small quantity of soil was added to the pits in 
which the Thuja was placed. As an expeiiment, we some yeai'S 
ago formed a small plantation of this tree in a well-sheltered piece 
of ground near the sea-level, and about two miles inland ; but as 
the soil was of a stiff and cold nature, though perfectly drained, 
the plants did not at first succeed as well as could have been 
desired. Now, however, that they have established themselves, 
growth has become rapid — far more so than temporary trees which 
were mixed with them, to be removed at an early date. The soil 
was of a half-clayey and half-boggy nature, which, previous to 
being drained, cut like cheese, but when exposed to the atmosphere 
for a length of time, crumljled down, and was then well fitted for 
plant growth. 



THE GIANT ARBOR-VIT^. 343 

Some of the largest specimens of the Giant Arbor-Yitse that I 
know of are growing in alluvial matter, which has been deposited 
by a rapid-flowing English river, this being largely commingled 
with rocky debris carried down from the hills by the stream. 
One of these, pei-haps the largest, was, when I measured it in 
July 1887, 76 feet in height, with a trunk girthing 4 feet 11 
inches at a yard from the ground, and 4 feet 8 inches at 5 feet 
up ; the diameter of branches being 15 feet. Others in the same 
place ranged from 50 feet in height upwards, with straight, clean, 
and well-formed stems ; the situation was sheltered, and the trees 
were planted among old specimens of the English oak, elm, and 
ash, as well as a few Eastern spruces, Douglas firs, and Weymouth 
pines. At Hafodunos, in North Wales, this tree grows with great 
luxuriance, and this is all the more remarkable, as the site is in a 
romantic mountain valley, and fully exposed, at over 900 feet 
altitude. We were quite surprised to see how well these trees did 
at that altitude, the growths being long and well-matured, while 
foliage of the most healthy description was abundantly produced. 
It is questionable whether any other of the newer conifers, except- 
ing perhaps the Austrian and Corsican pines, would have succeeded 
so well under similar conditions. In the pai-k at the same place, 
and at altitudes ranging from 700 feet to nearly 900 feet, this 
fine tree is everywhere seen in the most luxuriant condition, thus 
demonsti'ating its great value for planting in high-lying and 
breezy situations. The soil here is a rich sandy loam, resting on 
broken whinstone. In the chalky districts of Kent the Giant 
Arbor-Vitse is likewise quite at home, although the annual growth 
does not appi'oach that on heavier and damper soil. 

Sir C. W. Strickland writes to say, that at Hildenley, Malton, 
Yorkshire, he has this Thuja thriving well in good alluvial soil, 
and also in that of a very opposite description. " There is a 
hillside here," says Sir Charles, " with a thin soil upon limestone 
rock, which I planted two or three times over with larch with very 
small success — chiefly, I believe, on account of the extreme dry- 
ness of the site. The Thuja grows there with great vigour, and 
I have scarcely lost one of those planted. Among the other 
merits of this Thuja is the ease with which it can be transplanted, 
owing to its having bushy fibrous roots, instead of the long tangles 
which larch and many other conifers have." 

There can be little doubt, however, that in this country the 
Giant Arbor- Yita^ thrives better when planted in i-ich dampish soil, 



344 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

than in light dry loam or gravel. Even when young in the 
nursery, we have noticed the preference of this tree for a cool 
moist soil, seedlings placed in light warm loam succeeding very 
indifferently. As to situation or exposure to wind, the Giant 
Arbor-Vitse is almost totally indifferent, for we have planted it at 
750 feet altitude on the hill-side, where almost fully exposed to 
the south-west wind, and with every prospect of its attaining 
goodly proportions in years to come. 

We cannot, however, exj^ect the Giant Arbor- Vitpe to attain 
the large dimensions on the wind-swept hill-side which it does 
in the warm and sheltered valley ; yet it is well suited for high- 
lying and breezy situations in this country. At Benmore, in 
Argyleshire, it is thriving luxuriantly at high altitudes, and in a 
few instances, where planted in alluvial soil, it rivals the larch as 
a rapid grower. Thuja gigantea is also one of the few trees 
which the Prussian Government is introducing as useful additions 
to the State forests. 

Quality of Timber. — The timber of this tree, as produced in its 
native wilds, is, as every one knows who had the privilege to 
behold the huge logs and well-dressed planks in the Canadian 
Court of the late Colonial and Indian Exhibition, of very superior 
quality, and held in high esteem in its native country for construc- 
tive purposes, particularly by the cabinetmaker and boat-builder. 
Being fine in the grain, of a yellowish-brown coloui", easily worked, 
remarkably durable, and light in proportion to its bulk, it is 
extensively used in the manufacture of furniture, for shingles, 
household utensils, fencing purposes, and in the erection of houses 
and outbuildings. On account of its lasting qualities, but parti- 
cularly when subjected to dry and damp alternately, it has been 
used largely for piles, while many of the canoes and boats made 
on Vancouver Island are formed of this wood. It has been 
recorded that in the repairing of an old fort in North- West 
America, the only log found sound after twenty-one years' trial 
was one of the Giant Ai'bor-Vitse. 

Professor Macoun told me that the huge log exhibited at the 
Colonial Exhibition, and which was no less than 21 feet in girth, 
and taken from a tree 150 feet in height, might be considered as 
a fair sample of what was produced under favourable circum- 
stances, and that the average dimensions reached by this stately 
tree are but little less. The largest trees are usually hollow 
for a short distance up the stem, but even then the outer 



THE GIANT ARBOR-VITiE. 345 

timber is perfectly sound and well fitted for constructive pur- 
poses. 

For making large pillars or columns it is peculiarly well suited, 
being so even of grain, susceptible of a nice polish, and of a most 
desirable rich colour ; qualities which were well set forth in the 
Exhibition by the large and beautifully carved posts which once 
ornamented the Indian villages of the Queen Charlotte Islands. 

In No. 1 Museum at Kew there are some interesting specimens 
of the wood, including a stave and several sections, as well as a 
hat, shawl, and mat made from the fibrous bark. This fibre of 
the inner bark is largely used by the Indian tribes for making 
articles of dress, ropes, and mats. 

It is premature to speak of the value of the timber of Thuja 
gigantea produced in this country, as sufficient time has not 
elapsed since the tree was introduced for the timber to become 
matured. We have, however, used the timber of trees of thirty 
years' growth, and, on comparing it with that produced in its 
native habitat, the differences were few indeed ; the same yellowish 
tinge and compact though light nature being quite apparent in the 
home-grown wood. A friend who cultivated this tree largely on 
an estate in the north of Ireland, and who has used the wood, 
tells us that it is " firm and of good quality, quite upholding the 
published descriptions of foreign-grown timber of the same kind." 

Judging by present appeai-ance, and the many uses to which 
it is applied in its native country, there can be little doubt that 
the timber grown in the British Isles will be of excellent quality, 
and when produced in sufficient quantity will be largely used in 
the arts and manufactures. 

The headquarters of this tree. Professor Macoun tells us, may 
be said to be the north-west coast of the United States. In the 
Columbia valley it forms vast forests, and in the valley of the 
Beaver it attains large dimensions, specimens 150 feet in height, 
with a diameter of 10 feet, being not at all uncommon. At an 
altitude of 6000 feet, along the line of the Canadian Pacific 
Railway, it occurs as a mere shrub, but gradually increases in size 
as it descends the hills, until in the fertile valleys it attains to full 
dimensions, with beautifully straight and clean stems that ai'e 
branchless for nearly half their height. 

Ornamental Qualities. — As an ornamental tree, Thuja gigantea 
is well worthy of attention, the bright green graceful foliage being 
pleasing in the extreme, imparting to the tree a contour that is 



34G TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

highly desirable among hardy conifers. The stem is well clothed 
■with irregularly- arranged branches, which are short in proportion 
to the height of the tree, the branch diameter of a specimen 50 
feet high rarely exceeding 12 feet, thus giving the tree an easy 
columnar habit that rarely fails to attract the attention of even 
the most unobservant. 

The branches are placed at right angles to the stem, or nearly 
so, with the tips curving upwards. They are very flexible, and 
densely covered with scale-like finely-pointed leaves, which are of 
a bright glossy green above, and glaucous beneath. The cones 
are fully half an inch long, clustered near the ends of the branches, 
and borne in greatest abundance on the top half of the trees. 
When ripe in October and November, they impart, from their 
great numbers and light brown colour, a by no means uninterest- 
ing feature to the trees. So pliant is the leading shoot, that we 
have frequently tied it in a knot, and, when released, it sprung 
back to the original position without the least damage. This 
pliability of the young wood renders accidents to the tree of rai-e 
occurrence. During ten years' residence on an English estate, 
where the Giant Arbor- Vitse was planted in great quantities, we 
never knew an instance of this tree having suffered from the wind. 
Even during the memorable " Tay Bridge gale," when nearly 
every other species of tree was more or less maimed, this tree 
stood unharmed. 

As a specimen on the lawn the Giant Arbor- Vitse will ever hold 
a high position ; but to be shown off to perfection it requires a 
background of darker-foliaged trees or shrubs, such as the yew, 
holly, laurel, and others whose foliage is of a darker hue. Placed 
along the outskirts of plantations, particularly of hardwood, it has 
a telling effect, more especially where visible from the drives, and 
where a bit of green in the winter landscape is of importance. 
Unlike Thuja occidentalis, the foliage does not turn to a rusty 
brown during the autumn and winter, but remains a bright and 
pleasant green ; indeed, this is an unerring point of difference 
between these two species of Arbor- Vitai. For filling up gaps 
where other trees have been uprooted by the wind the Giant Arbor- 
Vitae is peculiarly well adapted, by reason of the narrow spread of 
its branches, this being a matter of much moment in the choice 
of forest trees for filling up open spaces in woods and plantations. 
We have used it largely for the purpose, and may say that for 
planting where space is limited it is one of our most valuable 



THE GIANT ARBOR-VIT^. 347 

evergreen trees, luxuriating even where interfered with by the 
branches of neighbouring trees, and where neither light nor air 
can freely penetrate. 

The bark of the Giant Arbor- Vitse is of a warm and pleasant 
brown colour, thin and smooth in texture, and where glimpses of 
it are revealed here and there along the stem it forms a striking 
contrast to the bright green of the foliage. 

Nursery Management. — The cones are collected in October and 
November, and after being thoroughly dried by exposure to wind 
and sunshine, are carefully stowed away in shallow boxes in a dry 
and airy loft, until wanted for sowing in spring. We have found 
it advisable not to sift the seeds from the husks, because, by 
allowing the latter to remain, a greater quantity of air permeates 
the mass, and thus to a great extent damping is prevented. It 
is, however, well to turn and disturb the whole mass two or three 
times dui'ing the winter, and if this can be accomplished on a dry 
day in the open air, so much the better. 

When wanted for sowing, the seed should be passed through 
a |--inch riddle, to clear it of cones and rubbish. In preparing 
the seed-beds (which should be in a sheltered situation in the open 
air), let the soil be deeply dug and left exposed to the influence 
of the weather, especially frost, for a considei'able time, as this 
has a most ameliorating action upon it. Should the soil be 
ordinary loam, let leaf-soil and silver sand be freely incorporated 
with it, mixing the whole well together with a digging-fork. The 
beds may be formed 4 feet wide, of any convenient length, and 
divided by alleys 1 foot broad. Rake the surface well, to remove 
hard clods and stones, leaving it in a free open state for the recep- 
tion of the seeds. Level and smooth the surface with a light 
roller, taking care that it does not excessively harden the soil. 
Sow the seed thinly and evenly, either broadcast over the surface 
or in lines, as may be found most convenient. By sowing in lines 
a great saving of seed is effected, and greater regularity at the 
same time secured. The lines are formed 2 inches apart, and 
hardly \ inch deep. In covering the seeds great care is neces- 
sary, so that they may not be buried too deeply, and to avoid 
this the soil should be distributed from a finely-meshed riddle. 
This, in the hands of an experienced man, is used with great 
freedom, and the soil distributed evenly and not too thickly. The 
soil used for covering should be of a light sandy nature, free from 
lumps or stones, and moderately rich. No beating of the surface 
of the beds with the back of a spade should be permitted, as this 



348 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

causes the soil to bake and become full of cracks, and thus numbers 
of the seed are lost. Sowing should not take place until April 
or May, and dry weather must be cliosen for this work, as well 
as for the formation of the beds. Should dry parching weather 
prevail for any length of time after sowing, watering may be 
resorted to with great benefit, using a fine-rosed watering-can and 
rain water if j^rocurable. 

When the young plants begin to appear, shading from direct 
sunshine will be highly beneficial, and this can easily be done by 
sticking a few spruce branches around the beds, particularly on 
the southern and western sides. The beds should be kept at all 
times clean and free fi'om weeds, which is best performed by hand- 
picking during dripping weather, as at such a time the young 
plants are less apt to suffer fx'om root disturbance caused by the 
extraction of the weeds. As the seedlings will have to remain for 
one winter at least in the beds before they are large enough for 
planting out, it is probable that numbers of them will be raised 
up by the frost, and in such cases a quantity of fine sandy soil, 
evenly sifted amongst them, will soon set matters right. Should 
the young plants come up too closely, it is wise policy to thin out 
the smaller for the benefit of the remaining ones. 

When they have attained a size suflicient for handling, they 
should be carefully lifted with a fork, and planted in previously 
prepared soil — not in too sheltered a portion, but where the wind 
can have free access to them. The size of the plants will form a 
guide as to the distance apart at which they should be planted ; 
but seedlings of the second year may be placed at about 4 inches 
apart in the rows, and 9 inches from line to line. Spread the 
roots well out in planting, laying them out to their full extent on 
all sides of the plant. After remaining for two years in this 
position, the young plants should again be transplanted into well- 
eni'iched ground, their individual sizes forming, at this stage of 
their growth, the best criterion as to the distance apart at which 
they should be placed. 

In planting, however, the method usually adopted of taking out 
a notch and placing the plant close against the perpendicular side, 
will not do, as by such a course of treatment the roots are caused 
to diverge to one side, and when the trees are jjlanted out perma- 
nently they usually topple over during the first hard-blowing gale. 
The best method we know of, and one that we have adopted with 
success, is to take out a notch on each side of the line, and partly 
level the ridge under the latter, the centre of the crown of each 



THE GIANT ARBOR-VIT.E. 349 

plant being placed exactly where the line struck, and the roots 
spread evenly into the notches on each side. By so doing, the 
roots are trained from infancy in the positions they should occupy, 
and, forming a whorl round the base of the stem, they are enabled 
to collect food from all quarters, and the trees are far less liable to 
be upset during a gale. 

Propagation of this Thuja is also effected by cuttings, but these 
seldom form such well-shaped trees as those produced from seed. 
However, as on many estates seeds are difficult to procure, and 
young plants have to be raised from cuttings, the following method 
may be practised with the best success : — 

Early in September take off young shoots of the current season 
with a small portion of the previous year's wood, and insert these 
in sandy loam in a border facing north. In choosing the cuttings, 
those from the south side of the ti'ee where fully exposed to 
light and air root more freely, and produce better plants, than 
those from the shady side. Press the soil firmly round the 
cuttings, and scatter a little sharp sand on the surface, just suffi- 
cient to hide the soil. Should severe frost set in during the 
winter, it may be well to make a temporary erection, and cover 
over with a few old mats, straw, or any other convenient material, 
which will to some extent ward off the frost, and thus prevent 
the cuttings being lifted out of the ground. The two special 
points to be attended to in raising cuttings of this Thuja are to 
insert them sufficiently early in the season, so that they may get 
callused before the winter sets in, and to prevent the sun's rays 
striking them for any length of time until the roots are formed. 
By the end of the second year the cuttings will be ready for 
planting into nursery lines, which operation is similar in all 
i-espects to that recommended for seedlings. Generally speaking, 
plants raised fi'om cuttings are difficult to get to start away freely, 
they having an inclination to form a spreading head, which must 
be connected by pruning at an early stage of their growth. 

Grafting is another method of px'opagating the Giant Thuja, 
and one that is commonly practised on the Continent ; and it has 
this advantage, that larger plants are formed in less time than 
from either cuttings or seeds. The stock used is Thuja occiden- 
talism a vigorous growing and hardy species, and the operation is 
performed both in spring and summer, but more satisfactory 
results have been obtained by grafting in August than at any 
other time, for the following reasons : — By grafting in August the 

VOL. XII., PART IT. Z 



350 TRANSACnOXS OF UOYAL SCOTTISH AKBOUICULTUUAL SOCIETY. 

scion gets hold of the stock in autuinn, and although actual 
gi'owth does not take place during the winter, yet with the 
protection of glass the union of the scion and stock goes on and 
is perfected, so that when a start to grow is made in spring the 
one seldom shows any inclination to get rid of the other, as is not 
unfrequently the case when the operation has been performed in 
spring. Spring grafting must be performed in a warm close house, 
and unless hardening off is practised with a great amount of 
caution, many of the plants will cast their scions when the sap 
begins to move quickly. The stocks should be potted up in 
spring for autumn grafting, as by that time they are established 
and in the best condition for operating upon. 

Recapitulation. — From these observations of the growth, hardi- 
hood, and valuable timber-producing qualities of lliuja cjiyantea, 
there can be little doubt that it is one of the most useful forest 
trees that have yet found their way into this country ; and in 
point of general utility it is well entitled to rank with such other 
tried and valuable introductions as the Douglas fir, the Corsican, 
Austrian, and Weymouth pines, and that desirable silver fir, 
Abies Nordmanniana. Its perfect hardihood in even the coldest 
])ortions of the British Isles is now well known ; while in Switzer- 
land and Germany, where very fevv of our best conifers can with- 
stand the too often semi-arctic wintei", this tree is highly prized, 
and is a great favourite with j)lanters. Then, again, it withstands 
exposure to long-continued and hard, biting winds better than 
almost any other tree ; its lithe branches and supple leading shoot 
I'endering it peculiarly well adapted for exposed i)Ositions. 

It cannot be said to be particular about soil, for, as has been 
stated, goodly specimens have been produced in this country on 
soil of the most opposite descrii)tions, although, at the same time, 
that of a rich, moist, and open nature is pi'eferred. The rate of 
growth is very rapid, surpassing that of most of our cultivated 
ti-ees, while the timber is of superior quality, and the branch 
spread narrow in proportion to the tree's height — all valuable 
qualities in a conifer for general forest purposes. 

As an ornamental conifer it ranks high, and has already received 
a great amount of attention in this way ; while the extreme ease 
with which it may be propagated is another point that is greatly 
in its favour, and which will, in conjunction with its other good 
qualities, cause it at no distant date to be lai'gely used for economic 
jilantiug both at home and abroad. 



TABLES FOR THE CONVERSION OF MEASUREMENTS. 



351 



XV III. Tables for the Conversion of Measnrements from one 
Denominallon to another. By Colonel F. Bailey, R.E. 

Example to show the manner of using the Tables. 

Convert 341-27 Hectares to Acres. 



Decimals 



hkct. 


(c) ACRES. 






*1 = 


2-471 





9 


2 = 

3 = 

4 = 
5- 


(c/)4 - 9 4 2 

7 - 4 l(a)3 

9 - 8(6)8 4 

12-355 


1 
2 

3 

4 


8 
7 
6 
5 


6 = 


14-826 


5 


4 


7 = 


(^)l 7-297 


6 


3 


8 = 


19-768 


7 


2 


9 = 


2 2-239 


8 


1 




-ii -i i ii iii iv 


V 


vi 



Whole 
nuiiibeis. 



1 Hectare is equal to 2-47109 acres ; and so on in all the other Tables. 



3 in the 


3d place 


of 


wliole numbers gives. 




741-327 


4 ,, 


2d ,, 




,, ,, 




98-843 


1 ., 


Ist ,, 




,, ,, 




2-471 


2 


1st ,, 




decimals gives . 




-494 


7 ,, 


2d „ 




„ • . 




-172 








Answer, 


. Acres, 


843-307 



To I'ead off the first of these numbers. — Place the point of a 
pencil at («), i.e., at the point where the line (3) meets the line 
(iii). This indicates the position of the decimal point. 

To read the second. — Place it at (6) where the line (4) meets the 
line (ii). 

To read the other numbers, — Place it successively at (c), (d), and 
(e). With a little practice this can be done very rapidly. The 
calculation is made by copying figures and simple addition only. 
Complete accuracy can be assured to any required number of 
decimal places by extending the Tables, 

The Tables occupy a very small space, and by using them there 
is less liability to error than if the conversion were effected by 
multiplication or division. 



352 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH AUUOKICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Decimals 



Metres to Inches (Linear). 



MKT. 








INCHKS. 








1 = 




3 


9 


3 7 


4 


2 


3 


2 = 




7 


8 


7 4 


8 


4 


G 


3 = 


1 


1 


8 


1 1 1 


2 


G 


9 


4 = 


1 


5 


7 


4 8 1 





9 


2 


= 


1 





n 


8 5 2 


1 


1 


5 


G = 


2 


3 


6 


2 2 2 


5 


3 


8 


1 - 


2 


7 


5 


5 9 2 


9 


G 


1 


8 = 


3 


1 


4 


9 6 3 


3 


8 


4 


9 = 


3 


5 
ii 


4 

•i 


3 3 3 


8 





7 




•iii 


L ii iii 


iv 


V 


vi vii 



Wliole 
nuinbers 



Decimals 



Metres to Feet (Linear 



MET. 








FEET. 






1- 




q 


• 2 


8 8 


G 


9 


2 = 




e 


• 5 


6 1 7 


3 


8 


3 = 




r 


• 8 


4 2 G 





7 


4 = 


1 


*^ 


. • 1 


2 3 4 


7 


G 


5 = 


1 


c 


• 4 


4 3 


4 


5 


G = 


1 


c 


) • 6 


8 5 2 


1 


4 


7 = 


2 


: 


I • 9 


G 6 


8 


3 


8 = 


2 


( 


5 • 2 


4 G 9 


5 


2 


9 = 


2 


C 


) • 5 


2 7 8 


2 

V 


1 
vi vii 




•ii 


i 


i 


ii iii iv 



Whole 
nunil)ers, 



Kilometres to Miles (Linear). 



Deriinals 



KILO. 






MILES. 






1 --= 




G 


2 13 7 


6 7 G 




2 = 


1 • 


2 


4 2 7 5 


3 5 2 




3 = 


1 • 


8 


G 4 1 3 


2 8 




4 = 


2 ■ 


4 


8 5 5 


7 4 




5 = 


3 • 


1 


G 8 8 


3 8 




G = 


3 


7 


2 8 2 G 


5 6 




7 = 


4 • 


3 


4 9 6 3 


7 3 2 




8 = 


4 • 


9 


7 10 1 


4 8 




9 = 


5 • 


5 


9 2 3 9 


8 4 

1 1 1 






•i i 


ii 


iii iv V vi vii viii ix 


Whole 
luinibers 



TABLES FOR THE CONVEBSION OF MEASUREMENTS. 



353 



Decimals 



Hectares to Acres (Square) 



HECT. 






ACRES. 






1 = 




2 


•471 





9 


2 = 




4 


9 4 2 


1 


8 


3 = 




7 


4 1 3 


2 


7 


4 = 




9 


8 8 4 


3 


6 


5 = 


1 


2 


3 5 5 


4 


5 


6r= 


1 


4 


8 2 6 


5 


4 


7 = 


1 


7 


2 9 7 


6 


3 


8 = 


1 


9 


7 6 8 


7 


2 


9 = 


2 


2 


2 3 9 


8 


1 




•ii 


•i 


ii iii iv 


V 


vi 



Whole 
numbers. 



Decimals 



Hectares to Miles (Square). 



HECT. 






SQUARE MILES. 






1 = 




) • 


3 8 6 


1 


1 


2 = 




) • 


7 7 2 


2 


1 


3 = 




) • 


115 8 


3 


2 


4 = 




) • 


15 4 4 


4 


3 


5 = 




) • 


19 3 


5 


4 


6 = 




) • 


2 3 16 


6 


5 


7 = 




) • 


2 7 2 


7 


5 


8-- 




) • 


3 8 8 


8 


6 


9 = 


1 


) • 


3 4 7 4 


9 


7 
1 1 


1 
•i 


i ii 


iii iv V vi vii viii 



Whole 
numbers. 



Decimals 



Kilometres to Miles (Square). 



KILO. 






SQUARE MILES. 








1- 




• 3 


8 6 10 


9 





8 


2 = 




• 7 


7 2 2 1 


8 


1 


6 


3 = 




I • 1 


5 8 3 2 


7 


2 


4 


4 = 


] 


. • 5 


4 4 4 3 


6 


3 


2 


5 = 


] 


I • 9 


3 5 4 


5 


4 





6 = 


' 


i ■ 3 


16 6 5 


4 


4 


8 


7 = 


i 


I • 7 


2 7 6 


3 


5 


6 


8 = 


[ 


] ■ 


8 8 8 7 


2 


6 


4 


9 = 


1 


5 • 4 

1 1 


7 4 9 8 


1 


7 


2 

1 


•i 


i ii 


iii iv V V 


I. J.. .' 
vii viii ix 



Whole 
number.'^. 



35i TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH AKBORICULTURAL SOCIKTV, 



Decimals 



Metres to Feet (Solid). 



MKT. 








CUBIC FKET. 


1 = 




3 


5 


• 3 1 5 6 1 7 


2 = 




7 


i 


)• 6 3 1 2 3 4 


3 = 


1 





r 


■ 9 4 8 5 1 


4- 


1 


i 


] 


• 2 6 2 4 6 8 


= 


1 


7 


( 


) • 5 7 8 8 5 


6 = 


2 


1 


] 


• 8 9 3 7 2 


7 = 


2 


4 


7 


' • 2 9 3 1 9 


8 = 


2 


8 




J • 5 2 4 9 3 »3 


9 = 


3 


1 


'i 


••840553 




•iii 


ii 


•i 


i ii iii iv v vi vii 



Whole 
n limbers. 



Decimals 



Metres to Loads of 50 Feet (Solid). 



MET. 






LOADS. 






1- 




• 7 


6 3 


1 


2 3 


2 = 


] 


• 4 


1 2 6 


2 


4 7 


3 = 


i 


I ■ 1 


1 8 9 


3 


7 


4- 


i 


\ • 8 


2 5 2 


4 


9 3 


5 = 


I 


\ • 5 


3 1 5 


6 


1 7 


6 = 


I 


t • 2 


3 7 8 


7 


4 


7 = 


L 


1: • 9 


4 4 1 


8 


6 4 


8 = 


; 


) • 6 


5 4 


9 


8 7 


9- 


( 

1 


5 • 3 


5 6 8 


1 

i 


1 


1 
•i 


i ii 


iii iv V 


1 

V 


vii viii 



Wliole 
numbers. 



Decimalh 



Kilos, to Pounds (Weight). 



KILO. 




POUNDS. 




1 = 


2 


2 4 6 


2 


2 = 


4 


4 9 2 


4 


3 = 


6 


6 13 8 


6 


4 = 


8 


8 18 4 


8 


5- 


1 1 


2 3 1 





6 = 


1 '') 


2 2 7 7 


2 


7 = 


1 5 


4 .■) 2 3 


4 


8 = 


1 7 


6 3 6 9 


6 


9 = 


1 9 

1 1 


8 4 15 


8 


1 1 
ii -i 


L ii iii iv v 


vi 



Whole 
numbers. 



TABLES FOR THE CONVERSION OF MEASUREMENTS. 



355 



Kilos, to Tons (Weight). 



KILO.! 


TON. 




1 = 


9 


8 4 2 1 


2 = 


1 9 


6 8 4 2 


3 = 


2 9 


5 2 6 3 


4-' 


3 9 


3 6 8 4 


5 = 


4 9 


2 10 5 


6 = 


5 9 


5 2 6 


7 = ' 


6 8 


8 9 4 7 


8- 


7 8 


7 3 6 8 


9 = 


8 8 


5 7 8 9 


: 


L ii iii iv v 


vi vii viii ix 



Wh.jle 
numbers. 



Quintaux of 100 Kilos, to Tons (Weight). 



QUI. 




TON. 




1 = 


• 


9 8 4 


2 1 


2 - 


• 1 


9 6 8 


4 2 


3 = 


• 2 


9 5 2 


6 3 


4 = 


• 3 


9 3 6 


8 4 


5 = 


• 4 


9 2 1 


5 


6 = 


• 5 


9 5 


2 6 


7 = 


• 6 


8 8 9 


4 7 


8 = 


7 


8 7 3 


6 8 


9 = 


• 8 


8 5 7 


8 9 




1 
i 


ii iii iv v 


vi vii 



Whole 
uumljers. 



DeciTiials 



Maunds (82 f lbs.) to Cwts. 



MA. 




HUNDREDWEIGHTS. 






1 = 





•732526 


7 


6 


2 = 


1 


4 6 5 5 3 


5 


2 


3 = 


2 


•19 7 5 8 


2 


8 


4- 


2 


•930107 





4 


5 = 


3 


•662633 


8 





6 = 


4 


3 9 5 16 


5 


6 


7 = 


5 


12 7 6 8 7 


3 


2 


8 = 


5 


8 6 2 14 





8 


9 = 


6 


5 9 2 7 4 


8 


4 

1 1 


•i i 


ii iii iv v vi vii viii ix 



Whole 
numbers. 



3o6 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

XIX. The Ligneous Plants of Eamjishire. By John Smith, 
Romsey, Hants. 

An account of the indigenous plants of a connty is of interest 
not only to the Botanist, but also to the practical Forester. 
Some counties have a flora peculiarly their own, or at least have 
plants which occur more abundantly than in other counties ; and 
Hampshire being rich in native and naturalised plants, I have 
been induced to submit this paper on the Ligneous Plants, giving 
the results of many years of observation. 

It seems desirable to localise as much as possible our native 
flora, and by examining counties separately we are more likely to 
determine which plants are true natives. Without further remark 
I proceed to give an account of the native trees and shrubs of 
Hampshire, adopting the Natural System of classification. 

CuPULiFER^. — The British Oak {Quercus Rohur pedunculata). 
— This is the prevailing tree of the county, and is found in 
every variety of soil and subsoil. There are many fine old trees, 
such as the one at Oakley Farm, Mottisfont, girthing 31 feet 6 
inches^ ; one at Hurstbourne Park, girthing 21 feet; and many 
others remarkable for size and beauty. 

The " Dur" or Durmast Oak {Q. Rohur sessilijlora) is a distinct 
species. 1st, the leaves are on long foot-stalks; 2d, the acorn is 
on a short foot-stalk. These two characters are exactly the 
opposite of Q. Rohur, but this is not the only distinction, for the 
bark of the young tree is more silvery in appearance than that of 
the mature tree. The habit of growth is also difierent ; the 
head is more spreading and umbrella-shaped. Finally, the 
timber is not of so enduring a quality, and the tree does not 
attain to such large dimensions as the other species. This species 
is not widely distributed, but a large wood exists between Hursley 
and Bomsey, where a great many specimens are to be found, and 
also in Brook-Wood in the northern part of the New Forest. 

The Beech {Fagus sylvatica).— While, the leaf and the acorn of 
the oak vary much in difierent trees, the leaf and the mast of the 
beech are seldom seen to vary. The ancient beech forests were 
at one time very extensive in the county, but are mostly giving 
place to oak. It has still, however, a wide range, and such old 

^ For a description of the trees of which tlie nieasurenients are j^iveii in 
this paper, see "Present State and Future Prospects of Arboiiculturc in 
Hampshire" (T'rajis. Scot. Arbor. Soc, vol. xi., page 522, cl acq.). 



THE LIGNEOUS PLANTS OF HAMPSHIRE. 357 

clumps as are seen in tlie Outwood, Hursley, Norman Court on 
the borders of Wiltshire, and Mark Ash in the New Forest, still 
show the grandeur of the ancient forests. 

The Hazel [Corylus avellana). — The nut of the hazel varies 
greatly in different plants, but not so the leaf. This tree is widely 
distributed, and in former years it was extensively planted in the 
hedgerows. Twenty-five to thirty years ago many of these hedge- 
rows were grubbed up, partly for the purpose of enlarging the 
fields, and partly owing to the depreciation in the value of hazel 
hoops consequent on the importation of the foreign article ; but 
after a time it was found that imported hoops did not last so long 
as homegi'own, and now hazel " rods " command a good price. 
The wood is cut at the age of from eight to twelve years, and is 
the most useful of our small-wood. Here a question presents 
itself to the agricultural chemist. — Most of these hedgerows have 
been in existence time out of mind, and have been regularly cut 
say every ten years. The weight of a crop taken ofl' an acre is 
estimated at 40 tons. Besides this, there is in the hedgerow a 
thick carpet of wild hyacinth (^Agrajjhis nutans), wood anemone 
(Anemone nemorosa), and the common primrose (Primula vulgaris). 
When grubbed up a rich virgin soil is exposed, in strange contrast 
to the adjoining arable land, which has been ploughed and manured 
from the time the hazel was planted. The hedgerow has neither 
been tilled nor manured, yet not only is the soil richer, but has 
increased in bulk, and is on a higher level than the arable fields. 
Compare the weight of produce carried off per acre, and putting 
the hazel at ten years of age, and taking the weight at 40 tons, — 
this gives an average weight of 4 tons per acre per annum, while 
agricultural produce cannot be taken at more than 2 tons per acre 
per annum. But it may be said that there is a crop of "roots" of 
say 20 tons to the acre every four years. To balance this, however, 
the ground receives say 20 tons of manure per acre in every fourth 
year. Then, without going into the chemical composition of the 
produce removed, it is obvious that the 4 tons of wood contain a 
larger proportion of solid matter than the 2 tons of agricultural 
produce. It is said that the hazel leaves which fall tend to enrich 
the soil. This is no doubt true, but whence did the leaves obtain 
their nourishment ? Some part may be from the atmosphere, but 
the agricultural plant has the same chance. It may be said that 
the roots of the hazel penetrate to a greater depth in the soil. 
This is true, although the hazel is not a deep-rooting plant. Then, 



358 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISFI ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

again, what is to be said of the crop of wild hyacinth, etc. 1 Is, 
then, the rotation of crops, so much insisted upon, a mistake 1 I 
cannot answer, but only point oiit the fact that a piece of land 
will pi'oduce year after year 4 tons per acre of the same crop, 
while a similar piece only produces 2 tons of different crops, and 
the former jiiece of land remains richer than the latter. 

The Sweet or Spanish Chestnut {Castanea vesca). — This noble 
tree is not indigenous. It is, however, plentiful in the county, 
and is naturalised, reproducing itself freely. While the oak and 
the beech (especially the former) are attacked by catei'pillars, 
aphis, and diffei'ent insects, producing galls and other excrescences, 
the chestnut, so far as I have observed, is exempt from insect 
pests. This immimity, and the value of the small-wood and 
timber, while it is one of our fastest-growing deciduous trees (the 
poplars and willows excepted), all combine to make it one of the 
most valuable trees for planting. This seems to have been gene- 
rally appreciated, for it has been extensively planted, and there 
are now many plantations of useful timber trees and considerable 
breadths of coppice. The trees are not of large dimensions, the 
largest being in North Stoneham Park, with a girth of 16 feet 
y inches. There are many girthing from 8 to 1 feet. 

The Hornbeam {Carpinus Betulus). — This tree is admitted into 
the British flora, but is not common in Hampshire, and I am 
not aware that it rejiroduces itself; for I have not found a single 
" self-comer," and would therefore pronounce it not to be a native. 

Ulmace^. — The Elms have given rise to considerable discussion 
amongst botanists as to the several species or varieties found wild 
in Britain, and in consequence it is difficult to pronounce which 
are natives, as all the species are trees of semi-cultivation, and 
occur usually where the soil has been disturbed. 

The Common Elm [Ulmus camjyestrifi), the most majestic of all 
the species, is common, occurring mostly in hedgerows, clumps, 
and avenues. For the last it has a fine effect, but it cannot be 
recommended for the purpose on account of its dangerous peculi- 
arity, that without warning a large bough may snap and fall with 
serious consequences. Several instances have occurred of persons 
being killed from this cause. A fine avenue, the glory of South- 
ampton thirty years ago, is now almost gone ; only a tree here 
and there remains to show the ancient grandeur. Various theories 
have been started as to the cause of this destruction, but no 
satisfactory cause has been assigned. The Corporation of South- 



THE LIGNEOUS PLANTS OF HAMPSHIRE. 359 

amptoii, to their credit, have continued to replant young trees in 
place of the old ones. This species seldom produces fertile seeds, 
but propagates itself by suckers, which run to a great distance 
from the parent stem, and have been measured to the length of 
(30 yards. In 1880, a piece of ground which had been allotted 
for gardens was laid out for building purposes ; but as operations 
did not commence till 1886, the land meantime lying dormant, 
on digging it up in that year elm I'oots were found to have extended 
30 yards from the adjoining trees. This gives an avei-age of 5 yards 
or 15 feet in each year, Now this was not poor, but very rich 
soil, having 2 feet of vegetable mould, then 6 feet of hazel loam 
down to the gravel, so it could not be for want of nourishment. 

The Wych Elm, Wych Hazel {U. montana). — This is more 
limited, than the last, but it occurs at widely distant stations in 
the county. This species is quite distinct, in that it produces 
fertile seeds and has no suckers. It is not found of larger ffirth 
than 15 feet 7 inches at Tufton, near Whitchurch, while U. 
campestris in Broadlands Park has a girth of 24 feet 7 inches. 

Oleace^. — The Common Ash [Fraxinus excelsior). — This well- 
known tree is not so plentiful in a natui-al state as might be 
expected, seeing that it produces winged seeds (keys) abundantly. 
It is the " husbandman's tree," providing him with " plough bote 
and cart bote," as allowed by the lord of the manor, but has been 
largely superseded, like the " wooden walls of old England," by 
iron. The ash is still used for many purposes, and the supply 
is barely equal to the demand. Many old adages which foretell 
the weather have fallen into disuse, but I have to record a 
rather curious fact. On the 25th of May 1887, the buds of the 
ash had no appearance of life, not even swelled, while the oak was 
almost in full leaftige. This year (1888), at the same date, the 
ash is nearly in leaf, while the buds of the oak are just beginning 
to swell. These are the same trees, and the contrast between 
the two years is certainly remarkable. The old saying is, that if 
the oak comes out before the ash the summer will be dry but 
if the ash is first out then the summer will be wet. 1887 was 
dry, and we now wait for 1888. 

The Common Privet [Ligustrum vidgare). — This useful shrub is 
common everywhere in coppices, hedgebanks, etc. It is of little 
value, except as cover for game or as a hedge plant, and when 
kept trimmed it becomes almost an evergreen. The most beautiful 
hedge of it I have seen is at Shelley farm on the Paultons estate. 



3G0 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

TiLiACE^. — The Common Lime (jniia enropcfci), and tlie Small- 
leaved Lime (?'. parvi/ulia). — I do not consider eithei* of these 
natives of the county, having only found them where planted. 

AcERACE^E. — The Common Maple (Ace?' campestris) is plentiful 
everywhere, bnt seldom attains to any size either in girth or 
height, and is mostly cut as copsewood. 

The Sycamore (A. Pseudo-Platamis). — The Greater Maple, 
whether a native or not, is frequently met with, and reproduces 
itself freely. 

Betulace^. — The Common Birch (^Betiila alba) is abundant, 
and is valued most for its beauty, with its drooping tresses and 
fragrant perfume. It lays claim to be the " Lady of the "Woods," 
and numy specimens are found of rare beauty, which give such a 
charm to the wild woodland scenes in the New Forest. 

The Common Alder {Alnus glutinosa) is found by every stream 
and rivulet, and in boggy places. The small-wood is useful for 
many purposes; and the tree being a rapid grower, it is valuable. 

Salicace^. — The Abele or White Poplar (Populus alba) is 
])lentiful in the river valleys, especially in the Test Valley from 
Mottisfont to Clatford, near Andover. It is very ornamental, 
and finds a place in the grounds of most suburban villas. I have 
little hesitation in saying that it is a native of Hants. It sup- 
plies the most valuable timber of all the poplars. 

The Grey Poplar (P. canescens) is occasionally found, but is 
not plentiful, and is a doubtful native. 

The Trembling Poplar or Aspen [P. tremula) is comparatively 
rare, and the specimens I have seen do not appear to have the 
tremulous motion of the leaves which is characteristic of them in 
the north. I consider it a doubtful native. 

The Black Poplar {P. nigra) is plentiful, and is more likely to 
be a native than the last. 

The Lombardy Poplar {P. fastlgiata) is considered by some to 
be only a variety of the last ; but I have noticed that it puts forth 
its leaves a fortnight earlier than the black, and they are smaller. 
Other characteristics would lead to the conclusion that it is dis- 
tinct. It is in considerable numbers, but as the timber is of no 
value, it can only be prized as an ornamental tree. Of course it 
has no claim to be considered a native. 

The Willow, Sallow, and Osier {Salix). — With reference to this 
"enus of i)lants, I take the following from Hooker and Arnott's 
" British Flora : " — "The many important uses rendered by the 



THE LIGNEOUS PLANTS OF HAMPSHIRE. 3G1 

different species of willow and osier, serve to rank them high in our 
list of economical plants. The larger kinds, which are the most 
rapid growers, yield timber and exceed 60 feet in height ; whilst the 
least of them (>S'. herbacea), which grows on the summits of our 
Highland mountains, can scarcely be said to rise above the surface 
of the soil in which it vegetates. Many are in great request for 
baskets, hoops, and crates. Their bark is used by the tanner, and 
that of one species (^S. fragilis, var. Russelliana) as a substitute for 
Peruvian bark. A correct knowledge of them is of primary 
importance ; yet there is not in the whole range of the vegetable 
creation a genus liable to greater variation in properties, foliage, 
and general appearance, at different periods of growth, in different 
soils and situations, and under different circumstances ; so that 
the accui-ate determination of its species, or even what constitutes 
a species, has baffled the researches of the ablest botanists." Of 
the economic value of many sorts of willows and osiers there is 
little doubt, but as to bark for tanning there is no demand where 
the oak is so plentiful, and less so as a substitute for the Peruvian 
bai-k7 The principal demand is for basket-making, or rather 
wicker work, such as chairs, tables, and the many fancy articles 
now made with osiers, which is a considerable industry in several 
towns in the county ; but the supply is not equal to the demand, 
considerable quantities coming from Somerset and other counties. 
Why this should be it is difficult to say, as Hampshire some years 
ago had many osier beds, as the names still testify. Of late 
several unsuccessful attempts have been made to re-introduce the 
cultivation of willows. An instance came under my observation. 
A piece of apparently suitable ground of about three acres in 
extent was prepared with great care and planted. It produced 
fine crops the first and second yeai's ; the third year the produce 
began to fail, as also the fourth year ; the fifth year it was not 
considered worth the cutting, as a great many of the plants had 
died clean out. I have inquired into the causes of this, and the 
owner, who is a practical basket-maker, is entirely at a loss for 
the cause, sometimes blaming one thing, and sometimes another. 
When the osiers are cut they are tied up in bundles (bolts), which 
should be 18 inches round at 14 inches from the butt. When 
not used for black work (that is, with the rind on), they are 
placed butt downwards in water pits in spring, and when they 
begin to sprout, the bark is then easily peeled off. 



I3G2 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARRORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The White Willow (Sdlix alba) is found in many places, and 
tliere are some fine trees, but as a rule it is not plentiful. 

The Crack or Bedford Willow {S. frag His) is more abundant as 
a tree than the last, but it does not attain to so lari^e a size. 

The Goat Willow (.S'. caprea), or English " Palm Tree," so called 
from the practice once prevalent of children going in jirocession 
to church on Palm Sunday carrying rods of this willow in their 
hands; and it is seldom that a Palm Sunday passes without its 
being in bloom — 

" The siller sauglis, wi' downy Inuls 
Adorn the banks " — 

proclaiming that 

" Glooni}^ winter's noo awa','' — ■ 

is common, but the tree is of little use for any economic purpose. 

The Common Osier (^S*. vindnalis), Silky-leaved Osier (S. Sinithi- 
ana), Triandrous Willow (S. triandra), Green-leaved Osier (aS'. 
rubra), Purple Willow {S. j^urjnirca), Golden Osier [S. vitellina), 
Grey Sallow (.S'. cinerea), Piound-eared Sallow (S. aurita), and 
Dwarf Silky Willow (S./usca), are all more or less plentiful; but 
in consequence of several of the species being at one time much 
cultivated, it is doubtful if they all can be classed as natives. 

PiOSACfi^. — The Wild Pear {Pyrus communis) is found in 
coppices and hedges in different parts of the county, but seldom 
allowed to attain tree proportions, being generally cut with the 
small-wood. Some yeai-s ago I measured one with a girth of 
4 feet 6 inches, and about 30 feet high. It was covered with fruit, 
but so bard and dry that a knife could hardly peneti'ate them. 

The Crab Apple {Pyrus Mains). — Found in many places, and, 
unlike the pear, occurs often as a tree, and when in full bloom 
is very ornamental, and worthy of a place in any park. There is 
considerable variety among the wild apples, some being almost 
eatable. A tree in Hursley Park had a girtli of 5 feet 9|- inches, 
and another in Headley Park measured G feet 1 inch. 

The Wild Service-Tree {P. torminalis) is not a native, and is 
only found in neglected shrubberies. 

The Mountain Ash, or Powan-Tree (P. Aucuparia). — Abundant 
in woods with a moory soil, and freely introduced into pleasure 
grounds as an ornamental tree. 

The White Beam-Tree {/\ aria). — Plentiful, especially on the 



THE LIGNEOUS PLANTS OF HAMPSHIRE. 363 

chalky downs, where it shows in strange contrast with the sombre 
yew. 

The Hawthorn, Whitethorn, or May {Cratcegus Oxyacantha). — 
This well-known plant is fonnd everywhere, and there are many 
variations in the fruit and leaf. It is esteemed as an ornamental 
tree, and is ^ja?" excellence the hedge-plant of Britain. In a hedge, 
1 recommend that it should be trimmed on the sides only, espe- 
cially when required for shelter and ornament, as the plants then 
blossom freely ; and from experience I can say that, treated in 
this way, it forms as effective a fence. 

The Rose (Eosa). — This tribe of ornamental plants is fairly 
well represented in the flora of Hampshire, and comprises the 
following species : — The Burnet-leaved Rose (B. sinnosissima), 
Slightly-scented Briar (i?. inodora), Small-flowered Briar (7?, 
micrantha), Downy-leaved Rose {B. tomentosa), Trailing Dog-i"Ose 
{R. arvensis), Common Dog-rose (7^, canina), True Sweetbriar 
{^R. rubiginosa), rare. 

The Common Plum, Blackthorn, or Sloe, and Bullace (Prunus 
communis, spinosa, and institia), are often classed together as one 
species, although their characters are widely distinct. The early 
blossoming of the blackthorn is so abundant a3 to give the 
appearance of wreaths of snow ; but the quantity of fruit is small 
in proportion. This may arise from the fact that severe weather 
often prevails during the flowering season, and the " blackthorn 
winter" has passed into a common saying. 

The Wild Cherry or Gean (P. avium) is plentiful, and highly 
ornamental when in blossom, and produces an abundance of fruit, 
of which the birds reap the beneflt. It is seldom left in the 
coppices to attain timber size, as the small-wood is useful for 
hoops, etc. Some of the trees have a girth of from 4 feet to 
6 feet, and attain a height of 50 or 60 feet. The Morello Cherry 
[P. Cerasus) is said to be native, and a distinct species, but I have 
not found it. The Bird Cherry (P. Padus), locally called " Black 
Dogwood," is plentiful, but is not allowed to attain any size, 
being in demand for the manufacture of gunpowder. 

The Raspberry (^Ruhus idceus). — This is occasionally found, 
but is not common. 

The Upright Bramble {R. siiherectus). — About as common as 
the raspberry. 

The Common Bramble {R. fniticosus), Buckthorn-leaved B. 
(P. rhamnifolms), Hornbeam-leaved B. {P. carpinifolius), Glan- 



3G4 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

(hilar B. [Ji. ylandulosns), Hazel-leaved B. [K. corylifolius), and 
the Dewberry (^R. ccesius), are all more or less plentiful in different 
localities, and produce an abundance of fruit. 

Grossulauiace^. — The Common Currant (Ribes rnhrum).— 
Found in woods and hedges, where it appears to be truly wild. 

The Black Currant (7i?. nigrum). — Found in some places, a 
doubtful native. 

The Gooseberry (/?. Grossularia). — Plentiful in woods, hedges, 
and on old walls ; but it is difficult to say whether indigenous 
or not. 

RHAMNACEiE. — The Common Buckthorn (Rhamnus catharticus). 
— Rare ; is found in a hedge by side of road from Furze Down to 
King's Somborne. 

Alder Buckthorn {R. Frangula). — This is found in the New 
Forest, but is very rare. 

BERBERiuACEiE. — The Common Barberry (Berberis vulgaris). — 
This shi-ub is not common, probably arising from the idea preva- 
lent amongst farmers that it produces blight in wheat. Whether 
this be a mere superstition or not I cannot say. 

Leguminos^. — The Whin, Furze, or Gorse (Ulex Uuropoiits). — 
Plentiful. 

The Dwarf Furze (U. nanus). — Plentiful on the heaths in the 
New Forest, and if any one wishes to see the difference between 
the two species, he has only to visit the New Forest at the end 
of August or beginning of Se})tember. 

The Dyer's Green-weed, Woad-waxen, Dyer's Broom (Genista 
tinctoria). — So named from being used to dye yarn of a yellow 
colour. It is fairly plentiful, but now of no use. 

The Needle Genista, or Petty Whin {G. Anglica). — Frequent 
on moist heaths and moorish ground. 

The Common Broom (Sarotharnnus scoparius). — Frequent, but 
seldom found on the chalk. 

The Rest-harrow (Ono7iis arvensis). — This pretty little shrub, 
with rose-coloured or white flowers, is common on the borders of 
fields and neglected pastuies on a chalk soil. 

Vacciniace.e. — The Bilberry, or Whortleberry (Vaccinium 
Afyrlillus). — The " blackheart " of the New Forest is abundant in 
heathy woods, and produces quantities of berries, which are much 
sought after, being the first of our wild fruits. 

The Cranberry ( V. Oxycoccus) is said to l)e found in the northern 
part of the county, but this is doubtfid. 



THE LIGNEOUS PLANTS OF HAMPSHIRE. 365 

SoLANACE/E. — The Woody Nightshade, or Bitter-Sweet {Sol- 
arium Dulcamara). — Common in hedges and thickets, climbing 
amongst the branches. The bright scarlet berries are poisonous, 
and have frequently been eaten by children with fatal effect. 

Myricace^. — -The Sweet Gale, Bog or Dutch Myrtle {Myrica 
Gale).— The "Gold Withy" of the New Forest, where.it is 
plentiful ; also in boggy places in different parts of the county. 
Formerly used as a substitute for hops, but now of no economic 
use, although perhaps its agreeably pungent smell may assist in 
correcting the malaria arising from the bogs which it inhabits. 

LiLiACE.E. — The Butcher's Broom (Ruscus aculeatus) is the 
" knee-holm " or " knee-holly " of the New Forest, as it seldom 
rises higher than the knee. Frequent in woods, at the foot of 
trees, in a gravelly soil. The berry is larger than that of the 
common holly, and is of a beautiful scarlet. 

CoRNACE^. — The Wild Cornel or Dogwood (Cornus sanguinea). 
— Widely distributed throughout the county, especially on the 
chalk. It is of little economic value. 

Caprifoliace^e. — The Common Elder {Samhiicus nigra). — In 
hedges everywhere, sometimes with yellow berries. 

The Dwarf Elder or Dane- wort (*S'. Ebulus). — Found in waste 
groimd, not plentiful ; near Lyndhurst in the New Forest, and in 
a meadow near the old Priory of Wherwell. 

The Wayfaring tree, or "Copse Elder" of Hants {Viburnum 
Lantana), is frequent by roadsides on the chalk. 

The Guelder-rose (F. Opulus). — Plentiful in coppices and damp 
moorish pastures. 

The Honeysuckle, or Woodbine {Lonicera Fericlymemiin). — 
This is common in woods and hedges, ascending trees to a 
considerable height. It has the sweetest scent of all our wild 
flowering shrubs, and is the only ppecies found in this county. 

ARALiACEiE. — The Ivy {lledera Helix). — Found everywhere in 
waste places, hedges, coppices ; on buildings, and ascending to a 
great height on trees. On a Lombardy poplar I have seen it 
attaining a height of 90 feet. There are two charges against the 
ivy — namely, that it induces damp in the walls of houses (this is 
now admitted not to be the case) ; the other, that it retards, or is 
destructive of the growth of trees, of which much has been 
written, but it seems difficult to pronounce either one way or 
another. Twenty-four years ago, in Queen's Mead Wood, in the 
New Forest, I measured the stem of an ivy which had ascended a 
vol. XII., PART II. 2 A 



3GG TUANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH AUBORICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 

beech to a great height. The stem of the ivy had a diameter of 
9 inches, and that of the beech 3 feet. They were thriving 
and growing on the north side of, and not far from, the Brocken- 
hur.st stream. Now, if we suppose that the ivy was as old as the 
beech, it could not have retarded the growth of the tree very 
much, I may add that this is the largest single stem of an ivy I 
ever saw, and it is to be hoped that no over-zealous woodranger 
has severed it since then. The bronzed leaves of the ivy are 
much sought after at })resent for funei-al wreaths. 

Aquifoliace^e. — The Holly {Ilex aqmfolium). — This beautiful 
and well-known shrub or small tree is plentiful in the woods 
throughout the county, and especially in the New Forest, where 
it is to be regretted that the Crown officials are cutting the finest 
sticks and selling them for whip handles, &c. Abundant as a 
wilding, yet no pleasure ground can be said to be complete without 
a specimen tree, and the more fortunate possess a hedge, of which 
there are many fine ones in the county, especially about Hursley, 
near Winchester. The custom of decorating the shoi)S, houses, 
and churches at Christmas time, is telling somewhat on the 
numbers of the holly, as the demand has raised it into an article 
of commerce in the larger towns. I have occasionally found a 
specimen with yellow berries. The variety known as the " High- 
clere Holly " (/. a. A Itaclerense) was fir.st discovered in Penwood 
on the Highclere estate in this county. 

CoNiFER,(E. — The Juniper {Juni2)erus commionis). — Another 
fine evergreen shrub, abundant on the bare chalky downs, pre- 
ferring the northern slopes, such as that of Dean Hill and 
Farley-mount Down. Two varieties, if not species, are to be 
found. 1 do not refer to the dwarf J. nana of botanists, but to 
the upright and the spreading varieties — the former rising 4 feet 
to 6 feet, and in habit like an Irish yew, and the latter covering 
the ground with a diameter of from 8 feet to 10 feet, with a 
height of only 2 feet. The habit of the full-grown plants, as well 
as the seedlings, are here quite distinct. At Old Lodge, in the 
])arish of Nether Wallop, on the borders of Wiltshire, there are 
several acres of natui-al juni})er forming a dense iui2)enetrable 
thicket, some of the stems being 3 inches in diameter ; but it 
was being grubbed up when I saw it iu 1880. The juniper is 
now of no economic use. 

The Yew (Taxus haccata). — This tree abounds all over the 
county, and there are some splendid .s|)ecimens, such as that at 



THE LIGNEOUS PLANTS OF HAMPSHIRE. 367 

Selborne, with a girtli of 25 feet 2 inches ; one in Lockerley 
churchyard girths 23 feet 4 inches, and others. One in Twyford 
churchyard is shaped like a gigantic mushroom, and has a sheer 
height of 30 feet, with a girth of 12 feet 5 inches. Another near 
the Forest of Bere is so solid in its branches, from being trimmed 
time out of mind, that a cricket ball fails to penetrate it, although 
thrown with considerable force. Many of the yew avenues in 
the county are of great interest, such as the one at Queenwood, 
reputed to have been planted by Queen Elizabeth ; at any rate, 
there is one called after her on the same estate, near the manor- 
house of East Tytherley, where there is one running due east and 
west. It has a width of 27 feet, the trees standing 15 feet apart 
in the rows. The largest has a circumference of 6 feet. The 
boughs meet and intertwine, forming a Tudor arch to an aisle 
300 yards long, the effect of which is difficult to describe, as it 
can neither be called " magnificent " nor " sublime," but it is 
worthy of the study of every thoughtful mind. In the Candover 
Valley, at the village of Chilton Candover, is one which is thus 
described by a writer in a local paper : — " The longest lived of 
British trees, the yew (which was certainly reverenced by the 
Druids) flourishes in this valley, and attains to a great size. A 
long avenue of yews of great age stretches from the village of 
Chilton Candover (adjoining Preston Candover) up the sides of 
the Downs towards the east for nearly a mile. These trees are 
certainly one thousand, and may, some of them, be nearer two 
thousand years old, or the present trees may have replaced others, 
for yews may often be seen, hollow and decayed, having a vigorous 
and younger stem growing inside the hollow tree. In any case, 
it is a fact that this great avenue does exist, and that a wide gr-ass 
road runs along it leading on to the downs, but no further now, 
althovigh in former times it doubtless led to an important height, 
still known by the Celtic name of ' Bangor ' Copse, in which, as 
we should expect, more Druid sandstones are lying about." 

Jonathan Oldbuck, in Scott's " Antiquary," when dilating on 
his Roman antiquities, was interrupted by Edie Ochiltree saying, 
" Prtetorian here. Praetorian there, I mind the biggin' o' it." I 
cannot pretend to act the part of Edie, but the true history is — 
a mansion-house was erected here sometime in the middle of the 
16th century as the seat of the Worsley family, which Bishop 
Gibson describes as a " noted seat." It stood near the church, 
and its foundations and terraced gardens may still be traced. It 



3G8 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARHORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

was pulled down about the end of last century, but its fine avenue 
of yew trees, three-quartei's of a mile long, still remains. 

As to the poisonous qualities of the yew, many accidents have 
occurred to horses and cattle through eating the leaves. Some 
time ago I was witness to the death of eighteen fine heifers 
poisoned through eating the ti-immings of a hedge. This was 
supposed to arise from the twigs having undergone some change 
in the process of drying, but instances have occuri-ed from eating 
off the growing tree. The last case that came under my notice 
was that of two horses — both had browsed ofif a tree, and one 
died, but the other apparently felt no bad eflfects. On further 
investigation, however, it appeared that the horses had eaten off 
diflTerent trees. This fact points to a conclusion I have for some 
time entertained, namely, that it is either the male or female tree 
which is poisonous. The ben-ies are undoubtedly poisonous, 
which would favour the conclusion that the female is the poison 
tree. A veterinary surgeon pointed out to me a tree off" which a 
cow partook of a plentiful repast, and he waited the result, 
expecting every moment to see her sicken and fall, but no bad 
effect followed. This was a male tree. 

The Scots Fir (Finns sylveslris). — It is said to have been first 
planted in this county at Bramshill by James VI. of Scotland ; 
but an old map of the Hursley estate (in Queen Elizabeth's reigii) 
shows two clumi:»s near Amptield, the big and little fir clump, as 
then existing ; but whatever was the date, it is admittedly not a 
native of this county. It has, however, become established by 
self-sowing on the w^astes and moorlands, and may be said to 
be quite naturalised. A great number have been planted on 
unprofitable land within the last seventy or eighty years, both on 
private properties and the Crown lands of the New Forest, so 
that, next to the oak, it has become one of the most important of 
the timber products of the county. 

RANUNCULACEiE. — The Traveller's Joy {Clematis vitalha) is also 
called the " Virgin's Bower," and the " Old Man's Beard." This is 
abundant on the chalk, ascending trees and shrubs 30 feet to 
40 feet in length, and covering the face of disused chalk-})its. 

Apocynace.^;. — The Lesser Periwinkle {Vinca viinor). — Often 
occurring in woods and shady places, and spreading to a consider- 
able distance. Flowers blue, but sometimes found with white 
flower.s. 

The Greater Periwinkle (F. major). — To be found on banks 



THE LIGNEOUS PLANTS OF HAMPSHIRE. 3G9 

and in hedges in many places. It does not creep along the ground 
like the last, but grows into bush-like form. 

Hypericace^. — The St John's- Wort, or Tutsan (IIi/2)ericu7)i 
Andi-oscemum). — This is found in several places, but is not 
common ; indeed, the large-flowered St John's-Wort [11. caly- 
cinum), although not admitted as a native, is nearly as common. 

Thymelace.e. — The Mezereon {paphne Mezereum). — In Hooker 
and Arnott's "British Flora," 1860, it is said: "Hampshire 
(perhaps truly wild)." I have made several journeys to find a 
truly wild specimen, but have been unsuccessful. The next 
species was always pointed out as the " Mezereon " ; in fact, I 
have not found it naturalised even, but only as an outcast from 
gardens, it being plentiful about cottages, and perhaps no doubtful 
l)lant has less claim to rank as a native. 

The Spurge-Laurel (i). Laureola). — To be found in many places, 
especially on the chalk. 

Celastrace^. — The Spindle Tree (Euonymus europams) is also 
called " Prick- wood," and " Skewer- wood." This shrub is to be 
found mostly on the chalk, and is fairly common. It sometimes 
attains a height of 10 feet. The bark is green and smooth, the 
leaves glabrous, the flowers small and white, and the fruit rose 
and orange-coloured and very beautiful. In the older wood the 
bark is rough and corky. The fruit in autumn has a singularly 
rich appearance. 

Malvace.*:. — The Tree-Mallow (Lavatera arhorea) is found on 
the sea-coast by Hurst Castle on the Solent, but is rai'e. 

C0MPOSIT.E. — The Sea "Wormwood {Artemisia maritima). — 
E.are, but found on the banks of Southampton Water at Dibdin 
and at Calshot Castle. 

Tamaricace^. — The Tamarisk (Tamarix anglica). — This beau- 
tiful shrub is found from Hurst Castle to the Lymington Salterus, 
and in places along the coast to Bournemouth, and on the opposite 
coast near Yarmouth in the Isle of Wight. Although it is said 
not to be a native, yet it is perfectly naturalised, 

Ericace^. — The Cross-leaved Heath {^Erica tetralix) is abun- 
dant in the New Forest and on moors. 

The Fine-leaved Heath (^E. cinerea) is also abundant. 

The Ling [Calluna vulgaris) is common along with the last, 
and is still much iised for making brooms. 

CiSTACE^. — The Bock-Bose (Ilelianfhemum vulgare). — Fre- 
quent throughout the county, especially on the chalk. 



370 TRAXSACTIOXS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Labiat.e. — The Wild Thyme [Thymus serpyllum). — Shake- 
speare says — 

" I know a bank wlicreon the wild tliyme grows," 

but it would be difficult to find a bank in Hampshire where it 
does not grow, so plentiful is this small sweet-siuelling plant. 
Lorantiiace^. — The Mistletoe ( Viscum album). 

" The mistletoe liung in the castle hall, 
The holly hranch shone on the old oak wall ; 
And the baron's retainers were blythe and gay, 
And keeping their Christmas holiday." 

This plant is interesting on account of its being the only true 
parasite which is a native of England. It is to be found in this 
county on the apple-tree, hawthoi'n, maple {^Acer campestre), lime 
(Tilia europceus), black poplar, white willow [Salix cdba), and 
white-beam (Pyrus aria). The county also possesses one of the 
few oaks in England on which the mistletoe gi'ows, namely, that 
in Hackwood Park, near Basingstoke. A list of these oaks 
appeared in the " Leisure Hour " in 1873. They numbered in 
all fifteen, but to the list has to be added an oak in Clarendon 
Park, near Salisbury, Wilts, making a total of sixteen trees. 

The mistletoe has of late years become of such marketable value 
at Christmas time, that it is very difficult to preserve it from 
depredators. 



THE REARING OF UNDERWOOD FOR GAME COVERTS. 371 



XX. Report upon the. rearing of Underwood for Game Coverts in 
High Forest. By Thomas Wilkie, Forester, Tjningliaiiie, 
East Lothian. 

"With few exceptions, shrubs will not grow under fir trees, and 
none will luxuriate under a dense crop of timber trees whatever 
the variety ; hence, if a game covert is desired, the trees should 
be thinned out to about 30 or more feet apart — that is, if the 
tops are heavily clothed with foliage, but if they are not, the 
trees may stand at 24 feet apart, and a very good covert be 
formed beneath them. 

In a plantation of about fifty years of age, where the crop con- 
sisted of ash, oak, and sycamore, averaging about 45 feet in height, 
with fairly well-furnished tops, and growing at 15 to 20 feet apart, 
I have formed a covert with very fair success. I was not per- 
mitted to thin out any of the trees, but had a few of their lower 
branches shortened. It was next the outside of a plantation, and 
on the inside an avenue 28 feet in width ran round the interior of 
the plantation, the distance from this avenue to the outside of the 
plantation and covert being about 50 yards. I had the refuse 
carefully burned, and the ground enclosed with 4:-feet galvanised 
wire-netting of 1^-inch mesh, which was sunk about 9 inches deep 
into the drifted sand of which the soil was composed, and then 
planted the enclosure with evergreen pi'ivet, red and white flower- 
ing Ribes, barberry, common laurel, hazel, rhododendrons, Cotone- 
aster SimonsH, and a few silver firs. The first five varieties named 
were from 18 to 24 inches in lieight, the others 2^ to 4 feet, 
except the silver firs, which were about 9 inches. The plants 
were all set in pits 12 to 24 inches in diameter, and planted in 
patches where the largest openings were above them with, con- 
necting links between each clump. The most of the laurels have 
died down to the ground, but are coming away nicely again from 
the root-stock. Notwithstanding that the netting stands 3 feet 
3 inches above the ground, the rabbits have gained access to the 
enclosure and done considerable damage to the plants. The mole 
has uprooted many of the silver firs, and a caterpillar of the 
" looper " kind has damaged the rhododendrons; but still, though 
this is only the second year since they were jjlanted, they promise 
to make an excellent cover, and are already a tolerably good one. 

Two other coverts have been planted as experiments, and, being 



372 TRANSACTIONS OF KOYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

uiuler more favourable circunistancea, tbey are doing remarkably 
well. One is planted on a small patch of ground where an aged 
crop of timber had been nearly all blown down ; and the other on 
ground where the trees are not growing very close together. Both 
are planted with evergreen privet and common rhododendrons in 
drift-sand. As yet the rabbits have not found admittance to 
either of them, although the fences are of the same height and 
material as that already described. 

In order that tlie covert may be made as good as possible, I 
would recommend that where the underwood or shrubs are growing 
densely, they should be cut over about 18 inches above the ground ; 
but where they are scant and straggling, they should be laid over, 
cutting the strong shoots half through, so as to make them easier 
bent, and securely peg them to the ground, into which they soon 
root and grow. Thus the covert will be extended, and ultimately 
it will become as dense as may be desired. As the tree canopy 
increases in density it ought to be reduced by thinning the over- 
hanging branches, or by taking out some of the timber trees. 

Another wood of about 1 1 acres, upon which a heavy crop 
of beech and oak grows at about 40 feet apart, was planted with 
a few conifers in the larger openings, and the whole area filled 
with a mixture of hazel and privet. This was done ten years 
ago, and is now an excellent covert, whilst before it was only a 
bare piece of ground with scarcely a vestige of herbage upon it. 
The conifers might now be cut out, being of a size suitable for 
use, and the hazel and the privet cut over, or pegged down, to 
thicken and increase the covert. 

Instances might be multiplied to any extent ; but the chief 
question is, For what kind of game are the coverts to be formed ] 
if for pheasants, or for fox coverts, a variety of plants may be 
used, and details of their success can be enumerated ; but if hares 
and rabbits are allowed to become numerous in coverts, I do not 
know of any class of plants which they will not destroy, exce})t 
it may be the elder and rhododendron. Lycesteria formosa has 
been named as another shrub which the rabbit will not touch, 
Vjut they are attacked where I have planted them quite as soon 
as any other shrub. 

In marshy land in mountainous districts, the candleberry 
myrtle or sweet gale {Myrica gale) makes an admirable covert ; 
■AO also does the hazel on the drier spots. On peaty soil the 
" Salal " of North-West America, Gaultheria Shallon, is also an 



THE REARING OF UNDERWOOD FOR GAME COVERTS. 373 

excellent covert, and bears numerous fleshy purple berries, which 
pheasants eat readily. 

The elder and its varieties are always exempt from the attacks 
of hares and rabbits, and are possibly the least fastidious as to 
soil or situation of any shrub. They will grow and thrive any- 
where, except on wet marshy ground, or under a dense crop of fir 
trees. "When they become overgrown, they can be cut half through 
and allowed to fall to the ground, and in a few years they will 
become very dense, and form a cover of which the pheasant seems 
particularly fond. I attribute this fact to their preference for 
covert where they are able to see around them, as until a pheasant 
is wounded it does not care for too dense a covert. 

Fox covers are most economically, and possibly as densely 
formed, by simply ploughing the land, reducing it to a good mould 
and sowing whin seed, using about a bushel per acre, and then 
giving a double course of the harrows. No good covert for the 
fox is formed in high forest, unless only a very few trees are left 
per acre, the fox preferring a densely-covered hiding-place where 
his enemies cannot easily find him. In addition to the privet, 
the sloe-thorn has often been used successfully for this purpose, 
but it does not like a deep shade. 

The successful planting of coverts gives a pleasing character to 
the woodlands ; and where the ground game is kept within 
moderate limits, or is well killed down before the winter sets in, 
the under growth in such cases is much more useful as covert, 
and of a far moi'e ornamental appearance. 



VOL. XII., PART II. 



374 



ABSTRACT. 



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1 t Ar an^ j^ Li nine Lill Cd n'" 



SPANISH CHESTNUT, 
AT Stevenstone, Devon. 



/toi/aJ Sect Ai-hor iSo( Trans, Vol XH PI III 




cErs"kine,litT,'"fEd,o 



SECTION OF STEM OF SPANISH CHESTNUT. 

AT Stevenstoi^Ie, Devon. 



Ho if al Sect. Arbor.' Soc Trans., Vol.XlI. Pi.IV. 







'■ ' -■';''' "f-r^'^T'^: 



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OAK, 

AT StevENSTONE, DEVOf 



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SECTION OF STEM OF OAK, 
AT Stevenstone, Devon. 



'cd. Scot. Arbor Soc. Trans. Vol. AH, PI. VI. 




RESTERS COTTAGE -SHOWING SANITARY ARRANGEMENTS. 



FORESTERS COTTAGE 




Xetnl Act Arkr So,- Ti-ami IH AJ/.HKI 



-J L- 



^ 



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I" r 




SIDE ELEVATION 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



AUSTIN & M'ASLAN, 

1Klurser?mcn an^ Seebsmen, 
GLASGOW. 

ESTABLISHED 1717. 

SEED WAREHOUSE, . 89 MITCHELL STREET. 

„ STORES, . SALKELD STREET. 

NURSERIES, . . CATHCART. 

AV^E beg to offer a veiy Extensive Stock of splendidly rooted, 
A'igorous plants, comprising — • 

FOREST TREES. — Suitable for various Soils and Exposures. 
ORNAMENTAL TREES— For Parks and Lawns. 

ORNAMENTAL FLOWERING and FOLIAGED SHRUBS. 

— For Game Covers, etc. 
FLOWERING PLANTS.— For Woodlands. 



Catalogues Free on Application. For Large Quantities Sjjecial 
Quotations and Samples will be supplied. 



V* (O P B aJ ^« >* 

PERMANENT PASTURE GRASSES.— Suitable for lieavy 
clay as well as light gi-avelly and mossy Soils, for wliicli we 
have received many very high commendations. 

LAWN and BOWLING-GREEN GRASSES.— These we be- 
lieve are Unsurpassed, and produce Magnificent Swards. 

TURNIPS, MANGOLS, CARROTS, CLOVERS. — Purest 

Stocks, and cannot fail to give satisfaction, and beg to solicit 
the favour of a share of your Orders. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



DOUGLAS & FOULIS' 

ENGLISH AND FOREIGN LIBRARY 

9 Castle Street 
EDINBURGH 

i^~ Books sent to any part of the Country and Changed at 
convenience of Subscribers. Boxes free 

Subscriptions, from 2 is. per annum, may commence at any date 

Clearance Catalogue of Books 
at Greatly Reduced Prices 

BEING SURPLUS COPIES WITHDRAWN FROM LIBRARY 
Including many other Works of Interest, offered at affixed Cash Prices 

ALSO 

Catalogue of Books 

RELATLNG PRINCIPALLY TO SCOTLAND 

Containing many important Works on History, Archaeology 

Topography, Poetry & Ballads, Biography, &c 

Also English, Welsh, Irish, and Foreign Literature 

The above Gratis and Post free to any address 



THOMAS METHVEN L SONS 

Beg to request the attention of those about to plant to their Stock of 

SEEDLING AND TRANSPLANTED FOREST TREES, 

WHICH IS VERY EXTENSIA^E, AND IN A HEALTHY, 
VIGOROUS CONDITION. 



Samples and Prices on Application. 
LEITH WALK & WARRISTON NURSERIES, 

EDINBURGH. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



"CERTIFICATE OF MERIT," Hicjliest Award at International 
Exhibition, Carlisle, 1880. 
SILVER MEDAL," Highest Aivarcl for Hot- Houses, at the International 
Forestry Exhibition, Edinburgh, 1884. 

"GOLD MEDAL," Highest Aicard at Interxational Industrial 
Exhibition, Edinburgh, 1886. 



MACKENZIE & MONCUR, 

HORTICULTURAL BUILDERS 

AND 

HEATING AND VENTILATING ENGINEERS, 

UPPER GROVE PLACE, EDINBURGH, 

and 

ST ANDREW'S CROSS, GLASGOW. 

Conservatories, Greenhouses, Vineries, Forcing 
Houses, and all kinds of Horticultural Buildings 
erected in ^vood or iron in the most approved 
manner in any part of Great Britain or Ireland, 
at strictly Moderate Rates. 



Illustrated Sheets on Application. Splendid Illustrated 
Catalogues, Price 316. 



PLANS AND SPECIAL DESIGNS. 



Heating with Hot-Water, Low and High Pressure, 

Steam heating on the return gravity and expansion 

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and Public Buildings. 

Ventilating Apparatus, Atmospheric and Mechanical. 

Satisfactory Results in all Cases Guaranteed. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



AGRICULTURAL SEEDS. 

THOS. EDMONDSTON & SON, 

GRASSMARKET, EDINBURGH. 



GRASSES AND CLOVERS of all sorts, thoroughly cleaned 
and carefully selected, and may be relied upon as fresh and genuine. 

TURNIP SEEDS of all the most approved kinds, and of 
reliable stocks. 



FARM IMPLEMENTS AND TOOLS. 

Farm and Garden Implements of all Sorts. 



THOS. EDMONDSTON & SON, 

Seed and Iron Merchants, 
GRASSMARKET, EDINBURGH. 

TIMBER GROWINa. 

A PROFITABLE APPLICATION OF THE SOIL. 



FOREST-TREES 



Grown from Seed collected in tlie 
North of Scotland, on high-lying 
ground.s, and under the exposure of 
a rigorou.s cliinate, pos.scbsing robust- 
ness of growth and abundant root 
fibre. 

FOREST-TREES sent to aU PARTS of the UNITED KINGDOM. 

Carrifi'jc Rates Lessened and Packarjes Saved by using " Through Trudcs." 

EXPORT ORDERS CAREFULLY SUPPLIED, AND CORRESPONDENCE SOLICITED. 
SPECIAL OFFERS FOR LARGE QUANTITIES. CATALOGUE POST FREE. 



BENJAMIN REID & CO., 

FOREST-TREE NURSERIES. ABERDEEN. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



EstaUished 1801. 

SEEDLING AND TRANSPLANTED FOREST TREES. 

Ornamental Trees and Shrubs, Roses and Fruit Trees. 



JAMES DICKSON $c SONS, 

32 HANOVER STREET and INVERLEITH ROW, 

EDINBURGH. 



CATALOGUES FREE ON APPLICATION. 



FOREST AND ORNAMENTAL TREES AND SHRUBS. 

Fruit Trees, Roses, Herbaceous Plants, Etc. 

FOREST AND GARDEN IMPLEMENTS OF ALL SORTS. 



Priced Catalogues Free on application. 



IRELAND & THOMSON, 

Craigleith Nursery, Comely Bank, Edinburgh. 

New Golden Acre and Windlestrawlee Nurseries, 

Gran ton Road. 

Seed Warehouse, 81 Princes Street. 



M^FARLANE & ERSKINE, 

OLitbOGvapbcrs, Bnoravcrs, d Xctterpress iprinters, 

19 ST JAMES SQUARE, EDINBURGH, 

Having an efficient Staff of first-class Artists and Printers, execute every descrijition of 

ARTISTIC & COMMERCIAL WORK, AND BOOK, LAW & GENERAL PRINTING, 

WITH TASTE, ACCURACY, AND DESPATCH. 



Printers to the Royal Scottisli Arboricultural Society, Royal Physical Society, etc. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



DOUGLAS & FOULIS, BOOKSELLERS AND LIBRARIANS 
9 CASTLE STREET, EDINBURGH 

Will be happy to send Gratis and Post Free : — 
A REFERENCE CATALOGUE OF PUBLICATIONS 

ON 

FORESTRY^ GARDENING, AND FARMING 

36 Pages 8vo, containing about 1000 Titles 



Standaho Works on the above Subjects always on Sami; 
Out-of- Print Books sought for and reported free 




Trade 

Mark. 




AHLBOTTN'S 

TREE 







CELEBRATED 

PROTECTIVE 



COMPOSITION 

The only Award for Tree Protective Composition at the Forestry Exhibition, 
Edinburgh, 1884. 

NATHANL. AHLBOTTN, 

Sole Manufadarer, and now lite only surviviny dlscuverer of I he above 
For proteetiiii.; young Forest and other Trees against tlie ravages of HareS ami 
Rabbits. It i.s free from any poisonous substance, encourages the growtli, is 
easily ajiplied by the hand or a small brush, and is strongly recommended by all 
parties wlio have used it. 

To be had in 561b. Casks at 18s. One cwt. and upwards at 36s. per cwt. — 
Casks free. 

From the Rt. Hon. Lord Wynkord. 

12 Orosvenor .S(|uare, London, 15th Nov. 1887. 
Tliis sninnicr I liavo lieen moviii*^ abowt in Scotland, and found wherever the Protective 
Coni|)0>iitiiin was known it was hij^hly approved of, and certainly I have found it so. 

WVNl'ORD. 

Tlie iihiiee is from numerous TesUmonials, which moij he laid on apjdicaUov. to 

NATHANL AHLBOTTN, 50 SHORE, LEITH. 



WORKS ON FORESTRY AND GARDENING. 

JuU Published. 
THE PRACTICE OF FOEESTRY. Bj' Christopher Y. Michie, 

Forester, Cullen. Crown Svo, with Illustrations, 6s. 
"A book of an eminently practical nature, . . . dealing with evident ability with every 
question that is likely to meet the forester in his daily ikot^."— Scotsman. 

THE LARCH: Being a Practical Treati.sf. ox its Culture and General 

Management. By the same Author, ^^"ith Illustrations. New and Clieaper Edition. 

Enlarged, with additional Chapter on the " Larch Disease." Crown Svo, 5s. 

" Within its pages the planter will find more information upon the best modes of treatment 

and culture of the larch-tree, whether in the nursery or plantation, than in any other book 

extant in the English language." — Journal of Forestry. 

" The work is a most valuable addition to our standard literature on arboriculture."— Ban/ 
Journal. 

New awl Revised Edition. 
THE FORESTER : A Practical Treatise on the Planting, Rearixg, 

AND General Management of Forest Trees. Bj' .Iames Brow.v, LL.D., Inspector of 

and Reporter on Woods and Forests, Benmore House, Port Elgin, Ontario. Fifth Edition, 

Revised and Enlarged. With numerous Engravings on Wood. Royal Svo, half-bound, 36s. 

"It is an authoritative guide, and a reference book which no forester should be without." — 

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" As a practical text-book for the young forester, the work is invaluable, and no intelligent 
young man following the profession ought to rest satisfied until he is in possession of a copy, 
and has carefully studied it in all its details." — Journal of Forestry. 

Keiv and Cheaper Edition. 
HANDY BOOK OP THE FLOWER GARDEN; Being Practical 

Directions for the Propagation, Culture, and Arrangement of Plants in Flower Gardens 
all the year nund. Embracing all Classes of Gardens, from the largest to the smallest. 
With Engraved Plans of grouping in Beds and Borders. By David Thomson, Gardener to 
His Grace the Duke of Buccleuch, K.G., at Drumlanrig. Fourth Edition, crown Svo, 5s. 
" We are acquainted with the results produced by the able author, as well as with his book, 

and therefore can iironouiice the book the best on the subject yet written or likely to be written 

for a long time to come." — The Field. 

HANDY BOOK OF FRUIT CULTURE UNDER GLASS. By the 

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Crown Svo, 7s. 6d. 
"No work of the kind of which we have any knowledge is at all to be compared with this. 
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With 191 Engravings, and Index. Crown Svo, 12s. 6d. 
" This is a book not for the ordinary villa gardener, but for the professional gardener, and for 
those amateurs who, by their interestin the pursuit, and the skill and patience they bring to 
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Keiv Edition Revised. 

DOMESTIC FLORICULTURE, WINDOW GARDENING, AND 

Floral Decorations. Being Directions for the Propagation, Culture, and Arrangement 
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" A charmingly illustrated vade-mecum on Window-Gardening, Floral Decorations, and the 
whole field of adaptation of floral science to domestic ornament."— .4cademt/. 



Fourth Edition, Enlarged. 

THE HANDY BOOK OF BEES, AND THEIR PROFITABLE 

Management. Bv A. Pettigrew. Crown Svo, 3s. 6d. 
"The author of this volume is evidentlv a practical man, and knows a great deal more about 
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Xew Edition, Thoroughly Revised and Greatly Enlarged. 
STEPHENS' BOOK OF THE FARM. Detailing the Labours of the 
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Now ready. DIVISIONS I., II., and III., price 10s. 6d. each. 
" Few books on farming have acquired such a pojiularity as this lifework of its able author ; 
few publications on the subject have so well deserved the conspicuous place which it now 
occupies amongst the standard works on agriculture." — The Farm. 

WILLIAM BLACKWOOD & SONS, Edinburgh and London. 




MILLIONS OF 

l^ FOREST TREES! ^<^^ 

—FOREST TREES!! — ■<■ 
FOREST TREES!!! 

WE hold this season extensive Stocks of Forest Trees, grown on our 
exposed Fellside Nurseries, which produce Fibrous-Rooted Plants 
thoroughly hardened. We had the pleasure recently of supplying a large 
Government order for over a quarter of a Million Forest Trees, and have 
again this season been favoured with another large order from Her Majesty's 
Conunissioners of Woods and Forests for 100,000 Transplanted Larch 
(Native), both of which were to plant on the Crown Lands, Isle of Man. 

Planting done by Contract or otnerwise in any part of the 
United Kingdom. 

Samples, with special quotations for large quantities, on application. 
(Catalogues post free.) 
ORNAMENTAL TREES.— For Street, Park, and Avenue Planting- 
consisting of the finest varieties in cultivation. 
CONIFERS. — Thousands of the finest, and recently introduced in specimens. 

Regularly transplanted. 
HARDY EVERGREEN SHRUBS.— For Fox and Game Coverts, in great 
variety. Special ofiers to large buyers. 

EVERGREEN, and DECIDUOUS FLOWERING SHRUBS.— Thou- 

sands of the best sorts to select from. 

ROSES, and FRUIT TREES.— A Speciality with us.— We have this 

season received orders for over 100,000 Bushes of "Whinham's Indu.stry 
GoosebeiTies," many thousands being exported to the United States, 
Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, 
Holland, Denmark, Saxony, Poland, Norway, Switzerland, the Channel 
Islands, and all over the United Kingdom. 

ALPINE, HERBACEOUS, STOVE, and GREENHOUSE PLANTS.— 

In great vai'iety. Special oii'ers for collections. 
LANDSCAPE GARDENING.— This branch is a special featm-e in our 
business, and we have this season received many large orders for the 
supply of Trees for Parks and Cemeteries ; have also laid out many new 
grounds ; and, having a practical Landscape Artist in our employment, 
we are in a position to submit Plans for approval, and give Estimates 
on the shortest notice. 
Silver Medal awarded at the Royal Minjkg and Enginkeking Exhibition, Newcastle- 
u.n-Tyne, 1887. — No hifjher award beiii^ made in the Agricultural, Horticultural, 
and Arljoricultural sections. 
Several Medals for general excellency of our Trees, Conifers, and Seeds. 
{Descriptive Catalogues, post free.) 



WILLIAM FELL & CO., 

SJiJEI) MEIWHAJ^'TS, 
iluvcicrumcn, 4lt(ovistfi, nnb |[nnb5Citpc ^arbcners, 

HEXHAM, Northumberland. 




TRANSACTIONS 

OF THE 

ROYAL 
SCOTTISH AEBOMCULTUEAL SOCIETY 




VOL. XII.— PART III. 



SECRETARY AND TREASURER, 

WILLIAM J. MOFFAT, 

KULLOW OF THE BOTANICAL SOCIETY, EDWBIROII. 





EDINBURGH: 
PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY. 

SOLD BA^ DOUGLAS & FOULIS, CASTLE STREET. 

MDCCCXC. 




^LIBRARY 



NORTH BRITISH MD BRCMTILE 

INSURANCE COMPANY. 

Incorjiorated by Royal Charter and Acts of Parliament. 
ESTABLISHED 1809. 



F I R E- L I F E-A N NUI TIES. 

n^IIE FUXDS of the Life Department are not Uahlefor Obligations under 
the Fire Department, nor are the Funds of the Fire Department liable for 
Obligations under the Life Department. In this ComjKini/, therefore, the 
Investments for the Life Dejmrtment are kept entirely sejxirate from those of 
the Inre Departmeiit, as set forth in the Balance Sheet. 

President.— HIS GRACE THE DUKE OF KOXBUEGHE. 
Vice-President.— HIS GRACE THE DUKE OF SUTHERLAND, K.G. 

EXTRAORDINARY DIRECTORS. 
Right nox. LORD NORTHBOURNE. | Sir MATTHEW WHITE RIDLEY, Bart., JI.P. 

Right Hon. The EARL OF STRATHMORE. Right Hon. LORD WOLVERTOX. 

Right Hon. The EARL OF ABERDEEN. | The Ho.n. LORD WELLWOOD. 

Chairman of General Court of Dircetors—DAXII) DAVIDSON, Esq. 
EDINBURGH BOARD OF DIRECTORS. 



.J. F. WALKER-DRUMMOND, Esq. 

DAVID B. WAUCHOl'E, Esq. 

Sir .IAMES GARDINKR BAIRD, Bart. 

GEORGE AULD.Jo .JAMIESON, Esq. 

FREDERICK PITMAN, Esq. 

EVAN ALLAN HUNTER, Esq. 

CHARLES B. LOGAN, Esq. 

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Solicitors, J. & F. ANDERSON, W.S. Auditor, JAMES HALDANE, C.A. 



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5 St Andrew Square, 

Edinburgh, February 1890. 

on the duties of Deputy- Survey or of Dean Forest, Gloucestersliire" 
After dinner on that occasion, the subject of the propriety of 
forming an Arboricultural Society was broached and fully dis- 
cussed by those present. Mr Wn,. Thomson, Deputy-Survevor 

VOL. XII., PART III. ^ -.9 ^ ^ 



TRANSACTIONS 



KOYAL SCOTTISH AKBOlUCULTUIiAL SOCIETY. 



XXI. Address delivered at tlie Thirty-sixth Annual Meetiuf/, 
iith August, 18(S9. By William M'Corquodale, Scone, 
Vice-President. 

Gentlemen, — We all deeply regret that our esteemed President, 
the Right Honourable the Earl of Hopetoun, is unable, owing to 
other engagements, to act as Chairman of this meeting. It has 
therefore become my duty, as senior Vice-President, to act in his 
stead. While gratefully acknowledging your kindness in placing 
me in this honourable position, I cannot but deplore the loss 
and disappointment which the Society has sustained through 
his Lordship's absence. For had the President been able to 
take the chair to-day, I am certain that he would have delivered 
an address that must have not only been powerful and eloquent, 
but would have greatly advanced the interests of this Society. 
I beg, gentlemen, that you will kindly bear with me while I 
make the following brief opening remarks. 

This is now the Thirty-sixth Annual Meeting of our Society. 
It may be interesting to many of you to know that the Society 
was established on the occasion of Mr James Brown, author of 
"Brown's Forester," being entertained to a complimentary dinner 
at Edinburgli on the 17th February 1854, prior to his entering 
on the duties of Deputy- Survey or of Dean Forest, Gloucestershii-e. 
After dinner on that occasion, the subject of the propriety of 
forming an Arboricultural Society was broached and fully dis- 
cussed by those present. Mr W^m. Thomson, Deputy-Surveyor 

VOL. XII., PART III. 2 C 



370 TRWSAf'TrOXS OF ROVAI, RfOTTlSir AKnOniriTLTtTRAI. sofinv. 

of Clio]»\v('ll Forest, (Vniuty Duiliuin, iDoveil, ami 1 secondcil, Lliat 
siu Aiboricultuml Society be established. A couiniittee was 
tliereu])Oii apiMsiuted to carry out the resolution of the meeting. 
This was the origin of our Society, now known as the Eoyal 
Scotti.sh Arboricultural Society. 

Mr Thomson took a deep interest in the Society as long as he 
lived, and other members strove hard to foster it at first, yet it 
j)roved very uphill work for some years to keep the Society 
in existence. However, through time, its members increased in 
numbers, its utility was more and more recognised, and now the 
Society is strong and flourishing. 

Still there is great room for improvement as regards the 
supi)ort that might be given in many quarters. I often regret to 
see so many of our able practical members withholding their 
support, and that many who are well qualified for the work fail 
to contribute ai-ticles to the Transactions of the Society. There is 
an old saying, which I believe is quite true, that " Union is 
strength ; " and it is only by the whole-hearted devotion of its 
members that the Royal Scottish Arboricultural Society can 
become a living force in the land, and a centre around which all 
may gather to give and receive information. 

All the true friends of forestry as a science, that is daily 
gaining prominence and i)opularity, cannot but hail with the 
utmost satisfaction the appointment of Dr Somerville to the 
'•' Chair of Forestry " in the University of Edinburgh. In the 
histoiy of British forestry this is the first appointment of the 
kind that has ever taken ])lace in Scotland, and it augurs well 
for the future of forestry in our native land. 

I happen to know from friends who have watched Dr Somer- 
ville's career from his boyhood, that he is well qualiiied by natural 
talents, as well as by careful jjreparation and training, for the post 
that he is called to fill. He is also, from all that I have learned, 
a great enthusiast in the study of Arboriculture, so that we may 
have every confidence that the interests of our Society will be 
jiromoted, and the science of foiestry become more and more 
popidar by his appointment. During the coming University 
Session, commencing in October, Dr Somerville will deliver a 
course of one hundred Lectui-es on Forestry, and it is to be hoped 
that many students will take advantiige of those lectures, and 
reap great benefit from them. 

When I first went to the Duke of Montrose's estate, Buchanan, 



ADDRESS BY THE VICE-PRESIDEXT, AUOrST G, 1880. 077 

Stirlingsliire, to acquire a knowledge of forestry — long before the 
days of railroads — there were few opportunities for foresters 
meeting and discussing forestry questions. Nowadays the facili- 
ties for meeting together for diffusion of knowledge iu forest 
mattei-s, for gathering facts and comparing expei-iences, and for 
general advancement in our profession, are very great. There is 
now a considerable amount of forest literature within reach. 
Science has been experimenting in many directions. Old systems 
of rearing plantations have been tested, and where found wanting 
have been supplanted by new methods and improved principles. 
In short, such progress has been made in the science of forestry 
as has not been manifested in any other period prior to the 
establishment of the Royal Scottish Arboricultural Society. 
Surely these matters are worthy of our diligent study, and 
atford an admirable held for the labours of our Society. 

I would take the liberty here of offering a word of counsel, 
more especially to my younger bi"ethreu in the profession — to 
assistants and beginners — in the work of treating forest trees. 
I believe .that a great future is dawning for forestry in this 
country. With agricultural affairs so depressed, the value of 
tillage land falling year by year, and the supplies of foreign 
timber becoming rapidly more circumscribed, landowners will 
soon begin to find out the great necessity of looking more to 
their woodlands. In other words, Arboriculture, instead of being 
kept in the background as it has been for many generations, will 
now of necessity take a prominent part in estate management ; 
therefore, no doubt, immense tracts of waste lands and hillsides 
wUl soon be afforested. There, then, is the field that is opening 
up for experienced and talented men. Young men ought to 
study the nature and constitution of trees, the soils congenial 
to the healthy growth of different kinds of trees, and the 
localities and climates where trees have to be grown. A sound 
judgment is also requisite to determine what are likely to be the 
commercial prospects of various kinds of timber in the distant 
future. For it must be always borne in mind that forest crops 
are very different from ordinary agricultural produce. A crop of 
forest trees takes more than a lifetime to grow to maturity, and 
therefore a thorough knowledge of Arboriculture in all its details 
is absolutely necessary in order to plant judiciously, and with the 
best prospects of future remuneration. 

Oak coppice, for example, is not worth cultivating nowadays; 



378 TRANSACTIONS OF KOVAL SCOTTISH ARBOUICULTURAI. SOCIETY. 

:iii(l since iron has taken the ])lace of wood in sliijibuilding, 
growing oak for timber is not prolitabie. Again, many kinds of 
the newer coniferous trees are not to be recommended as planta- 
tion trees. The Abies Douylasii, Abies Menziesii, Picea nohilis, 
and Pinus Laricio are, however, all valuable jjlantatiou trees in 
suitable soils and situations. After fifty years' experience in the 
rearing of the Abies Douylasii tree, I have no hesitation in saying, 
that in a proper soil and situation this will become the most 
profitable plantation tree in our country. The Douglas fir will 
not succeed in heavy clay land, in humid or in poor soils, or in 
exposed situations. 

And now permit me to say a word on the commercial outlook 
of the timber trade both at home and abroad. It cannot be 
denied that, since the check experienced at the time when iron 
took the place of wood in shipbuilding, the consumption of timber 
all over the world has been rapidly increasing. It was then be- 
lieved by many that the market for timber was irretrievably 
ruined, but this prophecy, thanks to railways and new industries, 
has been entirely falsified. In the formation and upholding of 
railways, in buildings, and for all other commercial and economic 
purposes thioughout the world, the consumption of wood has 
risen to such proportions in recent yeais as to cause serious 
apprehensions as to the sufficiency of the existing supplies of 
timber for a not distant future. At all events, it is certain tliat 
the difficulties and cost of carriage which are always involved in 
the further receding of the forests from the ports of shipment 
will always enhance the price of foreign timber, and thus furnish a 
more favourable market for home-grown wood. If the foreign 
supply was seriously curtailed, our whole stock of home-grown 
pine that is fit for sleepers would in a few years be exhausted. 

It is high time, therefore, that our government, and extensive 
landed proprietors, wei'e bestirring themselves to see to the wide 
extension of jjlantations, by afforesting largely the waste lands. 

Were our home woods exhausted, as they might easily be in 
their present condition and i)roi)ortions, and a timber famine 
occurring, it would certainly prove a very serious affair for us. 
In such a case a generation at least must elai)se before our 
forests could be replenished and occupied with timber fit for the 
immediate wants of our country. 



ON THE OLD AND REMARKABLE YEW TREES IN SCOTLAND. 379 



XXIT. On the Old and Remarhahh Yew Trees in Scotland (Taxiis 
baccata, L.). By Robert Hutchison of Carlowrie, F.R.S.E. 

Taxus, the Latin name of the yew, from the Greek rd^os (taxes), 
which, from rdo-o-w, " to arrange," has probably reference to the 
leaves being two-rowed or distichous on the branchlets like the 
teeth of a comb; or probably from to^ov, "a bow," the wood 
being much used in ancient times for making bows ; or from 
" toxicuvi," poison, the common yew being considered poisonous. 
Yew, or >/eugh, — in Chaucer and other old authors, eice ; in Aubrey's 
'• Wilts," e7i(/h ; Anglo-Saxon, iio ; German, eibe ; Spanish, iva ; 
French, if; Welsh, yw ; Media Latin, ivus, iva, or wa, an abbre- 
viation of ajnga, which was a corruption or misspelling of abiga, 
a plant mentioned by Pliny as being the same as yaixanTLTv^ 
(chamaipitus), so called from its causing abortion. The yew has 
an extensive area of distribution in the temperate regions of the 
northern hemisphere. We find it as a large bush or small tree, 
when fully grown 30 or 40 feet high, and frequently in suitable 
localities assuming much larger proportions. It is found in most 
parts of Europe at elevations of from 1000 to 4000 feet; is frequent 
on the Apennines, the Alj^s, Greece, Spain, Piedmont, Great 
Britain, the Pyrenees, the Caucasus, and even in Scandinavia, 
but is wanting, or only rarely found, in Russia, a circumstance 
accounted for by the level nature of the country. Preferring 
elevated situations, often at a considerable height on mountains, 
it very seldom forms a continuous forest like most of the coniferous 
tribe, and even when plentiful in its native habitat, it is mixed 
freely with other varieties of trees. It is not unfrequently solitary, 
forming on downs or moorlands -a conspicuous object from afar, 
and in its wild state in this country it is found more numerously 
on the northern slopes of rising ground than on any other aspect, 
and very frequently under the shade of deciduous trees. 

There can be no doubt the yew is indigenous to Great Britain. 
If a proof were wanting of the indigenous growth of the yew tree in 
Scotland, we may quote the fact that a very large and aged yew grew 
about the year 1834,i high among the hills, far from any cultivation 
and from any human dwelling, in the midst of the wild country 
between Loch Ness and the sources of the river Findhorn. ]\Iiglit 

^ H. Everilied iu The Gardcnaa' Chronicle. ISTti, vol. vi., p. 99. 



380 TRANSACTIONS OF ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

not, therefore, even the barrenest ground at liigh altitudes, and on 
the coldest of our mountains, be profitably replenished in large 
tracts with yew for cover, and shelter for \iltimate planting? It 
is of geological antiquity, and formed part of the primeval forests 
of this country at a period long anterior to historic times. It 
has been found among the submerged trees along the Norfolk 
coast, near Cromer ; ^ and it again presents itself in another wide 
forest underlying the Bristol Channel, in the recesses of which bones 
and other animal remains have been found, showing that at son)e 
early epoch the elephant, rhinoceros, and beaver have roamed 
at will under its shadow. The yew is also indigenous to parts of 
Eastern and Western Asia, and if Taxus Canadensis be only 
a variety of T. baccata, as was supposed by Loudon, it extends 
its geographical distribution to the North American continent. 

Like most trees of slow growth — slow as compared with tlie 
more rapid growth and maturity of most of our deciduous 
trees, and even the coniferre, to which we are accustomed — the yew 
is long in attaining maturity, and many centuries elajjse ere it 
shows decay ; a fact which we learn from the records of celebrated 
trees noAv extinct, as well as from others still in existence, 
whose history can be traced for upwards of a thousand years. 
M. de Candolle, and several other botanists of eminence, do not 
hesitate to assign, and with considerable show of reason and 
scientific data, a much longer lifetime to some of our still 
existing yew trees. Eeference is fully made to several such 
specimens in this paper, and details are given of their present 
measurements and condition in the Tabulated Appendix. 

Whether considered from the deep and perpetual sombre verdure 
of its foliage, conjointly with its great longevity and freedom from 
decay, as emblematic of immortality, the yew has acquired every- 
where an almost sacred character. This association of the tree with 
religion and places of worship is of very ancient date. Many hypo- 
theses have been formed to explain the connection between the yew 
and its site in proximity to abbeys and old churches or churchyards, 
and their relation to such old trees, for it is uncertain in many in- 
stances throughout the country whether the churches or religious 
houses were not planted beside, and for some reason in association 
with, the old trees already standing. Similar suppositions prevail 
in regard to some of our old standing stone circles, considered as 
places of worship, and which, in process of time, came not only to 
' Dr llaiiisay, Pliy.sical Geogiapliy of Great Britain, !•. lo-i. 



ON THE OLD AND REMARKABLE YEW TREES IN SCOTLAND. 381 

make the spot hallowed ground, but to be selected as the site for 
a primitive church, a building or structure of a more permanent 
})ature, or enduring monument, to give expression by its visible 
presence of the feelings, the sentiments, and the hopes of our 
early religion. No doubt the known antiquity of many yew trees 
in these early times, standing in burial-places or places of worship 
or sacrifice, strengthened those hallowed associations which took 
their rise j^robably at an epoch anterior to the introduction of 
Christianity into Britain. 

Amongst the ancient yews still existing associated with sacred 
edifices, the following occur to us to mention. Details of their 
dimensions and condition at the present day will be found in our 
Tabulated Appendix. The Fortingal yew in Glenlyon, Perthshire, 
stands near the gateway leading to an old churcliyard. The 
Forgan yew trees (5) in Fife, are beside the ruins of flie old parish 
church of Forgan. The old yew tree at the Colquhouns' burying- 
ground, is beside a ruin on Inch-Lonaig, an island in Loch Lomond. 
The Dunkeld yews beside the ruins of the cathedral. The old yew 
tree at Dryburgh Abbey, and others. 

But besides its association with early religious and burying places 
in our country, the yew has also played a very conspicuous part in 
our national history. Many venerable and hoary specimens still 
survive to mark the spots where great events have taken place, and 
others are connected with the names of historic j)ersonages. A 
still more prominent role, however, has been played by the yew in 
our country's early history in supplying the material of which the 
bow, that national instrument of early warfare, was made. Wo 
have said that the yew tree is of very slow growth, whence its 
wood is amongst the hardest, close-grained, durable, tough, and 
elastic known ; qualities well calculated for use in the making of 
bows for the chase or for warfare. It hence became widely and 
generally used in this manufacture, and was formerly what the oak 
was in more recent times, the basis of the country's strength. 
Of it the old English yeoman made his bows, which, he proudly 
vaunted, nobody but an Englishman could bend. The yew, how- 
ever, was not cultivated only for its toughness and elasticity, but 
for the durable nature of its timber. It is, to the present day, a 
common saying among the inhabitants of the New Forest, that a 
post of yew will outlast a post of iron. The wood being also of a 
beautiful rich reddish-brown colour, and susceptible of a high 
polish, was formerly much used for domestic purposes iu the 



382 TRANSACTIONS OF llOYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

manufacture of furniture ; and many antique, interesting, and 
curious specimens are still preserved in the old mansions tlirougli- 
out the countr)'. 

While the bow was for centuries tlie great weapon for de